Tài liệu Airfield and highway pavements 2017 pavement innovation and sustainability

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d from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all right Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Pavement Innovation and Sustainability Selected Papers from the Proceedings of the International Conference on Highway Pavements and Airfield Technology 2017 Edited by Imad L. Al-Qadi, Ph.D., P.E. Hasan Ozer, Ph.D. Eileen M. Vélez-Vega, P.E. Scott Murrell, P.E. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. AIRFIELD AND HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS 2017 PAVEMENT INNOVATION AND SUSTAINABILITY PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS AND AIRFIELD TECHNOLOGY 2017 August 27–30, 2017 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania SPONSORED BY The Transportation & Development Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers EDITED BY Imad L. Al-Qadi, Ph.D., P.E. Hasan Ozer, Ph.D. Eileen M. Vélez-Vega, P.E. Scott Murrell, P.E. Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191-4382 www.asce.org/publications | ascelibrary.org Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASCE, which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein. No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by ASCE. The materials are for general information only and do not represent a standard of ASCE, nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document. ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this publication, and assumes no liability therefor. The information contained in these materials should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. Anyone utilizing such information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents. ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Photocopies and permissions. Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be requested by sending an e-mail to permissions@asce.org or by locating a title in ASCE's Civil Engineering Database (http://cedb.asce.org) or ASCE Library (http://ascelibrary.org) and using the “Permissions” link. Errata: Errata, if any, can be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784480946 Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-0-7844-8094-6 (PDF) Manufactured in the United States of America. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 iii Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Preface An ever-growing number of highway and airport agencies, companies, organizations, institutes, and governing bodies are embracing principles of sustainability in managing their activities and conducting business. Overarching goals emphasize key environmental, social, economic, and safety factors in the decision-making process for every pavement project. Therefore, the theme of the conference was chosen as “Sustainable Pavements and Safe Airports.” It is dedicated to the state-ofthe-art and state-of-practice areas durability, cost-effective, and sustainable airfield and highway pavements. In addition, recent advancements and technologies to ensure safe and efficient airport operations are included. This international conference provides a chance to interact and exchange information with worldwide leaders in the fields of highway and airport pavements, as well as airport safety technologies. This conference brought together researchers in transportation and airport safety technologies, designers, project/construction managers, academics, and contractors from around the world to discuss design, implementation, construction, rehabilitation alternatives, and instrumentation and sensing. The proceedings of 2017 International Conference on Highway Pavements and Airfield Technology have been organized in four (4) publications as follows: Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017: Design, Construction, Evaluation, and Management of Pavements This volume includes papers in the areas of mechanistic-empirical design methods and advanced modeling techniques for design of conventional and permeable pavements, construction specifications and quality, accelerated pavement testing, pavement condition evaluation, and network level management of pavements. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017: Testing and Characterization of Bound and Unbound Pavement Materials This volume includes papers in the areas of laboratory and field characterization of asphalt binders, asphalt mixtures, base/subgrade materials, and recent advances in concrete pavement technology. This volume also features papers for the use of recycled materials, in-place recycling techniques and unbound layer stabilization methods. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017: Pavement Innovation and Sustainability This volume is dedicated to the papers featuring most recent technologies used for structural health monitoring of highway pavements, intelligent compaction, and innovative technologies used in the design and construction of highway pavements. The volume also includes papers in the area of sustainability assessment using life-cycle assessment of highway and airfield pavements and climate change impacts and preparation for pavement infrastructure. © ASCE Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017: Airfield Pavement Technology and Safety This volume is dedicated to recent advances in the area of airfield pavement design technology and specifications, modeling of airfield pavements, use of accelerated loading systems for airfield pavements, and airfield pavement condition evaluation and asset management. The papers in these proceedings are the result of peer reviews by a scientific committee of more than 90 international pavement and airport technology experts, with three to five reviewers per paper. Recent research was presented in the technical podium and poster sessions including the results from current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airport design, specifications, and safety technologies; design and construction of highway pavements; pavement materials characterization and modeling; pavement management systems; and innovative technologies and sustainability. The plenary sessions featured the Francis Turner Lecture by Dr. Robert Lytton and the Carl Monismith Lecture by Dr. David Anderson. In addition, two technical tours were offered: Philadelphia International Airport and the Center for Research and Education in Advanced Transportation Engineering Systems (CREATEs) Lab of the Henry M. Rowan College of Engineering at Rowan University. Three workshops were presented prior to the conference: hands-on FAA’s FAARFIELD software, design and construction of permeable pavements, and environmental product declarations. The editors would like to thank the members of the scientific committee who volunteered their time to review the submitted papers and offered constructive critiques to the authors. We are also grateful for the work of the steering committee members in planning and organizing the conference: Katie Chou, Jeffrey Gagnon, John Harvey, Brian McKeehan, Shiraz Tayabji, and Geoffrey Rowe; as well as the local organizing committee chaired by Geoffrey Rowe and members including James A. McKelvey, Timothy Ward, Ahmed Faheem, and Yusuf Mehta for their help with the technical tours. Finally, we would like to especially thank the ASCE T&DI staff who helped put the conference together: Muhammad Amer, Mark Gable, Drew Caracciolo, and Deborah Denney. Imad L. Al-Qadi, Ph.D., P.E., Dist. M.ASCE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Hasan Ozer, Ph.D., M.ASCE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Eileen M. Vélez-Vega, P.E., M.ASCE, Kimley-Horn Puerto Rico, LLC Scott D. Murrell, P.E., M.ASCE, Applied Research Associates © ASCE iv Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 v Contents Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Innovative Methods for Highway and Airfield Pavements Configuration of Electrodes for Electrically Conductive Concrete Heated Pavement Systems ....................................................................................................... 1 Hesham Abdualla, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Mani Mina, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Alireza Sassani, Peter C. Taylor, and Kristen S. Cetin Experimental Investigation of Energy Harvesting Prototypes for Asphalt Roadways ................................................................................................................... 10 Hossein Roshani, Samer Dessouky, and A. T. Papagiannakis Use of Innovative Techniques and Sustainable Materials in Pavement Construction An Evaluation of Cool Pavement Strategies on Concrete Pavements ................. 20 Ram Kumar Veeraragavan, Aaron Sakulich, and Rajib B. Mallick Synergistic Effect of Cement and Mucilage of Optuntia ficus indica Cladodes on the Strength Properties of Lateritic Soil. .......................................... 33 Busari Ayobami, Akinmusuru Joseph, Ogunro Vincent, and Ofuyatan Olutokunbo Study on Performance and Efficacy of Industrial Waste Materials in Road Construction: Fly Ash and Bagasse Ash....................................................... 45 Aditya Kumar Anupam, Praveen Kumar, G. D. Ransinchung, and Yogesh U. Shah Innovations in Concrete Pavements Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate Particle-Based Concrete: A Review .................................................................................................. 57 H. Ataei, K. Kalbasi Anaraki, and Rui Ma Performance and Sustainability Evaluation of In-Place and Central Plant Recycling Options Research on Sustainable Pavements: Changes in In-Place Properties of Recycled Layers Due to Temperature and Moisture Variations ......................... 69 Heather Miller, Jo Sias Daniel, Somayeh Eftekhari, Maureen Kestler, and Rajib B. Mallick © ASCE Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Effect of Gradation and Aged Binder Content of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) on Properties of Cold-Recycled Asphalt Mix ........................... 79 A. Ghavibazoo, M. I. E. Attia, P. Soltis, and H. Ajideh Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Novel Application of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Construction of New Cold Mix Pavements ........................................................................................ 90 Saman Barzegari, Shelley M. Stoffels, and Mansour Solaimanian Improving the Mechanical Properties of Cold Mix Asphalt Mixtures Reinforced by Natural and Synthetic Fibers........................................................ 102 Hayder Kamil Shanbara, Felicite Ruddock, and William Atherton Design and Construction of Permeable Pavements Use of Permeable Pavements at Airports ............................................................. 112 James Bruinsma, Kelly Smith, and David Peshkin Fully Permeable Pavement for Stormwater Management: Progress and Obstacles to Implementation in California .......................................................... 125 J. Harvey, S. Shan, H. Li, D. J. Jones, and R. Wu Analysis of the Utilization of Open-Graded Friction Course (OGFC) in the United States ..................................................................................................... 137 M. Onyango and M. Woods Interaction of Vehicles-Tire System with Pavements Alternative Laboratory Characterization of Low Rolling Resistance Asphalt Mixtures .................................................................................................... 148 M. Pettinari, E. Nielsen, and B. Schmidt Pavement-Vehicle Interaction Research at the MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub .................................................................................................. 160 James W. Mack, Mehdi Akbarian, Franz-Josef Ulm, and Arghavan Louhghalam Evaluation of Tire-Pavement Contact Stress Distribution of Pavement Response and Some Effects on the Flexible Pavements ...................................... 174 Ainalem Nega and Hamid Nikraz Intelligent Compaction: Challenges and Future Implementation Evaluating Stiffness Parameters of Unbound Geomaterial Layers Using Intelligent Compaction, Plate Load Test, and Light Weight Deflectometer ..... 186 Mehran Mazari, Jorge Beltran, Cesar Tirado, Luis Lemos, and Soheil Nazarian © ASCE vi Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Next Generation Structural Health Monitoring of Highway/Airfield Pavements Performance Monitoring of Pavement Surface Characteristics with 3D Surface Data ...................................................................................................... 195 You Zhan, Qiang Joshua Li, Guangwei Yang, and Kelvin C. P. Wang Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Civil Infrastructure Health Monitoring and Management Using Unmanned Aerial Systems ..................................................................................... 207 Akash Vidyadharan, Tyler Carter, Halil Ceylan, Christina Bloebaum, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, and Sunghwan Kim Winter Maintenance of Pavements—Use of Innovative Techniques and Materials Influence of Deicing Salts on the Water-Repellency of Portland Cement Concrete Coated with Polytetrafluoroethylene and Polyetheretherketone ...... 217 Ali Arabzadeh, Halil Ceylan, Sunghwan Kim, Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan, Alireza Sassani, Sriram Sundararajan, Peter C. Taylor, and Abdullah Abdullah © ASCE vii Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Configuration of Electrodes for Electrically Conductive Concrete Heated Pavement Systems Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Hesham Abdualla1; Halil Ceylan2; Sunghwan Kim3; Mani Mina4; Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan5; Alireza Sassani5; Peter C. Taylor6; and Kristen S. Cetin7 1 Graduate Research Student, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: abdualla@iastate.edu Professor, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: hceylan@iastate.edu (Corresponding Author) 3 Research Scientist, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: sunghwan@iastate.edu 4 Associate Professor, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: mmina@iastate.edu 5 Research Associate Professor, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: rangan@iastate.edu 5 Graduate Research Student, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: asassani@iastate.edu 6 Director, National Concrete Pavement Technology Center. E-mail: ptaylor@iastate.edu 7 Assistant Professor, Iowa State Univ. E-mail: kcetin@iastate.edu 2 ABSTRACT This study investigates the effects of the type and configuration of embedded electrodes on resistive heating performance of an electrically conductive concrete (ECON) heated-pavement system (HPS). Three ECON slabs – an ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes, an ECON slab with steel rebar electrodes, and an ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes with an isolation layer – were designed and constructed. The resistive heating performance of the slabs was evaluated by measuring the electric current and ECON slab surface temperature at specific points during the application of voltage. The results revealed that the performance of the ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes was marginally changed when an isolation layer was used, so with respect to construction practice and cost considerations, an isolation layer is not deemed to be necessary for constructing large-scale ECON heated pavements. Electrical current measurements can be used for evaluating the conductivity and the heating capability of the ECON slabs. INTRODUCTION Electrically conductive concrete (ECON) heated pavement systems (HPS) have increasingly gained attention due to their potential for melting ice and snow while overcoming the drawbacks of using traditional deicing methods (Xi and Patricia 2000; Arabzadeh et al. 2016a and b; Arabzadeh et al. 2017; Ceylan et al. 2014). ECON is a versatile material that can be used as a resistive heating medium for © ASCE 1 Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. construction of self-heating pavement systems (Sassani et al. 2017). ECON HPS works by applying a voltage to electrodes embedded in the ECON layer to deliver power to conductive materials and thereby melt ice and snow (Abdualla et al. 2016). Electrodes are the ECON HPS components that conduct electric current from an electrical power supply into the ECON to heat up the ECON surface. In general, electrodes made of metallic materials are capable of allowing current flow into the ECON layer since their conductivities are higher than the ECON itself. Sufficient bonding between the electrodes and the ECON matrix is crucial to achieving resistive heating performance (Zuofu et al. 2006; Chen and Ping 2012; Tian and Hu 2012). The use of copper mesh and steel mesh as embedded electrodes in the ECON layer has been shown to transfer sufficient current into the ECON layer (Gopalakrishnan et al. 2015; Wu et al. 2013). Steel plate electrode has been associated with inadequate performance on heating tests because of poor electrodeconcrete bonding (Tuan 2004). Use of perforated galvanized stainless steel with hole size larger than the maximum aggregate size has been recommended as a satisfactory method for achieving interlocking between the ECON matrix and the electrodes (Ceylan 2015), but there are also limited studies in the existing literature investigating the effects of embedded electrode arrangement in achieving efficient heating performance of ECON HPS. This study investigates the effect of electrode configuration on heating performance of ECON HPS. To this end, ECON slabs with different embedded electrode types and configurations were prepared and tested to evaluate their electrical heating performance. The experimental parameters reflecting the heating performance of ECON slabs were temperature and electrical current readings. The outcome of this study is expected to provide guidance on electrode design for largescale ECON slab design and construction. METHODOLOGY Three prototype ECON slabs (95 cm long × 35 cm wide × 7 cm thick) with various sets of electrode types, shapes, and configurations were designed and constructed at the ISU Portland Cement Pavement and Materials Research Laboratory. These units included: (1) a prototype ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes, (2) a prototype ECON slab with steel rebar electrodes, and (3) a prototype ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes and an isolation layer. Figure 1 depicts the ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes (3.8 cm long x 3.8 cm wide x 0.3 cm thick). Electrodes were first placed inside the formwork as shown in Figure 1(a), and the ECON mix was then poured into the slab formwork (Figure 1(b)). The ECON mix contained 0.75 % (by total volume of concrete) of 6-mm-long carbon fiber. The detailed ECON mix proportion has been presented and discussed in previous studies (Sassani et al. 2015; Abdualla et al. 2016) Concrete vibration was used to improve the bond between electrodes and the ECON mix. The slab was constructed with a 7.6 cm-thick layer of ECON. The ECON resistivity value was 400 Ω·cm. © ASCE 2 Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. As shown in Figure 1(a), the center-to-center distance between each facing pair of electrodes was 40 cm; the middle electrodes closest to one another were 5 cm apart. The electrode spacing in the three evaluated ECON slabs was maintained the same for each set to permit comparison of the efficiencies of the embedded electrodes in terms of electrical heating performance. (a) (b) Figure 1. Prototype ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes: (a) the ECON slab formwork, (b) the ECON slab. The ECON slab having four steel rebar electrodes was designed and constructed as shown in Figure 2 (a) and Figure 2 (b). The construction procedure of this prototype ECON slab shown in Figure 2 was executed similarly to the ECON with four perforated galvanized steel angles described earlier, except that the perforated galvanized steel angles were replaced with 10 mm-diameter steel rebar. The spacing of the electrodes was similar to those of the previous ECON slabs. (a) (b) Figure 2. Prototype ECON slab with four steel rebar as electrodes: (a) the ECON slab formwork, (b) the ECON slab. Figure 3 depicts the ECON slab configured with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes and an isolation layer. The slab was divided into two panels by a 5 cm-thick polystyrene foam isolation layer (Figure 3(a)). The purpose of using the isolation layer was to block electrical current flow between the two adjacent panels. Each panel had two perforated galvanized steel angles (3.8 cm long x 3.8 cm wide x 0.3 cm thick) with 40 cm center-to-center distances. The construction procedure was the same as described earlier. © ASCE 3 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 (a) (b) Figure 3. Prototype ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes and an isolation layer: (a) the ECON slab formwork, (b) the ECON slab. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The ECON slabs were connected to an AC (60 V) power supply supplying an electric circuit to power the ECON slab electrodes and generate heat. The voltage was kept constant during the room temperature (21 oC) tests. Figure 4 describes surface temperature and current measurement procedures and results for the prototype ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes. The electrodes were connected in such a way that the current flows from positive (+) to negative (-) (Figure 4(a)). To attain a uniform temperature on the ECON slab with this electrode configuration, the two electrodes in the middle of the slabs must be connected to the negative terminal. An infrared thermometer was used to measure the temperatures at the ECON surfaces, measured and recorded at two points (LT1and RT1) on the ECON surface (Figure 4(a)). The selected two points for measurement were located between the two electrodes (LT1 is between 1L and 2L and RT1is between 3L and 4L) on either side of the slab. The surface temperature at both locations reached about 29 oC in 60 minutes (Figure 4(b)). RT1 showed slightly higher temperature readings than LT1 at each point of measurement. The current in the ECON layer was also measured and plotted separately for both adjacent panels. The current values for each electrode (L1, L2, L3, and L4) were recorded during the test (Figure 4(a)). Because the electric current flows from positive (+) to negative (-), the current values at 1L and 2L were similar, as were the current values at 3L and 4L (Figure 4(c)). However, the current values at 3L and 4L were higher than those at 1L and 2L. The higher current values at 3L and 4L could possibly have led to slightly higher temperature values at RT1. © ASCE 4 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 (a) 5 (b) (c) Figure 4. Surface temperature and electric current measurements of the prototype ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes: (a) locations of electric current and surface temperature measurements, (b) surface temperature measurements, (c) electric current measurements. Figure 5 describes surface temperature and electrical current measurements for the prototype ECON slab with four steel rebar electrodes. The electrode wiring circuit was the same as for the ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes (Figure 5(a)). The surface temperature in both locations reached about 27 o C after 60 minutes (Figure 5(b)) while the surface temperatures on LT2 at each measurement time were slightly higher than temperature values for RT2. Electrical current measurements were also taken at each electrode: 1S, 2S, 3S and 4S (Figure 5(a)). Figure 5(c) is a current-versus-time plot obtained during the electric heating test. Since the current flows from positive (+) to negative (-), the current readings at of 1S and 2S were very similar and the current readings of 3S and 4S were close to one another. The current values at 1S and 2S were higher than those at 3S and 4S; this is in agreement with the higher surface temperature readings at LT2. © ASCE Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 (a) 6 (b) (c) Figure 5. Surface temperature and electric current measurements of the prototype ECON slab with four steel rebar: (a) locations of electric current and surface temperature measurements, (b) surface temperature measurements, and (c) electric current measurements. Figure 6 shows the locations and results of surface temperature and electrical current measurements for the prototype ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes and an isolation layer. This slab was tested under the same conditions (Figure 6 (a)) as the ECON slabs previously described. The surface temperatures in both locations were close to one another and reached about 29oC after 60 minutes (Figure 6(b)). As seen in Figure 6(c), the current values in both adjacent panels were close to one another. This can be attributed to the role of the isolation layer in preventing the current interference between the panels. © ASCE Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 (a) 7 (b) (c) Figure 6. Surface temperature and electric current measurements of the prototype ECON slab with four perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes and an isolation layer: (a) locations of electric current and surface temperature measurements, (b) surface temperature measurements, (c) electric current measurements. The temperature readings on the ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes without an isolation layer were very close to those obtained when an isolation layer separated the two adjacent ECON panels, so the use of an isolation layer to enhance the heating performance of the ECON HPS is not considered necessary. Using steel rebar electrodes instead of perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes, lower surface temperatures were achieved; this most likely is because rebar electrodes provide smaller exposed surface areas than steel angle electrodes. However, steel rebar to add better structural integrity could be an alternative to the perforated galvanized steel angle for thinner ECON slabs. CONCLUSIONS The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of using different electrode types and configurations on resistive heating performance ECON HPS. Three prototype ECON slabs with two different electrode types and two different electrode configurations were designed, constructed, and tested: (1) a prototype ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle materials as electrodes, (2) a prototype ECON slab with steel rebar materials, and (3) a prototype ECON slabs with perforated galvanized steel angle materials and an isolation layer. The heating performances of © ASCE Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 the slabs were evaluated by measuring surface temperature and electrical current under fixed experimental conditions, i.e. constant voltage, fixed room temperature, and identical slab geometry. The major conclusions drawn from this study can be summarized as follows: Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. • • • An ECON slab with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes provided adequate resistive heating performance without using an isolation layer, so difficulties associated with isolation layer placement and cost of isolation layer construction can be avoided in constructing a large-scale ECON slab. While the perforated galvanized steel angle and steel rebar electrodes exhibited a sufficient bond between electrodes and the ECON, better heating performance was achieved with perforated galvanized steel angle electrodes. This can be attributed to the larger exposed contact surface areas between the perforated galvanized steel angle and the ECON. The steel rebar could be a suitable alternative to the perforated galvanized steel angle as an electrode for thinner ECON slab (such as concrete overlay) to add better structural integrity. The electrical current magnitude can be used as a measure to evaluate the dispersion of conductive materials inside the ECON layer. Higher current within the ECON layer corresponds to higher electrical conductivity of the ECON material. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This paper was produced from a study conducted at Iowa State University under the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Air Transportation Center of Excellence Cooperative Agreement 12-C-GA-ISU for the Partnership to Enhance General Aviation Safety, Accessibility and Sustainability (PEGASAS). The authors would like to thank the current project Technical Monitor, Mr. Benjamin J. Mahaffay, and the former project Technical Monitors, Mr. Jeffrey S. Gagnon (interim), Dr. Charles A. Ishee, and Mr. Donald Barbagallo for their invaluable guidance on this study. The authors would also like to thank PEGASAS Industry Advisory Board members. Although the FAA has sponsored this project, it neither endorses nor rejects the findings of this research. The presentation of this information is in the interest of invoking comments by the technical community on the results and conclusions of the research. REFERENCES Abdualla, H., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., Gopalakrishnan, K., Taylor, P. C., and Turkan, Y. (2016). "System requirements for electrically conductive concrete heated pavements." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2569, 70-79. Arabzadeh, A., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., Gopalakrishnan, K., and Sassani, A. (2016a). "Superhydrophobic coatings on asphalt concrete surfaces." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2551, 1017. © ASCE 8 Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Arabzadeh, A., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., Gopalakrishnan, K., and Sassani, A. (2016b). “Fabrication of polytetrafluoroethylene coated asphalt concrete biomimetic surfaces: a nanomaterials-based pavement winter maintenance approach.” In International Conference on Transportation and Development, ASCE, 5464, Houston, TX, June 26-29. Arabzadeh, A., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., Gopalakrishnan, K., Sassani, A., Sundararajan, S., and Taylor, P. C. (2017). “Superhydrophobic coatings on portland cement concrete surfaces.” Construction and Building Materials, 141, 393-401. Ceylan, H. (2015). FAA PEGASAS COE Project 1: Heated Airport Pavements. Presentation at FAA PEGASAS COE 3nd Annual Meeting, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, May 27-28. Ceylan, H., Gopalakrishnan, K., and Kim, S. (2014). “Heated transportation infrastructure systems: existing and emerging technologies.” Proc., 12th Int. Symp. on Concrete Roads, Prague, Czech Republic, September 23-26. Chen, W. and Ping, G. (2012). “Performance of electrically conductive concrete with layered stainless steel fibers.” Proceedings of Sustainable Construction Materials, ASCE, 164-172. Gopalakrishnan, K., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., Yang, S., and Abdualla, H. (2015). “Electrically conductive mortar characterization for self-heating airfield concrete pavement mix design.” International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology, 8(5), 315-324. Sassani, A., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., and Gopalakrishnan, K. (2015). “Optimization of electrically conductive concrete mix design for self-heating pavement systems.” Presented at 2015 Mid Continent Transportation Research Symposium, Ames, IA, August 19-20. Sassani, A., Ceylan, H., Kim, S., and Gopalakrishnan, K., Arabzadeh, A., and Taylor P. C. (2017). “Factorial study on electrically conductive concrete mix design for heated pavement systems.” Proceedings of Transportation Research Board 96th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 17-05347. Tian, X., and Hu, H. (2012). “Test and study on electrical property of conductive concrete.” Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 5, 83-87. Tuan, C. Y. (2004). “Electrical resistance heating of conductive concrete containing steel fibers and shavings.” Materials Journal, 101(1), 65-71. Wu, J., Liu, J., and Yang, F. (2014). “Study on three-phase composite conductive concrete for pavement deicing.” Proceedings of Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting, 14-2684. Xi, Y., and Patricia, J. O. (2000). “Effect of de-icing agents (magnesium chloride and sodium chloride) on corrosion of truck components.” Final Report for Report No. CDOT-DTD-414 R-2000-10, Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, CO. Zuofu, H., Li, Z., and Wang, J. (2007). “Electrical conductivity of the carbon fiber conductive concrete.” J. Wuhan Univ. Technol.-Mater. Sci. Ed., 22 (2), 346349. © ASCE 9 Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 Experimental Investigation of Energy Harvesting Prototypes for Asphalt Roadways Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Hossein Roshani1; Samer Dessouky2; and A. T. Papagiannakis3 1 Graduate Research Assistant, CEE Dept., Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249. 2 Associate Professor, CEE Dept., Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249. 3 Professor, CEE Dept., Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249. Abstract This paper presents preliminary results of the evaluation of several prototype systems for harvesting energy from the action of traffic on roadways. These systems utilize piezoelectric elements that respond to traffic-induced compressive stresses, and are referred to as HiSEC (Highway Sensing and Energy Conversion) modules. The evaluation of the HiSEC prototypes involves laboratory testing of their power output as a function of stress, finite element (FE) simulation of their mechanical behavior and economic analysis of the value of the power being generated. The results available to date suggest that this technology shows promise in powering equipment independently of the power grid. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been increasing interest in energy harvesting through transduction. Three technologies have been used for this purpose, namely electromagnetic, electrostatic and piezoelectric. Piezoelectric transduction appears to be the most promising, given its widest power density versus voltage envelop, as shown in Fig. 1. A number of recent studies explored the use of piezoelectric transduction for harvesting energy from roadways, e.g., Xiong (2014), Kim et al. (2015), Zhao et al. (2014). Work by Xiong (2014) at Virginia Tech produced a piezoelectric harvesting system consisting of multiple cylindrical piezoelectric elements that are compressed by the action of traffic tires (Fig. 2). Under a traffic volume of 4,000 vehicle per day (167 vehicles/hour), this system generated voltage ranging from 400 to 700V and electric currents ranging from 0.2 to 0.35 mA. The corresponding power output was obtained by multiplying voltage by current, yielding a power range between 0.08 and 2.1 Watts per system. Work by Kim et al. (2015) at Georgia Southern University involved laboratory testing using an Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Two piezoelectric materials were tested one manufactured by Noliac and the other by Kinetic. APA wheel loads at three levels were applied, namely 50, 100 and 200 lbs. The maximum resulting voltages for the Noliac were 5, 5, and 15 Volts, respectively, while for the Kinetic were 5, 10 and 20 Volts, respectively. Assuming a traffic level of 600 vehicles/hour at a speed of 45 mph, such a system could produce up to 2.67 mW of power. © ASCE 10 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 FIG 1. Power Density versus Voltage for various Energy Harvesting Technologies (CookChenault et al., 2008). FIG. 2. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System Developed By Xiong (2014). Zhao et al. (2014) at Tongji University studied power generation form several types of piezoelectric sensor configurations. These included multiple lead zirconate titanate (i.e., PZT) prismatic elements referred to as “piles” with circular, square or hexagonal cross sections, as well as commercially available cymbal-shaped and bridge-shaped elements (Fig. 3). They performed FE analysis to study the effect of the shape of the PZT piles in producing electric power output, concluding that the circular cross section piles were preferable. Power generators involving multiple piles were analyzed. Stress analysis combined with theoretical calculations established that generators with 8-16 piles each can be used to harvest significant amounts of electrical power under heavy traffic. © ASCE 11 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/04/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Airfield and Highway Pavements 2017 FIG. 3. Schematic of PZT Pile Generator (Zhao et al., 2014). A report was recently completed on behalf of the California Energy Commission (CEC) to independently evaluate the feasibility of piezoelectric technology in harvesting energy from roadways and establish if this technology warrants further study (Hill et al., 2013). It evaluated some of the pilot systems developed by Universities, as well as commercially available harvesting systems. Three commercially available systems were evaluated in terms of their vendor output claims, namely, Treevolt (www.treevolt.com), Genziko (www.genziko.com) and Innowattech (Edel-Ajulay 2010). The first two of these three vendors appear to continue development of this technology. The Treevolt harvesters, marketed in the USA under the POWERLeap name, consist of recycled butyl‐propelene membranes sandwiching sheets of harvesting devices are embedded under the top layer of asphalt concrete and are activated in compression. The vendor claims that 1.0 km length of roadway equipped with 6,000 Treevolt harvesters and carrying 600 vehicles per hour can generate approximately 720 kW of power. Genziko claims that under the same traffic level, their vibration-activated harvesters have the potential to generate a considerably higher 13,600 kW of power, an amount that was considered “optimistic” by the CEC report. Innowattech claims that their harvesters can generate 200 kW under similar traffic levels, assuming that harvesters are placed under both wheel paths. The CEC study observed that there are considerable differences in the energy output claims made by different vendors, especially with respect to the assumptions made for the number of sensors involved and the traffic level. It was recommended adopting a standardized way of reporting power or energy output by piezo unit surface area, referred to as power or energy density (i.e., W/unit area or Wh/unit area, respectively). In evaluating the cost effectiveness of these systems, the CEC report recommended using the “levelized” cost of energy (LCOE) produced by the various harvesting systems. The LCOE is defined as the average total life –cycle cost to construct, operate and maintain a power-generating system divided by its total energy output over its service life. This report concludes by recommending further field testing of this technology. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to further explore the application of piezoelectric technologies for harvesting energy from the action of traffic using the roadways. It provides a brief overview © ASCE 12
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