Tài liệu Urbanization challenges in emerging economies resilience and sustainability of infrastructure

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Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Resilience and Sustainability of Infrastructure Papers from Sessions of the ASCE India Conference 2017 Edited by Udai P. Singh and G. L. Sivakumar Babu New Delhi, India December 12–14, 2017 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. URBANIZATION CHALLENGES IN EMERGING ECONOMIES Resilience and Sustainability of Infrastructure SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE ASCE INDIA CONFERENCE 2017 December 12–14, 2017 New Delhi, India ORGANIZED BY American Society of Civil Engineers CO-SPONSORED BY Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Institution of Engineers (India) EDITED BY Udai P. Singh G. L. Sivakumar Babu Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191-4382 www.asce.org/publications | ascelibrary.org Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASCE, which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein. No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by ASCE. The materials are for general information only and do not represent a standard of ASCE, nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document. ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this publication, and assumes no liability therefor. The information contained in these materials should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. Anyone utilizing such information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents. ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Photocopies and permissions. Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be requested by sending an e-mail to permissions@asce.org or by locating a title in ASCE's Civil Engineering Database (http://cedb.asce.org) or ASCE Library (http://ascelibrary.org) and using the “Permissions” link. Errata: Errata, if any, can be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784482032 Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-0-7844-8203-2 (PDF) Manufactured in the United States of America. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies iii Preface Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. By the end of the last century the world transitioned from predominantly rural to equal rural-urban living. Many estimates predict that by year 2050 two thirds of the world’s population will live in cities due to rapidly increasing rural to urban migration. This rapid and unplanned migration is having most impact on metropolitan areas in emerging economies, and is threatening the quality of life for its residents. Infrastructure in these cities, a key ingredient in quality of life, is not keeping up with the growth of population. Civil engineers throughout the world regularly face challenges in building infrastructure in our quest for sustainable solutions to quality of life issues. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), a global leader in sustainable practices in civil engineering infrastructure, organized a conference “Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies” on 12 to 14 December 2017 in New Delhi, a rapidly expanding metropolitan area, to facilitate policy, technical, and scientific discussions and exchanges on these challenges in emerging economies. This conference of civil engineers, urban architects, policy makers, technology experts, and related professionals provided a showcase for the latest developments and advancements in design, construction, technology, and policy related to sustainable infrastructure and offered a forum to discuss and debate future directions for emerging economies. The goal was to help these societies move towards resilient sustainable cities and infrastructure. Approximately 400 abstracts were received and reviewed by the conference steering committee and other reviewers. Of these, about 250 technical papers were presented at the conference. A Book of Abstracts was published and distributed at the conference. Each full paper underwent peer review by two or three reviewers. As a result, 151 papers were accepted for publication in the Proceedings. The Proceedings has been published in two volumes. This volume includes 70 papers, while the other volume has 81 papers. While some papers present successful case studies and examples of sustainable infrastructure, others share latest advances in urban infrastructure planning, design, and construction. In addition, several papers showcase new tools and latest research to support sustainable urban infrastructure. The Proceedings contain peer‐reviewed papers from several continents, including from the west as well as from emerging economies, especially from India. This volume covers the topic of Resilience and Sustainability of Infrastructure in a Changing Environment for the Next 100 Years. The papers presented here cover a diversity of topics, such as sustainable building materials, transport infrastructure, seismic resilience, lifecycle assessments, sustainable infrastructure ratings and tools, innovative technologies, smart cities, cyber‐physical systems, climate change considerations, tools and methodologies, emerging paradigms in urban resilience, etc. Sustainability is a common thread in this publication. © ASCE Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The need to use innovative and sustainable solutions and to efficiently use, protect, and manage our existing resources is paramount to improving quality of life in the urban environment, especially in emerging economies around the world. We hope that this publication will be of assistance and use in this effort. Publication of the peer-reviewed Proceedings has been a team effort. We express our sincere appreciation to all who made it possible (please see the Acknowledgements page). In addition, special thanks are due to the India Section of ASCE and to Indian Institute of Technology Delhi as well as Institution of Engineers (India) for co-organizing the conference and actively assisting ASCE in the publication of the Proceedings. Dr. Udai P. Singh, Environmental Consultant, Moraga, California, USA Prof. G. L. Sivakumar Babu, Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India © ASCE iv Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Acknowledgments Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Conference Chair and Lead Editor  Dr. Udai P. Singh, Moraga, California, USA Track Chair and Editor  Prof. G. L. Sivakumar Babu, Bangalore, India Reviewers of Technical Papers                        Prof. G. L. Sivakumar Babu, Bangalore, India Prof. Rajib Mallick, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA Prof. Ananth Ramaswamy, Bangalore, India Prof. Bharathi Ganesh, Bangalore, India Prof. Edward H. Wang, Xinfeng, Taiwan Dr. Anjaneyappa, New Delhi, India Prof. K. Chandrashekhar Iyer, New Delhi, India Prof. K.S. Nanjunda Rao, Bangalore, India Dr. Vilas S. Mujumdar, Vienna, Virginia, USA Dr. B. Munwar Basha, Hyderabad, India Er. Satish K. Vij, New Delhi, India Dr. Ajit Sabnis, Bangalore, India Prof. Amit Srivastava, Gurgaon, India Er. Sughosh P., Bangalore, India Er. Chaitra Purushothama, Bangalore, India Prof. Meera Raghunandan, Mumbai, India Prof. Prathima Bhat, Bangalore, India Prof. M. R. Pranesh, Chennai, India Er. Aravind Salecha Chetan, Bangalore, India Prof. L. G. Santosh, Bangalore, India Prof. Sireesh Saride, Hyderabad, India Prof. D. Nagesh Kumar, Bangalore, India Dr. Udai P. Singh, Moraga, California, USA ASCE Staff   © ASCE Ms. Angie Lander, Reston, Virginia, USA Ms. Meggan Maughan‐Brown, Reston, Virginia, USA v Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Contents A Comparative Study of Masonry Units for Energy Efficient Building Construction with Focus on Thermal Comfort with a Case Study ......................................... 1 Riya Anna Abraham and P. Laxman Kudva A Modeling Approach to Construction Waste Management ................................................ 11 Swarna Swetha Kolaventi, T. P. Tezeswi, and M. V. N. Siva Kumar A Review of Partial Safety Factor and Recommendation for Construction Load Combined with Dead Load............................................................................................ 21 Mahesh V. Bhatti and Rajesh S. Londhe A Review on the Performance of Additives in Warm Mix Asphalt ...................................... 31 Devulapalli Lekhaz, Sarang Goutham, and K. Saravanan A Study on Seismic Performance of a Century Old Large Elevated Steel Water Reservoir at Kolkata .................................................................................................... 40 Sandip Maity, Gokul Mondal, Amitava Pal, and Biswajit Som Advanced Techniques in Railroad and Highway Engineering: Highway and Railroad Tunnel Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) ........................................................ 53 Avinash Prasad, Purnima Prasad, and Indira G. Prasad Analysis for Tendency of Cracking on Expressway Pavement ............................................. 63 Shun Araki, Naoki Susaki, Akihiro Tanaka, Kengo Obama, and Kiyoyuki Kaito Assessment of Socio-Economic Impacts of PMGSY Roads Using Fuzzy Multi-Criteria Decision Making Tool ..................................................................................... 71 Makrand Wagale, Ajit Pratap Singh, and A. K. Sarkar Behavior of Traditional Lime Concrete Weak Floor Diaphragm System in Unreinforced Masonry Building......................................................................................... 80 Sohini Som, Partha P. Biswas, P. K. Dhua, and Biswajit Som Characterization of Steel Fiber Reinforced Pervious Concrete for Applications in Low Volume Traffic Roads ........................................................................... 93 Avishreshth, Prem Pal Bansal, and Tanuj Chopra Comparison of 3D and 2D Site-City Interaction Effects on Building Response and Free Field Motion under Double Resonance Condition ............................... 103 Neeraj Kumar and J. P. Narayan Concept Drift Based Analysis of Climatic Impact on Design of Green Buildings .............. 113 Charu Puri, Amit Rawal, and Naveen Kumar © ASCE vi Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Determination of Minimum Slab Thickness of RCC Slab in Order to Prevent Undesirable Floor Vibration Phenomena ............................................................... 121 M. M. Orvin and K. M. Amanat Determination of Optimum Parameters of Porous Concrete for Adequate Strength and Permeability .................................................................................................... 129 Mayank Gupta, Lupesh Dudi, Rahul Karkhanis, and Veerendra Kumar Developing a Sustainable Building Assessment Tool (SBAT) for Developing Countries—Case of India...................................................................................................... 137 A. Suchith Reddy, P. Anand Raj, and P. Rathish Kumar Development of Earthquake Readiness Index Tool to Assess Individual Earthquake Preparedness Level ........................................................................................... 149 S. Kolathayar, S. A. Anupa, and E. Lalith Prakash Disaster Preparedness Index: A Valid and Reliable Tool to Comprehend Disaster Preparedness in India ............................................................................................. 156 V. R. Rohith, S. Kolathayar, K. Priyatham, V. Karan Kumar, and S. Nikil Effect of Confinement on P-M Interaction Curve for RC Columns and Comparative Study of the Effect on Different Size of Square Columns ............................. 164 Deepak H. Solanki and Rajesh S. Londhe Effect of Steel Industry Waste as a Cement Replacement to Produce Sustainable Concrete Considering Strength and Durability ............................................... 172 Damyanti G. Badagha and C. D. Modhera Effect of Water Content on Relative Flow Area and Hence Predicted Flow Values of Controlled Low Strength Materials ............................................................ 184 T. Raghavendra, B. C. Udayashankar, M. Lokeshwari, M. Vikas, and N. Amaranath Reddy Effect on Permeability of Concrete Made with Successive Recycled Aggregate and Silica Fume ................................................................................................... 196 Deepankar K. Ashish and Surender K. Verma Response of Square and Plus Shaped Buildings on Varying Wind Loads .......................... 206 Ritu Raj, Akshay Sharma, and Siddharth Chauhan Efficient Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste in Concrete ........................... 216 N. K. Dhapekar and S. P. Mishra Evaluation of Energy Efficient Sustainable Walling Material ............................................ 227 Hindavi R. Gavali, Shashi Ram, and Rahul V. Ralegaonkar © ASCE vii Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Experimental Investigation on Durability of Soil Reinforced with Sustainable Fibers Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles................................................................. 234 P. Shekhawat, N. Shrivastava, and S. Shrivastava Experimental Investigations on Building Derived Materials in Chemically Aggressive Environment as a Partial Replacement for Sandy Soil in Ground Improvement .................................................................................... 244 Shreyans R. Surana, Arkamitra Kar, Anasua GuhaRay, Ashok Kumar Suluguru, and M. Jayatheja Feasibility Analysis of Carbon Equivalence Accounting for Construction Materials Using Computational Approach .......................................................................... 255 S. Bharath, Vishakha Sakhare, and Rahul Ralegaonkar Framework for Ranking of Infrastructure in Cities Based on Utility Services .................................................................................................................................. 263 Novnit Kashyap and Sudhir Misra Fusion of Traditional and Modern Principles of Design for Public Spaces of Indian Cities .......................................................................................................... 275 Gaurav Gangwar Generating Site-Specific Ground Motions for Delhi Region for Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings—Promoting Disaster Resilient Communities .......................................................................................................... 290 M. C. Raghucharan and Surendra Nadh Somala Identification of Plant Species for Development of Green Belt in Thiruvananthapuram City ................................................................................................... 300 A. M. Harees, Reshma S. Kumar, K. Swarnalatha, and Binu Sara Mathew Impact of Heavy Metal on Reactor Performance and Biomass Morphology of Sequencing Batch Reactors ......................................................................... 308 Rajneesh Kumar, Gurvinder Kaur Saini, and Mohammad Jawed Impact of Urbanization on Climate Change in Delhi NCR Due to Land Use Changes .......................................................................................................................... 321 Poonam Kumari and Arvind Kumar Nema Influence of Superplasticizer and Alkali Activator Concentration on Slag-Flyash Based Geopolymer ............................................................................................ 330 M. S. Laskar and S. Talukdar Infrastructure Project Formulation: A Comprehensive Approach .................................... 338 D. Bishawajeet, B. Surendra, and G. Mridul © ASCE viii Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Investigations on Stone Matrix Asphalt Using Construction Demolition Waste as Partial Replacement to Coarse Aggregates for Sustainable Roads ..................... 345 Shivkumar, Narayana Harish, Sukomal Mandal, and Ramappa Prabhakara Life Cycle Assessment of Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Infrastructure for Resilient City: Navi Mumbai.................................................................. 354 Hasan Rameez, Navneet Rai, Vikas Varekar, and Harshit Mishra Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings with Supplementary Materials ................................... 366 Shreyans R. Surana, J. S. Kalyana Rama, and Sridhar Raju Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of Brick Kiln Dust Stabilized Perpetual Pavements for Lowering Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India ............................................ 377 Gaurav Gupta, Hemant Sood, and Pardeep Kumar Gupta Low-Damage Seismic Design of RC Buildings with Supplemental Energy Dissipation Systems ............................................................................................................... 391 Swanand Patil and Pankaj Agarwal Mechanical Properties of Different Types of Concrete under Triaxial Compression Loading ........................................................................................................... 403 Fatemeh Heidarnezhad, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh, and Mohsen Ghaemian Microbial Concrete as a Sustainable Option for Infrastructural Development in Emerging Economies .................................................................................. 413 Sandip Mondal and Aparna (Dey) Ghosh Modification of Wind Pressure Distribution on Tall Buildings Due to Variation in Height of the Interfering Building ................................................................... 424 Bharat S. Chauhan and Ashok K. Ahuja Nano-Particle Coated Natural Fiber Impregnated Soil as a Sustainable Reinforcement Material ........................................................................................................ 435 Sanandam Bordoloi, Deepak Patwa, Rojimul Hussain, Ankit Garg, and S. Sreedeep Parametric Study of Steel Slag Powder as Cementitious Material on Cement Mortars .................................................................................................................... 445 Richa Palod, S. V. Deo, and G. D. Ramtekkar Perception Mapping for Community Readiness of Urban Core Localities in Disaster Management—Case Study of Kolkata............................................................... 452 Shrabana Das Performance of Energy Dissipation Devices in Mitigation of Blast-Induced Vibration of Buildings ........................................................................................................... 464 Deepak Kumar Sahu and Sanjaya Kumar Patro © ASCE ix Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Policy Issues in Affordable Housing Made with Bamboo Reinforced Structural Component .......................................................................................................... 475 Vishal Puri and Pradipta Chakrabortty Potential Use of E-Plastic Waste in Concrete ....................................................................... 484 M. L. Sankarshan, Shrihari K. Naik, M. V. Deepthi, and S. D. Anitha Kumari Pozzolanic Properties of Binary and Ternary Cementitious Blends ................................... 491 Vasudha D. Katare, Sagar Patil, Dhiraj Mahajan, and Mangesh V. Madurwar Predictive Modeling for Infrastructure System Engineering .............................................. 502 Ojas Vora, Pankaj Vora, and Urjaswala Vora Recent Developments in Life Cycle Assessment and Service Life Prediction: A Review ..................................................................................................... 509 Subbarao Yarramsetty, M. V. N. Sivakumar, and P. Anand Raj Resilience Based Earthquake Design of Buildings: Current Practice, Problems, and Opportunities in Indian Scenario ................................................................ 521 Harish K. Mulchandani and G. Muthukumar Review on the Use of Industrial and Agricultural By-Product for Making Sustainable Concrete ............................................................................................... 530 Vishvanath N. Kanthe, Shirish V. Deo, and Meena Murmu Rutting Potential of Gap Graded Warm Mix Asphalt with Higher Percentage of Crumb Rubber ............................................................................................... 539 K. Sai Kubair, Shreyans R. Surana, M. Venkata Sai Krishna, Sridhar Raju, and V. Vinayaka Ram Rutting Potential of Half Warm Asphalt Mixture Using Polymer Modified Bitumen Emulsion ................................................................................................. 549 Katla Bhanuprasad, Prateek Agarwal, Sridhar Raju, and V. Vinayaka Ram Seismic Hazard Analysis for Proposed Smart City, Ludhiana, India: A Deterministic Approach .................................................................................................... 560 S. Naval, K. Chandan, and D. Sharma Seismic Resilience of Aging Bridges in India ....................................................................... 571 B. Sharanbaswa and Swagata Banerjee Smart Self Drilled Micropile Foundation Solution and Seismic Performance in Fine Sand Strata ......................................................................................... 582 Suhas E. Tayade and Sandip Vasanwala © ASCE x Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Study on Performance of Glass Waste in Concrete ............................................................. 591 T. S. Thulasidhar Naidu, M. V. Deepthi, Shrihari K. Naik, and S. D. Anitha Kumari Sustainability Assessment of Concrete Mixtures for Pavements and Bridge Decks .................................................................................................................. 598 Krishna R. Reddy, Erin Yargicoglu, Mustapha Ibrahim, and Girish Kumar Sustainable Streetscape: Case of Lake Street in Downtown Oak Park, Illinois, USA ........................................................................................................ 610 Krishna R. Reddy, William Bakos, Brian Doubek, and Girish Kumar SWIM—An Asset Centric ICT Solution for Water Management by Utilities—A Step toward Smart Cities ............................................................................ 619 Akash Sondhi and Rakesh Tiwari Topology Optimization of Diagrid Structures Using Differential Evolution ............................................................................................................................... 632 S. Gowre Manookare and A. Vasan Towards Seismic Resilient Bridges on an Urban Mass Rapid Transport Network ............................................................................................................... 645 Rajeev Kumar Garg, Kashif Quamar Inqualabi, and K. Balaji Rao Understanding Resilience and Sustainable Urban Growth through Land Use Simulation: Case Study of Emerging Metrocity of India .................................... 657 M. C. Chandan, J. Dharini, and H. A. Bharath Understanding the Economic Implications of the Collection Phase of a Conventional Indian Sewerage System: A Life-Cycle Analysis ................................... 670 Naushita Sharma and Bakul Rao Use of Different Types of Aggregate vis-a-vis Demolition Waste as an Alternate Material for Concrete ...................................................................................... 679 M. F. Akhtar, M. W. Naqvi, M. Masroor Alam, and M. Shariq Verification of Discharge Carrying Capacity of Existing Stormwater Drain Using New IDF Curves—A Case Study of Vadodara Airport .................................. 691 Nayana D. Mathasoliya and Sanskriti S. Mujumdar Wind Loads on Multi-Span Mono-Slope Canopy Roof ....................................................... 702 Neelam Rani and Ashok Kumar Ahuja © ASCE xi Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies A Comparative Study of Masonry Units for Energy Efficient Building Construction with Focus on Thermal Comfort with a Case Study Riya Anna Abraham1 and P. Laxman Kudva2 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 1 4th Year (B.Tech), Dept. of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka 576 104, India. E-mail: riya.abraham005@gmail.com 2 Assistant Professor (Sr. Scale), Dept. of Civil Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal, Karnataka 576 104, India. E-mail: laxman.kudva@manipal.edu ABSTRACT The modern world demands environment friendly, energy efficient designs along with economic building materials in the construction industry, which are key to sustainable buildings. This paper, through a case study conducted at Manipal region of Karnataka, India, compares and quantifies the thermal efficiencies of concrete, mud, and laterite on transmission loss/gain rate values with reference to the envelopes (exterior walls) of the building. The necessary data sampling for computation was done during the summer months of March and April 2017, involving parameters of thermal transmittance (U-value), thermal resistance (R-value), and thermal conductivity (K-value) pertaining to the construction materials comprising the walls along with temperature (internal and external) of various rooms in the building. The work summarizes the relationship between these parameters, transmission loss/gain rate, as well as the thermal efficiency. In conclusion, the study demonstrates that laterite is the optimum masonry unit for building construction in tropical regions such as South India. INTRODUCTION Due to the initiative of green buildings, people around the world look out for building materials that can be thermally efficient and can result in low cooling and heating charges. Also, a reduction in the electricity and fossil fuel consumption (in some cases) will occur if energy efficient materials are used. However, there is very little to no published quantifiable evidence that assesses the efficiency and energy consumption and for residential buildings with the context of green building standards. In absence of such evidence, a subjective evaluation of the green building technologies and their contributions to the energy use reduction will remain unlikely. In the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been put into the development and research of improved building systems and technologies with an aim of advancing energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption. In the residential building market, within the last four years in the United States of America, more than 32,000 homes have been constructed using energy-efficient building technologies (Dong Zhaoa et al. 2016). With the increasing demand for sustainable development and green buildings it is inevitable to consider better building materials for construction. This paper brings out a comparison between the most commonly used buildings units in tropical regions like south India namely Concrete blocks, Laterite blocks and Mud blocks. Since the temperature in these regions are almost always higher than the comfort conditions (between 24 to 26 degrees Celsius) and ranges to about 37°C as recorded during the study, therefore buildings adopt air conditioning. Here a comparison has been drawn out based on the heat gain/ loss rate for these materials under a prevailing interior comfort condition. © ASCE 1 Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. TRANSMISSION LOSS/ GAIN The building envelope comprises roofs, floors and walls as well as doors and windows. It is the building envelope that separates the varying conditions inside the building from the conditions prevailing outside the building. To do this, the envelope must control the flow of heat energy, air movement, moisture penetration, and solar heat. The building systems must overcome the energy loads that are imposed by the climatic conditions outside the building to maintain required conditions inside the building space, and also, energy loads that are imposed by a number of factors inside the building itself. The building systems must consume purchased energy, which includes fossil fuels but in usual cases electricity, to offset these internal and external energy loads. The difference in temperature between the outdoor and indoor temperatures causes transmission of heat energy through the solid components of the building envelope. The amount of energy required to maintain a suitable environment within the building space is significantly impacted by the materials used in the building envelope. Building walls composed primarily of steel and glass are a major source of heat gain in the summer and heat loss in the winter. Walls consisting of masonry, cladding and insulation, have much higher insulating capabilities and substantially more thickness. HEAT LOSSES AND HEAT GAINS Materials of various properties have different thermal conductivities of energy, and are compared on the basis of R-values (thermal resistance), U-values (thermal transmittance) and K-values (thermal conductivity). The U-value identifies the extent of a material to conduct thermal energy. For example, aluminum has a much higher U-value when compared to wood and hence, a greater thermal conductivity. Rigid insulation has a higher R-value than glass and, therefore, a greater thermal resistance or insulating capability (Module 9: Energy Efficiency in Building Electrical Systems) R-values and U-values are used in heat flow calculations. The R-value is the corresponding rate of thermal resistance. 1 R U If there are multiple materials (say three) involved in the envelope, then the cumulative Uvalue of the envelope can be calculated by 1 U R1  R 2  R3 Thermal conductivity, which is denoted using the Greek symbol λ or K- value, is the measure of how easily heat flows through a specific material. Unlike U and R values, it is independent of the thickness of the material and is measured in Watts per meter Kelvin (W/m K) or W/m°C (Watts per meter degree Celsius). The lower the thermal conductivity of a material, the better is the thermal performance (i.e. the slower heat will move across the material). The relation between K-value and R-value is given by: R L/ K L- Thickness of the material (m) The heat loss or gain through a particular building component (roof, window, door or wall) is calculated utilizing the following equation: © ASCE 2 Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Q  U  A  T 2  T1 Q - Heat loss/ gain rate (W) U - Thermal Transmittance (W/m2°C) A - Surface area (m2) T2 - Temperature indoor (°C) T1 -Temperature outdoor (°C) The heat gain or heat loss factor is dependent on point of reference. Temperature flows from the higher to lower end. If the reference is with respect to the region with lower temperature separated by a wall then the system is undergoing heat gain whereas if the region is at a higher temperature end heat loss occurs. Therefore a negative or positive Q value indicates the direction of heat flow. Heat flow rate is a measure of the rate at which heat flows through the wall. Higher the value of heat flow rate, higher is the rate at which transfer of heat occurs over the two surfaces on either side of the wall. A lower value of heat flow indicates that the heat flow through the wall would take longer and hence maintaining lower temperature in the internal surface if internal temperature is lower than the external temperature. METHODOLOGY The case study was on Academic Block 5 (AB5) at Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal campus and analyses the heat loss/ gain rate occurring for the building during MarchApril 2017. A variation in the heat loss/ gain for materials: Concrete blocks, Laterite blocks and Mud blocks are done adopting a comfortable room temperature of 25̊ C, the comfort condition for buildings shall not exceed 26̊ C (Indian Green building council 2011). Figure 1: Plan of the Academic block 5 This building mostly consists of classrooms with a few faculty cabins and laboratories. The building was divided in two sides namely right and left for easier reference. Figure 1 depicts the plan of the building and the either sides - right and left depicted by R and L respectively. It has © ASCE 3 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies an asymmetric layout on the basis of the number of floors on either side i.e., lower ground level two to third floor and lower ground level 1 to fifth floor on the right and left sides respectively. The building is located in the southern part of Karnataka State, India, a place well known for buildings constructed with Laterite blocks. Also, since undressed Laterite blocks, Mud blocks and Concrete blocks have comparable costs of Rs 35, Rs 40 and Rs 37 respectively per block, a comparative experiment was carried on the thermal efficiency of these materials which is quantified by heat loss/ gain rate of the walls, calculated from the corresponding R-values of these materials. The paper aims to quantify how the heat loss/ gain varies for if the already existing Concrete blocks are replaced by Laterite blocks and Mud blocks. The transmission loss/ gain through the walls in various rooms of the building under consideration is studied during March-April 2017, along with. The first step was to acquire the plans and sections of various floors in the building followed by selection of the rooms on either sides of the building facing different directions. The next step involved manual measurements of the external temperature T1. All dimensions including floor height, number of windows, window dimension, and length of exposed wall (exterior wall) were taken from the sections and plans of various floors. The area of exposed walls of the various rooms were calculated next. The variation that occurs by the usage of Laterite blocks or Mud blocks in the wall for the building in place of Concrete blocks (which already exists) was carried out. This was followed by calculation of the cumulative U-values for the wall sections. The building consists of tempered glass windows of 10 mm thickness The U-values were calculated and the corresponding heat gain was computed using the equations. The values of transmission loss/ gain obtained was then compared to conclude on the thermal efficiency of the materials. CASE STUDY The various rooms in the building has been indicated using room numbers and the area of the exposed wall has been calculated from the data acquired from the plans of the building as shown in Table 1. A total of 32 rooms of different exposed wall areas were considered for data collection and all have a floor height of 4.5m (wall and window areas were calculated accordingly). A table constituting of 8 records out of the total 137 records have been shown for illustration purpose. Table 1: Wall and Window area for various classrooms under consideration Room ID Total ength Window Window Window Window Total Wall Exposed Count Type Length Area (m2) Area (m2) Area (m2) (m) L0S1(E&C) 10.085 2 W2 4.5 9 45.3825 36.3825 L1S1(I&C) 17.125 3 W2 4.5 13.5 77.0625 63.5625 L2 202 12.575 2.5 W2 4.5 11.25 56.5875 45.3375 L3 304 12.55 2.5 W2 4.5 11.25 56.475 45.225 L4 406 12.562 2.5 W2 4.5 11.25 56.529 45.279 L5 505 15.475 2,2 W3,W2 2,4.5 13 69.6375 56.6375 LG01LH12 14.75 3 W2 4.5 13.5 66.375 52.875 LG02LH03 8.11 1 W1 0.75 0.75 36.495 35.745 © ASCE 4 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies The various components required for calculations and their corresponding U, K and R values are depicted in Table 2 (Module 9: Energy Efficiency in Building Electrical Systems), (Alausa S.K et al. 2013). The cumulative U values were calculated using these R values for a particular wall section. The walls are cavity type comprising of Concrete blocks of 200 mm with a cavity of 200 mm in between, resulting in a total wall thickness of 600 mm. For all calculations, an external and internal air film was considered. For cladding, hollow bricks have been used with cladding present on floors −2, −1 and 0 on the right side of the building and −1, 0 and 1 floors on the left side of the building. Cladding brick consist of two 17 mm brick sections on either sides, 16 mm brick section sandwiched between two air gaps of 30 mm. Table 2: Materials and their corresponding R, U and K values Material K-Value Thickness (mm) R-Value U-Value 2 (W/m/°C) (m °C/W) (W/m2°C) Mud block 0.620 200 0.322 3.1055 Concrete block 1.025 200 0.195 5.128 Laterite block 0.523 200 0.3824 2.615 Air spaces – At least 12 mm 0.171 5.84 Internal air film – – 0.120 8.33 External air film – – 0.030 33.33 Mud brick 0.88 16 0.01818 55.005 Mud brick 0.88 17 0.0193 51.813 Tempered glass 0.056 10 0.178 5.61 Calculation of thermal transmittance value for walls with cladding in case of the already existing Concrete blocks is given by the inverse of the sum of R-values of various components are as shown in Table 3. Table 3: Calculation of thermal transmittance of wall with cladding Material R-value (m2°C/W) Internal air film 0.12 Concrete block 200mm thick 0.195 Air gap 200mm thick 0.171 Concrete block 200mm thick 0.195 Brick −17mm thick 0.0193 Air gap of 30mm thick 0.171 Brick 16mm thick 0.01818 Air gap of 30mm thick 0.171 Brick 17mm thick 0.193 External air film 0.03 Sum = 1.10978 Thermal transmittance of the wall with cladding = 1/R = 0.901 W/m2°C Calculation of the thermal transmittance value for walls without cladding in case of the already existing Concrete blocks is given by the inverse of the sum of R-values of various components (refer table 4) and in case of window sections refer table 5. © ASCE 5 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Table 4: Calculation of thermal transmittance of wall without cladding Material R-value (m2°C/W) Internal air film 0.12 Concrete block 200mm thick 0.195 Air gap 200mm thick 0.171 Concrete block 200mm thick 0.195 External air film 0.03 Sum = 0.711 Thermal transmittance of the wall without cladding = 1/R = 1.4064 W/m2°C Table 5: Calculation of thermal transmittance of window Material R-value (m2°C /W) Internal air film 0.12 Tempered glass (10mm thick) 0.178 External air film 0.03 Sum = 0.328 Thermal transmittance of the window = 1/R = 3.0487 W/m2°C RESULTS The same set of calculations was carried out for cases of Laterite blocks and Mud blocks replacing Concrete blocks for the wall section (all blocks considered are equivalent in thickness, 200 mm). The resulting simulated results of cumulative U values are depicted in Table 6. Table 6: U values obtained for replacement of Concrete blocks with Laterite blocks and Mud blocks Material and wall section U-value (W/m2°C) Laterite blocks with cladding 0.6735 Laterite block without cladding 0.9209 Mud block with cladding 0.7327 Mud block without cladding 1.0351 Figure 2: Recorded temperature and heat loss/ gain rate for Laterite blocks, Mud blocks and Concrete blocks © ASCE 6 Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The internal temperature is set to 25°C and the wall and window areas for each room is considered with reference to Table 1. A part of the recordings have been shown in Figure 2. The graphs shown in Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 8 and Figure 9 show how the heat loss/ gain varies for various materials at different temperatures for a given wall area range for the building under consideration. Figure 3: Variation of heat loss/ gain rate in case of classrooms with an exposed wall area of 29.8485 m2, for Concrete block, Laterite block and Mud block Figure 4: Variation of heat loss/ gain rate in case of classrooms with an exposed wall area of 36.495 m2 for Concrete block, Laterite block and Mud block Figure 5: Variation of heat loss/ gain rate in case of classrooms with an exposed wall area in the range 45.3825 m2 to 47.925 m2, for Concrete block, Laterite block and Mud block © ASCE 7 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Figure 6: Variation of heat loss/ gain in case of classrooms with an exposed wall area in the range 56.475 m2 to 56.646 m2, for Concrete block, Laterite block and Mud block Figure 7: Variation of heat loss/ gain rate in case of classrooms with an exposed wall area in the range 60.75 m2 to 69.637 m2, for Concrete block, Laterite block and Mud block Figure 8: Variation of heat loss/ gain rate in case of classrooms with an exposed wall area in the range 73.0625 m2 to 90.3375 m2, for Concrete block, Laterite block and Mud block From the above Figures we may conclude that the Laterite blocks have low heat loss/ gain rate values compared with Concrete blocks and Mud blocks. However, Mud blocks prove to have a lower rate than Concrete blocks. A maximum difference in heat loss/ gain rate of Laterite and Mud blocks was found to be 392.368 W for an exposed wall area of 100. 2375 m2 and the average difference between the two materials was 124.784 W. Thus Laterite blocks are capable of maintaining a cooler internal temperature in comparison with these materials, followed by Mud blocks and then Concrete blocks. © ASCE 8
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