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Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. GSP 302 PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 Applications Papers from Sessions of the Second Pan-American Conference on Unsaturated Soils Dallas, Texas November 12–15, 2017 Edited by Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E. John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E. Sandra L. Houston, Ph.D., D.GE William J. Likos, Ph.D. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. GEOTECHNICAL SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 302 PANAM UNSATURATED SOILS 2017 APPLICATIONS SELECTED PAPERS FROM SESSIONS OF THE SECOND PAN-AMERICAN CONFERENCE ON UNSATURATED SOILS November 12–15, 2017 Dallas, Texas SPONSORED BY International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering The Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers EDITED BY Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E. John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E. Sandra L. Houston, Ph.D., D.GE William J. Likos, Ph.D. Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191-4382 www.asce.org/publications | ascelibrary.org Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASCE, which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein. No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by ASCE. The materials are for general information only and do not represent a standard of ASCE, nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document. ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this publication, and assumes no liability therefor. The information contained in these materials should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. Anyone utilizing such information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents. ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Photocopies and permissions. Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be requested by sending an e-mail to permissions@asce.org or by locating a title in ASCE's Civil Engineering Database (http://cedb.asce.org) or ASCE Library (http://ascelibrary.org) and using the “Permissions” link. Errata: Errata, if any, can be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481691 Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-0-7844-8169-1 (PDF) Manufactured in the United States of America. PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 iii Preface Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The Second Pan-American Conference on Unsaturated Soils (PanAm-UNSAT 2017) was held in Dallas, Texas, November 12-15, 2017, featuring the latest research advances and engineering‐practice innovations in the area of Unsaturated Geotechnics, with a focus on characterization, modeling, design, construction, field performance and sustainability. PanAm-UNSAT 2017 follows a now well-established series of regional and international conferences on Unsaturated Soils, bringing together researchers, practitioners, students and policy makers from around the world, particularly the Americas. The conference built upon the success of PanAm-UNSAT 2013 (First PanAmerican Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Cartagena, Colombia), as well as that of previous conferences on unsaturated soils hosted in the United States, including UNSAT 2006 (Fourth International Conference on Unsaturated Soils, Carefree, Arizona) and EXPANSIVE’92 (Seventh International Conference on Expansive Soils, Dallas, Texas, 1992). Proceedings of PanAm-UNSAT 2017 have been documented in four Geotechnical Special Publications (GSP) of ASCE including Volume 1: Plenary Session Papers; Volume 2: Fundamentals; Volume 3: Applications; and Volume 4: Swell-Shrink and Tropical Soils. Current Volume 3 (Applications) consists of five sections: Section I, General Field Applications, includes 11 papers dealing with case histories of geotechnical structures constructed in the field and field measurements of different variables relevant to unsaturated soil mechanics. Field situations investigated include embankments, slopes, and pan lysimeters. Field testing approaches include interpretation of cone penetration testing in unsaturated soils, and monitoring of variables such as the suction, degree of saturation, effective stress, temperature, earth pressure, and creep displacements. Section II, Stability of Unsaturated Slopes, includes 10 papers dealing with the performance analysis and design of slopes and excavations involving unsaturated soils. Seasonal effects on slope stability and triggering mechanisms are described, as well as consideration of probabilistic analyses, reliability, and risk evaluation. Section III, Pipelines and Transportation Infrastructure, includes 5 papers dealing with analyses of pipelines and roadways involving unsaturated soils. One paper on pipelines focused on uplift effects and movement of pipelines in unsaturated soils, focusing on the deformation response of this challenging topic. The four papers on transportation involve evaluation techniques for pavements on unsaturated soils, as well as analyses techniques for evaluating the deformation of roadways on expansive soils. © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Section IV, Climate Effects and Permafrost, includes 6 papers dealing with soilatmosphere interaction in terms of both infiltration and evaporation as well as freezing and thawing. Papers focus on the impact of climate variations on natural unsaturated soils, the role of climate in drying mine tailings, and use of simplified climate interaction approaches such as the Thornwaite moisture index. Section V, Bioremediation and Energy Geotechnics, includes 9 papers dealing with energy piles in unsaturated soils, energy storage, and bio-modification for both mechanical and hydraulic benefits. Papers also include energy storage systems involving storage of thermal energy in borehole arrays in the vadose zone and storage of energy in the form of compressed air in the subsurface. This section also includes a paper on an evaluation of unsaturated soils in providing barriers for nuclear waste repositories. The bio-modification studies focus on hydraulic properties of biocharamended soils for landfill covers, bioremediation of unsaturated soils contaminated with seawater after tsunamis, and the impact of gas generation due to biological activity on the pore pressures in unsaturated soils. Each paper was subject to rigorous technical review during a three-phase submission process and received a minimum of two positive peer reviews before final acceptance by the corresponding session chair(s). © ASCE iv PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Acknowledgments Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The following individuals deserve special acknowledgment and recognition for their direct involvement and efforts in making this regional conference a success: PanAm-UNSAT 2017 Program Committee Conference Chair: Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E., University of Texas at Arlington Conference Co-Chair: John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of California, San Diego Technical Program Chair: Sandra L. Houston, Ph.D., D.GE, M.ASCE, Arizona State University Technical Program Co-Chair: William J. Likos, Ph.D., M.ASCE, University of Wisconsin, Madison Local Chair: Marcelo J. Sanchez, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Texas A&M University Local Co-Chair: Gerald A. Miller, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Oklahoma Logistics Coordinator: Majid Ghayoomi, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of New Hampshire Sponsorships/Exhibits Chair & Liaison from the G-I Technical Coordination Council (TCC): Anand J. Puppala, Ph.D., P.E., D.GE, F.ASCE, University of Texas at Arlington The Geo-Institute (G-I) of the ASCE Brad Keelor, Director Helen Cook, Board and Meetings Specialist Lucy King, Senior Manager, Conferences Cristina Charron, Manager, Conferences Drew Caracciolo, Manager, Sponsorships and Exhibits Rachel Hobbs, Administrator, Conferences The conference Program Committee would also like to acknowledge the officers of the TC106 Committee on Unsaturated Soils (ISSMGE), and all members of the Technical Advisory and International Technical Committees, who provided guidance and support during the early planning phases of the conference. TC106 Committee on Unsaturated Soils (ISSMGE) David Toll, Chair, University of Durham, UK Bernardo Caicedo, Vice Chair, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia Adrian Russell, Secretary, University of New South Wales, Australia Technical Advisory Committee Sai Vanapalli, University of Ottawa, Canada Greg Siemens, Royal Military College, Canada Kanthasamy (Muralee) Muraleetharan, University of Oklahoma, USA © ASCE v PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Xiong Zhang, University of Cincinnati, USA Ning Lu, Colorado School of Mines, USA Claudia Zapata, Arizona State University, USA Jorge Zornberg, University of Texas at Austin, USA Jorge Abraham Diaz-Rodriguez, UNAM, Mexico Bernardo Caicedo, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia Julio E. Colmenares, Universidad Nacional, Bogotá, Colombia Orencio Villar, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil Tacio de Campos, PUC-Rio, Brazil Fernando Marinho, University of São Paulo, Brazil Manoel Porfírio Cordão Neto, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil Diego Manzanal, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Alejo Sfriso, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina International Technical Committee David Toll, University of Durham, UK Adrian Russell, University of New South Wales, Australia Eduardo Alonso, UPC, Barcelona, Spain Antonio Gens, UPC, Barcelona, Spain Lyesse Laloui, EFP Lausanne, Switzerland J. Carlos Santamarina, KAUST, Saudi Arabia Charles Ng, HKUST, Hong Kong PanAm-UNSAT 2017 Session Chairs The conference Program Committee would also like to acknowledge the conference Session Chairs, who guided authors and reviewers through the draft and final phases of paper submission and review. In most cases, these chairs also served as on-site moderators during the conference itself. 01/ Dynamic Behavior of Unsaturated Soils, part I Majid Ghayoomi, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of New Hampshire 02/ Dynamic Behavior of Unsaturated Soils, part II Nadarajah Ravichandran, Ph.D., M.ASCE, Clemson University Laureano R. Hoyos, Ph.D., P.E., M.G-I, University of Texas at Arlington 03/ Expansive Soils and Volume Change, Part I Rifat Bulut, Ph.D., M.ASCE, Oklahoma State University 04/ Expansive Soils and Volume Change, Part II Jairo E. Yepes, Ph.D., Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá, Colombia Ujwalkumar D. Patil, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Guam Liangbo Hu, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of Toledo © ASCE vi PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 05/ Expansive Soils and Volume Change, Part III Iraj Noorany, Ph.D., P.E., G.E., F.ASCE, Noorany Geotechnical Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 06/ Pore Fluid Retention Behavior, Part I William J. Likos, Ph.D., M.ASCE, University of Wisconsin, Madison Idil Deniz Akin, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, Washington State University 07/ Pore Fluid Retention Behavior, Part II Corrie Walton-Macaulay, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Bucknell University 08/ Hydraulic Behavior, Part I Leonardo D. Rivera, METER Group 09/ Hydraulic Behavior, Part II Leonardo D. Rivera, METER Group 10/ Shear Strength Behavior Ali Khosravi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Sharif University of Technology 11/ Innovations in Testing, Part I Morteza Khorshidi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Geosyntec Consultants Xin Kang, Ph.D., ACI, ASTM, A.M.ASCE, Hunan University 12/ Innovations in Testing, Part II Morteza Khorshidi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Geosyntec Consultants Xin Kang, Ph.D., ACI, ASTM, A.M.ASCE, Hunan University 13/ Innovations in Testing, Part III Morteza Khorshidi, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Geosyntec Consultants Xin Kang, Ph.D., ACI, ASTM, A.M.ASCE, Hunan University 14/ Field Applications of Unsaturated Soils Gerald A. Miller, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Oklahoma 15/ Stability of Unsaturated Slopes, Part I Navid H. Jafari, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, Louisiana State University 16/ Stability of Unsaturated Slopes, Part II Soonkie Nam, Ph.D., EIT, A.M.ASCE, Georgia Southern University 17/ Numerical Modeling: Flow and Deformation, Part I Zhen Liu, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Michigan Technological University © ASCE vii PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 viii 18/ Numerical Modeling: Flow and Deformation, Part II Xiaoyu Song, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, University of Florida Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 19/ Numerical Modeling: Coupled Processes Giuseppe Buscarnera, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Northwestern University 20/ Foundations on Expansive Soils Xiong Zhang, Ph.D., P.E. A.M.ASCE, Missouri University of Science and Technology 21/ Expansive Soils: Mitigation Bhaskar C.S. Chittoori, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Boise State University 22/ Expansive Soils: Modeling Xinbao Yu, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Texas-Arlington 23/ Pipeline and Transportation Structures in Unsaturated Soils Claudia E. Zapata, Ph.D., A.M.ASCE, Arizona State University Mohammad Sadik Khan, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Jackson State University 24/ Modeling of Cracked Soils and Effects of Cracking Marcelo J. Sanchez, Ph.D., Aff.M.ASCE, Texas A&M University 25/ Constitutive Modeling: Micro to Macro Kalehiwot N. Manahiloh, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of Delaware 26/ Climate Effects and Permafrost Farshid Vahedifard, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, Mississippi State University 27/ Energy Geotechnics, Bio-Geo, and Sustainability John S. McCartney, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, University of California, San Diego PanAm-UNSAT 2017 Draft Paper Reviewers Finally, the Program Committee would also like to acknowledge those who contributed to the conference by serving as the primary reviewers of draft papers. Their efforts in providing careful, thorough reviews of each submission form the backbone of quality assurance, providing organizers the confidence that conference content would represent the best of current thinking in the field, and allowing these Proceedings to be published as a multi-volume Geotechnical Special Publication (GSP). Murad Abu Farsakh Raju Acharya Marshall Addison © ASCE Asif Ahmed Beena Ajmera Amir Akbari Garakani Idil Akin Miguel Alfaro Saumya Amarasiri PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Omar Amer Ron Andrus Mohamed Arab Andrew Assadollahi Guillermo Avila Kleio Avrithi Muwafaq Awad Ramdane Bahar Aritra Banerjee Tugce Baser Munwar Basha Bate Bate Melissa Beauregard Craig Benson Riad Beshoy Tejovikash Bheemasetti Katia Bicalho Mahnoosh Biglari Hemanta Bista Amin Borghei Tommy Bounds Rifat Bulut Giuseppe Buscarnera Jack Cadigan Donald Cameron Gaylon Campbell Junnan Cao Amy Cerato Uma Chaduvula Lizhou Chen Can Chen Bhaskar Chittoori Mehmet Cil Rodney Collins Jose Andres Cruz Sheng Dai Arghya Das Abhijit Deka Ludmilla Derk Yi Dong Ghada Ellithy David Elwood Matt Evans © ASCE ix Arvin Farid Ashok Gaire Fernando Garcia Lucas Garino Kevin Gaspard Antonio Gens Hande Gerkus Omid Ghasemi-Fare Saswati Ghatak Majid Ghayoomi Amin Gheibi Michael Gomez James Graham Xiangfeng Guo Marte Gutierrez Jumanah Hajjat MD Haque Arash Hassanikhah Kianoosh Hatami Carol Hawk Nathan Hayman Arash Hosseini Sandra Houston Laureano Hoyos Nejan Huvaj Tatsuya Ishikawa Navid Jafari Pegah Jarast Jay Jayatilaka Mohammad Sadik Kahn Edward Kavazanjian Mohammadreza Keshavarz Sadik Khan Morteza Khorshidi Arman Khoshghalb Mohammad Khosravi Ali Khosravi Naji Khoury Charbel Khoury Golam Kibria Wansoo Kim Sihyun Kim S. Sonny Kim Alan Kropp M. R. (Kantha) Lakshmikantha Eng Choon Leong Lin Li Jie Li William Likos Chuang Lin Zhen (Leo) Liu Jose Lizarraga Naresh M Michael Maedo Nariman Mahabadi Emad Maleksaeedi Kalehiwot Manahiloh Ferdinando Marinelli Alejandro Martinez David Mathon John McCartney Marta Miletic Gerald Miller Morteza Mirshekari Debakanta Mishra Shannon Mitchell Rigoberto Moncado Lopez M. Azizul Moqsud Ali Moradi Derek Morris Kimia Mortezaei Hamed Mousavi Masoud Mousavi Sayed Masoud Mousavi Balasingham Muhunthan Kanthasamy Muraleetharan Boo Hyun Nam Soonkie Nam James Nevels Thai Nguyen Wen-Jie Niu PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Iraj Noorany Hyunjun Oh Olurotimi Victor Ojekunle Austin Olaiz Orlando Oliveira Fatih Oncul Mandeep Pandey Youngjin Park Ujwalkumar Patil Meghdad Payan Aravind Pedarla James Phipps Hariprasad Ponnapu Allison Quiroga Harianto Rahardjo Mehrzad Rahimi Nadarajah Ravichandran Ronald Reed Leonardo Rivera Nick Rocco Breno Rocha Ivo Rosa Montenegro Hakan Sahin Sonia Samir Marcelo Sanchez Sireesh Saride Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy © ASCE x Gokhan Saygili Sreedeep Sekharan Charles Shackelford Babak Shahbodaghkhan Mohammadreza Shakeri Longtan Shao Sunil Sharma Ajay Shastri Zhenhao Shi Jimmy Si John Siekmeier Greg Siemens Pawan Sigdel Behzad Soltanbeigi Chung Song Xiaoyu Song Timothy Stark Melissa Stewart Richard Sullivan HeMei Sun Amirata Taghavi Nagasreenivasu Talluri Rupert Tart, Jr. Oliver-Denzil Taylor Faraz Tehrani Colby Thrash Martin Tjioe Kala Venkata Uday Florian Unold Farshid Vahedifard Julio Valdes Sai Vanapalli B.V.S. Viswanadham Divya Viswanath Kenneth Walsh Hanlin Wang Kaiqi Wang Shaun Weldon Joshua White Xialong Xia Sudheer Yamsani Xiaoming Yang Yaolin Yi Xinbao Yu Atefeh Zamani Siavash Zamiran Bo Zhang Yida Zhang YouHu Zhang Chao Zhang Xiong Zhang Honghua Zhao Bohan Zhou Yang Zhou PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 xi Contents Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. General Field Applications Behavior of the Air Phase within Embankment Due to Rainfall ........................... 1 Katsuyuki Kawai, Daichi Hazama, and Ryunosuke Nose Classifying Unsaturated Soils via Cone Penetration Testing ............................... 11 Rodney W. Collins and Gerald A. Miller Comparing In Situ Soil Water Characteristic Curves to Those Generated in the Lab ................................................................................................ 18 Colin Campbell, Alton Campbell, Neil Hansen, Bryan Hopkins, Shane Evans, Emily Campbell, and Douglas Cobos Comparison of Percolation of Flat and Slope Section Vegetated Lysimeters Using Field Soil Water Characteristic Curve..................................... 28 Md. Jobair Bin Alam, Md. Sahadat Hossain, Asif Ahmed, and Mohammad Sadik Khan Creep Behavior of Soil Nails in High Plasticity Clay under Various Load Level ................................................................................................................. 38 Mohsen Mahdavi Kharanaghi, Marcelo Sanchez, Jean-Louis Briaud, and Gang Bi Effect of Temperature on Field Water Content Measurements Using Water Content Reflectometers ................................................................................ 49 Duraisamy S. Saravanathiiban and Milind V. Khire Experimental Investigation on At-Rest Earth Pressure Acting on Walls Retaining Collapsible Soil Subjected to Inundation ................................... 59 Nhut Nguyen and Adel Hanna Integration of Laboratory and Field Investigation on the Slope Aside of the Highway in a Brazilian Coastal Hillside ................................. 69 A. F. R. Pontes, M. N. B. Trevizolli, L. B. Passini, L. P. Sestrem, F. A. M. Marinho, and A. C. M. Kormann Monitoring Suction Stress and Effective Stress in a Silty Sand Levee under Seasonal and Tidal Changes .............................................................. 81 Xavier A. Rivera-Hernandez, Farshid Vahedifard, and Ghada S. Ellithy © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 xii Observation and Use of Soil Suction, 20 Years of Experience ............................. 92 Ronald F. Reed Relating Moisture Content, Suction and Shear Strength of an Ore .................. 105 Adrian R. Russell, Thanh Vo, and Hongwei Yang Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Stability of Unsaturated Slopes A Probabilistic Approach to the Stability of a Dam under Rapid Drawdown Conditions ............................................................................................ 115 Ana Carolina Rios, Manoel Porfírio, and André Assis Analysis and Performance Monitoring of a Temporary Excavation in Highly Plastic Clay and Comparison of Predicted and In-Situ Soil Strength Due to Unsaturated Soils ........................................................................ 124 Yonghoon Lee and Noel W. Janacek Moving from 2D to a 3D Unsaturated Slope Stability Analysis ......................... 136 Murray D. Fredlund, Delwyn G. Fredlund, and Lulu Zhang Quantifying Landslide Risk ................................................................................... 146 Bruce Hargreaves Rainfall Induced Shallow Slope Failure over Yazoo Clay in Mississippi .......... 153 M. S. Khan, M. Nobahar, J. Ivoke, and F. Amini Seasonal Variation of the Safety Factor and Stability of a Diabase Slope Located in Florianopolis, Brazil ................................................... 163 L. G. Campos, N. S. Massocco, G. B. Nunes, O. M. Oliveira, R. A. R. Higashi, and Fernando A. M. Marinho Slope Failure and Landslide Triggered by an Intense Rainfall Event–Forensic Investigations and Remedial Design .......................................... 174 Charbel Khoury, Kofi B. Acheampong, and Kwabena Ofori-Awuah Stability Analysis of Unsaturated Infinite Slopes A Reliability Perspective ..... 185 A. S. S. Raghuram and B. Munwar Basha The Failure Characteristics and Evolution Mechanism of the Expansive Soil Trench Slope.................................................................................. 196 Zhangjun Dai, Shanxiong Chen, and Jian Li Understanding Shallow Slope Failures on Expansive Soil Embankments in North Texas Using Unsaturated Soil Property Framework ........................... 206 Anu M. George, Sayantan Chakraborty, Jasaswee T. Das, Aravind Pedarla, and Anand J. Puppala © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 xiii Pipelines and Transportation Infrastructure Air-Coupled Acoustic Testing for Pavement System .......................................... 217 Hiba Al-Adhami and Nenad Gucunski Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Application of Euler-Bernoulli Beam on Winkler Foundation for Highway Pavement on Expansive Soils ................................................................ 228 Md Adnan Khan and Jay X. Wang Behaviour of Unsealed Stabilized Road Pavements Using Non-Linear Strength Model........................................................................................................ 240 D. J. Robert, S. Setunge, and B. O’Donnell Study of a Natural Unsaturated Clay and Its Effect on Railroads .................... 250 Dong Wang, Marcelo Sánchez, Esteban Sáez, Carlos Ovalle, and Jean-Louis Briaud Uplift Resistance and Mobilization of Buried Pipelines in Unsaturated Sands .................................................................................................. 260 D. J. Robert and N. I. Thusyanthan Climate Effects and Permafrost Characterization of Mine Waste Materials after 50 Years of Climate Interaction ............................................................................................................... 270 Lucas M. Garino, Germán J. Rodari, and Luciano A. Oldecop Comparison and Applications of the Thornthwaite Moisture Index Using GIS ................................................................................................................. 280 Austin H. Olaiz, Sai H. Singhar, Jeffry D. Vann, and Sandra L. Houston Cryosuction–A Model to Describe the Mechanism during Ground Freezing ................................................................................................................... 290 Florian Unold and Ludmilla Derk Mechanical Behavior of Soil Subjected to Freezing-Thawing Cycles................ 300 Bohan Zhou, Marcelo Sanchez, Ajay Shastri, and Juyoung Lee Numerical Analysis of Climate Effect on Slope Stability .................................... 308 Soumia Merat, Lynda Djerbal, and Ramdane Bahar Influence of Maximum Water Storage on Thornthwaite Moisture Index ........ 319 Lizhou Chen, Rifat Bulut, James B. Nevels Jr., and Christopher R. Clarke © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Bioremediation and Energy Geotechnics Analysis of the Hydration of an Unsaturated Seal .............................................. 329 Daniel F. Ruiz, Jean Vaunat, Antonio Gens, and Miguel A. Mánica Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Bioremediation of Unsaturated Saline Soil .......................................................... 339 M. Azizul Moqsud, Y. Kodama, K. Omine, and N. Yasufuku Characterization of Hydro-Mechanical Behavior of Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems .................................................................................. 347 Ajay Shastri, Marcelo Sanchez, and Thi Minh-Le Effect of Biogenic Gas on Skempton’s Pore Pressure Parameter Bw ............... 359 S. Ghatak, D. Roy, and S. Roy Evaluation of Coupled Thermal and Hydraulic Relationships Used in Simulation of Thermally-Induced Water Flow in Unsaturated Soils ................ 370 Tuğçe Başer, John S. McCartney, Yi Dong, and Ning Lu Evaluation of Ground Coupled Heat Pump Systems in a Hot and Semi-Arid Climate ................................................................................... 381 Vaibhavi Tambe, T. Agami Reddy, and Edward Kavazanjian Jr. Field Measurements on Geothermal Foundations............................................... 394 M. R. Keshavarz, M. Sanchez, G. Akrouch, and J. L. Briaud The Economic Viability of Ground Couple Heat Pump Systems in a Hot and Semi-Arid Climate ................................................................................... 404 Vaibhavi Tambe, T. Agami Reddy, and Edward Kavazanjian Jr. Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties of Biochar and Biochar-Amended Soils for Landfill Covers ........................................................................................ 417 Girish Kumar, Jairo E. Yepes, Laureano R. Hoyos, and Krishna R. Reddy © ASCE xiv PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Behavior of the Air Phase within Embankment Due to Rainfall Katsuyuki Kawai1; Daichi Hazama2; and Ryunosuke Nose3 1 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kindai Univ., 3-4-1 Kowakae Higashi-Osaka 577-8502, Japan. E-mail: kkawai@civileng.kindai.ac.jp 2 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kindai Univ., 3-4-1 Kowakae Higashi-Osaka 577-8502, Japan. E-mail: 1210380029a@ kindai.ac.jp 3 Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kindai Univ., 3-4-1 Kowakae Higashi-Osaka 577-8502, Japan. E-mail: 1210380098y@ kindai.ac.jp Abstract In this study, air pressure behavior within an earth structure was investigated through a full-scale embankment test. The road embankment (2 m height) was constructed on low-permeability soil and measurement devices (tensiometers, air pressure meters, and soil moisture meters) were installed. The embankment was exposed to natural conditions, such as rainfall and evaporation, and vehicle weight was applied. Characteristic behaviors of water and air pressure were observed throughout the 1-year monitoring period. Water pressure increased under rainfall and kept decreasing due to evaporation without rainfall. The infiltrated rainwater flowed toward the slope toe. Consequently, water pressure at top of the slope increased due to rainfall and decreased soon after rainfall stopped; while pressure at the slope toe started decreasing after a period of time. Conversely, air pressure increased under only heavy rain. Moreover, it decreased to a point lower than atmospheric pressure following the heavy rain and recovered after a brief interval. INTRODUCTION Concentrated heavy rainfall frequently occurs and triggers landslides. As the area affected by rainfall is fairly localized, it is difficult to predict when and where slope failure will occur. Civic awareness about slope failure disasters should be increased to reduce human damages. In this regard, understanding precursory phenomena for landslides is effective. There are a lot of successful cases in which precursory phenomena act as an alert. However, some of these phenomena are difficult to explain © ASCE 1 PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 2 0.6m Undrained air Undrained water e urv gc ryin ing tt we rve cu Degree of saturation Sr (%) ry d nda ary Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 0.2m Undrained water Bou d un Bo © ASCE Undrained air theoretically in soil mechanics. For instance, the mechanism that causes unusual sound and smell before a landslide has not been clarified. As these phenomena are transmitted through the air, it is important to understand air behavior within the ground. Kawai et al. (2017) investigated air behavior responses to rainfall within embankment through soil/water/air coupled simulations. They assumed a virtual embankment shown in Figure 1 to compare simulation results with model test results. The right, left and bottom boundaries were undrained water and air boundaries. The crown and slope were set as a drained air boundary and water flux boundary corresponding to rainfall intensity. The input material parameters are summarized in Table 1, and the soil water retention curves used for simulation are shown in Figure 2. These material parameters were identified to compare simulation results with model test results, and good agreement 0.3m was seen between them (Figures Drained air 3 and 4: Phommachanh et al. (2014)). Rainfall intensity was set to 30mm/h and 60mm/h for simulation. The leaving term was Undrained water provided after 1.5 hours of Undrained air rainfall duration. Figures 5-7 and 1.2m 8-10 show simulation results for Figure 1. Analytical mesh and boundary conditions the 30mm/h and the 60mm/h Table 1. Input material parameters rainfall intensity cases,  (kPa) psat S ri   M respectively. Figure 5 shows that 0.087 0.009 1.375 1500 0.15 the wetting area expanded from m a n nE ei the surface during the rainfall 0.8 10 1.0 1.00 0.7 period. Figure 8 for the 60mm/h k ay (m/h) k wy (m/h) k wx (m/h) kax (m/h) rainfall intensity shows higher 0.156 0.078 15.6 7.8 soil moisture and a wider wetting 1 area than Figure 5. Because 0.8 suction dissipates and water pressure turns positive in an area 0.6 infiltrated by rainfall, water 0.4 pressure distribution differences 0.2 between Figures 6 and 9 are generated. Infiltrated rainwater 0 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Suction s (kPa) was found to flow toward the Figure 2. Soil water retention curves for simulation PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 3 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Suction s [ kPa ] 10 T3 (Experimental) T3 ( Numerical ) 8 6 4 2 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 Time [ min ] Figure 3. Comparison of suction changes 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 Figure 4. Comparison of wetting fronts after rainfall 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 (a) 1.5 hour rainfall (b) 1 hour leaving (a) 1.5 hour rainfall (b) 1 hour leaving Figure 5. Degree of saturation (30mm/h) Figure 8. Degree of saturation (60mm/h) -7.00 -3.50 1.00 -7.00 -3.50 1.00 (a) 1.5 hour rainfall (b) 1 hour leaving Figure 6. Water pressure (30mm/h) -7.00 -3.50 1.00 -7.00 -3.50 1.00 (a) 1.5 hour rainfall (b) 1 hour leaving Figure 9. Water pressure (60mm/h) [kPa] (a) 1.5 hour rainfall (b) 1 hour leaving Figure 7. Air pressure (30mm/h) (a) 1.5 hour rainfall (b) 1 hour leaving Figure 10. Air pressure (60mm/h) slope toe during the settling period after rainfall. This is because unsaturated permeability depends on soil moisture, and infiltrated water tends to flow to higher moisture areas close to the slope surface, rather than vertically. Consequently, areas of high water pressure move from inside the embankment under rainfall to the slope toe after rainfall. Different air pressure distributions depending on rainfall intensity can be seen between Figures 7 and 10. The infiltrated rainwater saturates the slope surface © ASCE PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Photo 1. Full-scale embankment test site Low-cost pavement Road bed (gravel) Construction waste soil Figure 11. Schematic diagram of the embankment Clay © ASCE Sand Gravel 80 60 40 20 0.01 0.1 1 Grain size (mm) 10 Figure 12. Particle size distribution 1.8 Height (m) Dry density d (g/cm3) 2 1.0 S r= .9 0 S r= .8 0 S r= Embankment materials and construction. The embankment was constructed on low permeability foundation ground in a manmade island that accommodates an airport in the Kobe area (Photo 1). Silt 100 0 0.001 FULL-SCALE EMBANKMENT TEST PROCEDURE Ditch Condition of foundation ・Hard ・Low permeability ・Low ground water level Percentage finer (%) Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. earlier under higher versus lower rainfall intensity, and air within the embankment is entrapped. Consequently, the area of high air pressure is wider under higher rainfall intensity (Figure 10). After rainfall, a negative air pressure area is generated around the crown in both Figures 7 and 10. This is because air around the slope toe is compressed, and air around the crown expands when infiltrated rainwater flows toward the slope toe after rainfall. The above findings about air behavior due to rainfall were obtained from simulations. In this study, the behavior of air within the earth structure is investigated through monitoring a fullscale embankment test. 4 1.7 1.6 1 1.5 5 10 15 20 Water content w (%) 25 0 70 80 90 100 Compaction degree (%) (a) Compaction curve (b) Compaction Figure 13. Compaction characteristics for the standard Proctor Compaction Effort PanAm Unsaturated Soils 2017 GSP 302 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The embankment was 10m long and 2.0m high. The crown width was 4.0m, and the slope gradient was 1:1.8. A 70m long approach was constructed on both sides of the embankment. Construction waste soil and its mixture with steel slag were used for constructing the embankment, and steel slag was used for the approach. The monitoring area consisted of construction waste soil within the embankment. Figure 11 shows a schematic diagram of the embankment and photos of the construction and monitoring. The particle size distribution is shown in Figure 12, which determined a high percentage of fine fraction. The results of the lab compaction test are shown in Figure 13(a). A maximum dry density of 1.73g/cm3 appears at an optimum water content of 16.8%. The embankment was constructed using multi-layered compaction. Compaction was carefully conducted with a vibrating roller and tamper to avoid overcompaction. An in-situ soil density test was conducted layer by layer. Figure 13(b) shows compaction degree distribution obtained from the in-situ density tests. A relatively low degree of compaction was determined, indicating that this material is difficult to compact densely. Monitoring procedure. Measurement devices were installed in the embankment to investigate the water balance of an earth structure exposed to natural environmental factors, such as precipitation and evaporation. It is generally known that soil water retention characteristic curves depend on Section C Section B Section A drying and wetting history and do 0.5m×4=2m not show unique relationships between suction and soil moisture. Moreover, discrepancies in the determined water balance occur when comparing tensiometer 1.0m×2=2m suction measurements and soil Section A Section C moisture meter determinations. 4 5 3 3 5 2 3 5 Because tensiometers measure 4 4 1 3 11 4 2 2 2 6 water pressure for continuous water, it is difficult to measure the Section B pressure of discontinuous water in Tensiometer(20cm,40cm) 7 8 Air pressure (20cm,40cm) soils with a low degree of 5 Soil moisture (20cm,40cm) 6 Temperature saturation. On the other hand, the 1 soil moisture meter lacks Figure 14 Installation positions of resolution in soils with a high measurement devices © ASCE 5
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