Tài liệu Tiếng anh cho sinh viên ngành cơ khí nông nghiệp - lê thị thanh chi, 87 trang

  • Số trang: 87 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 151 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
tranvantruong

Đã đăng 3224 tài liệu

Mô tả:

Tiếng Anh Cho Sinh Viên Ngành Cơ Khí Nông Nghiệp - Lê Thị Thanh Chi, 87 Trang
1 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HUE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 0o0 A COURSE OF ENGLISH FOR STUDENTS OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING  Course designer: LEÂ THÒ THANH CHI HUE – 12/2008 English for Specific Purposes 1 2 LÔØI MÔÛ ÑAÀU “A course of English for students of agricultural engineering” là giáo trình tiếng Anh chuyên ngành có thể dùng làm tài liệu giảng dạy hoặc tài liệu tham khảo cho sinh viên ngành cơ điện nông nghiệp, ngành kỹ thuật cơ khí nông nghiệp của trường Đại Học Nông Lâm và Đại Học Sư Phạm (ngành kỹ thuật). Giáo trình này được biên soạn trên cơ sở sinh viên đã học qua chương trình tiếng Anh cơ bản; có vốn kiến thức cơ bản về ngữ pháp tiếng Anh và kiến thức cơ bản về các chuyên ngành liên quan đến cơ điện; sinh viên có nhu cầu phát triển kỹ năng đọc, viết và dịch tiếng Anh chuyên ngành cơ điện nông nghiệp. Do đó mục đích của giáo trình là: Giúp sinh viên làm quen với văn phong tiếng Anh khoa học kỹ thuật. Rèn luyện kỹ năng đọc hiểu các văn bản khoa học. Cung cấp cho sinh viên các từ, thuật ngữ chuyên ngành. Luyện thực hành viết và dịch một số cấu trúc ngữ pháp thường gặp. Với đối tượng của giáo trình là sinh viên năm thứ 3 trường Đại Học Nông Lâm Huế và thời lượng dành cho môn học là 60 tiết (4 đơn vị học trình), giáo trình này gồm 10 units và một số bài đọc thêm. Các bài text được trích dẫn hoặc phỏng theo các tài liệu khoa học nhằm đảm bảo tính xã thực của văn bản. Các bài tập ngữ pháp được biên soạn theo ngữ pháp tiếng Anh cơ bản và kết hợp các kiến thức chuyên ngành cơ điện cơ bản mà sinh viên đã được học. Việc biên soạn giáo trình này chắc chắn không tránh khỏi những khiếm khuyết. Chúng tôi mong nhận được góp ý xây dựng của độc giả và người học để giáo trình ngày càng hoàn thiện hơn. Lê Thị Thanh Chi English for Specific Purposes 2 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Part I: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Unit 1: Engineering – What’s it all about ? ……………… …….4 Unit 2: Engineering Materials ……………………………. …….10 Unit 3: Mechanisms ……………………………………….. …….15 Unit 4: Forces in Engineering …………………………….. …….24 Unit 5: The Electric Motor ………………………………... …….31 Part II: The Agricultural Machinery Unit 6: The Agricultural Tractor ………………………... …….39 Unit 7: Tractor Engines …………………………………... …….50 Unit 8: The Combine Harvester (A) …………………….. …….59 Unit 9: The Combine Harvester (B) …………………….. …….69 Unit 10: Farm Management ………………………………. …….77 Further reading Portable Generator............................................................. Engine Classification ........................................................ Connecting Rods and Crankshaft ..................................... The reel ………………………………………………….. Water Pumping System …………………………………. Mechanization in Sugarcane Production – Development of seed cane planter ……………………… References English for Specific Purposes 3 4 PART I: ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING  UNIT 1: Engineering – What’s it all about ? A. Reading: 1. Read the following passage and find out how many branches of engineering are mentioned. Engineering is largely a practical activity. It is about putting ideas into action. Civil engineering is concerned with making bridges, roads, airports, etc. Mechanical engineering deals with the design and manufacture of tools and machines. Electrical engineering is about the generation and distribution of electricity and its many applications. Electronic engineering is concerned with developing components and equipment for communications, computing, and so on. Mechanical engineering includes marine, automobile, aeronautical, heating and ventilating, and others. Electrical engineering includes electricity generating, electrical installation, lighting, etc. Mining and medical engineering belong partly to mechanical and partly to electrical. 2. Complete the blanks in this diagram using information from the text. Engineering Civil 1……… 3……. Automobile Aeronautical Electrical 4…… Electricity 5……… 7. ………. Electrical installation 2………. 6. ……... Medical 3. Study these special words. They show some of the areas in which engineers work. Can you identify them? What kinds of engineers are concerned with these areas – electrical, mechanical or both? Beer brewery – planes - super highway – blocks of building – X ray machine Now read the following texts to check your answer. Match each text to one of the word or phrase above. Transport: cars, trains, ships and planes are all products of mechanical engineering. Mechanical engineers are also involved in support services such as roads, rail track, harbours and bridges. Food processing: Mechanical engineers design, develop and make the machines and the processing equipment for harvesting, preparing and preserving the foods and drinks that fill English for Specific Purposes 4 5 the supermarket. Medical engineering: Body scanners, X-ray machines, life-support systems, and other high-tech equipment result from mechanical and electrical engineers combining with medical experts to convert ideas into life-saving and preserving products. Building services: Electrical engineers provide all the services we need in our homes and places of work, including lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, refrigeration, and lifts. Energy and power: Electrical engineers are concerned with the production and distribution of electricity to homes, offices, industry, hospitals, colleges and schools, and the installation and maintenance of the equipment involved in these processes. (Source: Adapted from Turning Ideas into Action, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and Engineering a career, Institution of Electronics and Electrical Incorporated Engineers) 4. When you read, it is important to have a clear purpose. Here are some of the purposes you may have for reading the texts. Match one purpose to each kind of text. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. B finding a job pricing a component finding out how to do something choosing the best chapter to read looking for specific information on a topic learning about electrical equipment choosing a course looking for a specification a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. table index contents book title manual price list of components college brochure job advertisement 5. Fill in the gaps in this text with the words given below. Each gap represents one word. Compare your answer with your partner. In the United Kingdom you can …(1)… engineering at a college of further education or a university. Most college courses …(2)… from one to two years. University undergraduate course …(3)… engineering last from three to four years. A college will take …(4)… after four years of secondary school education. Most students study full-time, …(5)… day-release courses are available for people who …(6)… in local engineering companies. Students will be given a certificate …(7)… a diploma at the …(8)… of their course. Most university students will have completed six …(9)… of secondary school. Others will have taken a diploma course at college. …(10)… give degrees. A Bachelor‟s degree …(11)… three to four years. A Master‟s …(12)… requires a further year. Students / degree / last / years / in / work / end / study / universities / or / but (although) / takes B. Language study: deals with / is concerned with What is the link between column A and column B ? English for Specific Purposes 5 6 A B mechanical machines electrical electricity Column A lists a branch of engineering or a type of engineer. Column B lists things they are concerned with. We can show the link between them in a number of ways: 1. Mechanical engineering deals with machines. 2. Mechanical engineers deal with machines. 3. Mechanical engineering is concerned with machines. 4. Mechanical engineers are concerned with machines. 5. Machines are the concern of mechanical engineers. Match each item in column A with an appropriate item from column B and link the two in a sentence. A B 1. marine a. air-conditioning 2. aeronautical b. roads and bridges 3. heating and ventilating c. body scanners 4. electricity generating d. cables and switch-gear 5. automobile e. communication and equipment 6. civil f. ships 7. electronic g. planes 8. electrical installation h. cars and trucks 9. medical i. power stations C. Word study: Word stress Words are divided into syllables. For example: engine en.gine engineer en.gin.eer engineering en.gin.eer.ing Each syllable is pronounced separately, but normally only one syllable is stressed. That means it is said more slowly and clearly than the other syllables. We say „engine but engin‟eer. A good dictionary will show the stress syllables. Look at these words. Try to mark the stressed syllable. 1. machinery 2. mechanical 3. machine 4. install 5. installation 6. electricity 7. electrical 8. electronic 9. aeronautical 10. ventilation English for Specific Purposes 6 7 New words and expressions: - Engineering (n.): ngành kỹ thuật - civil engineering: kỹ thuật dân dụng - mechanical engineering: kỹ thuật cơ khí - deal with: liên quan đến - putting ideas into action: chuyển ý tưởng thành hành động - manufacture (v.): sản xuất - electricity generation: sự phát điện - distribution of electricity: sự phân phối điện năng - marine(n. & adj.): (thuộc về) hàng hải - aeronautical(adj.): (thuộc) ngành hàng không - heating and ventilating: sưởi và thông gió - food processing chế biến thực phẩm - harvesting: thu hoạch - preserving: bảo quản - maintenance (n.): bảo dưỡng, bảo trì (máy móc) - power station: trạm điện năng --- 0o0 --- LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Using adverb clauses to show time relationships: after (a)After she graduates, she will get a job. (b) After she (had) graduated, she got a job before (c) I will leave before he comes. A present tense, not a future tense is used in an adverb clause of time. Notice example (b) and (d). (d) I (had) left before he came. when (e) When I arrived, he was talking on the phone. When = at that time (f) When I got there, he had already left. (notice the different time relationship expressed by the tenses) (g) When it began to rain, I stood under a tree. (h) When I was in Chicago, I visited the museum. (i) When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him. While (j) While I was walking home, it began to rain. As (k) As I was walking home, it began to rain. By the time (l) By the time he arrived, we had already left. (m) By the time he comes, we will already have left. English for Specific Purposes 7 While, as = during that time By the time = one event is completed before another event. (notice the use of the 8 past perfect and future perfect in the main clause) Since (n) I haven‟t seen him since he left this morning. Since = from that time to the present. (Notice the present perfect is used in the main clause) Until (o) We stayed there until we finished our work. till (p) We stayed there till we finished our work. Until, till = to that time and then no longer (till is used primarily in speaking rather than writing) As soon as (q) As soon as it stops raining, we will leave. Once (r) Once it stops raining, we will leave. As long as (s) I will never speak to him again as long as I live. So long as (t) I will never speak to him again so long as I live As soon as, so long as = during all that time, from beginning to end. Whenever (u) Whenever I see her, I say hello. Whenever = every time Every time (v) Every time I see her, I say hello. The first time The last time (w) The first time I went to New York, I went to an opera. The next time (x) I saw two plays the last time I went to New York. (y) The next time I go to New York, I‟m going to see a ballet. As soon as, once = when one event happens, another event happens soon afterwards. Adverb clauses can be introduced by the following: first The second time third last next PRACTICE A. Complete the following. Pay attention to verb tenses. 1. Last night I went to bed after I _________ my homework. 2. Tonight I will go to bed after I ______________ my homework. 3. Ever since I was a child, I _________ afraid of dogs. 4. Jane‟s contact lens popped out while she basketball. 5. Be sure to reread your composition for errors before you __________ it in to the teacher tomorrow. 6. By the time I left my apartment this morning, the mail carrier _____ the mail. 7. I have known Jim Bates since he ___________ ten years old. 8. A black cat ran across the road as I ____________ my car to work this morning. 9. By the time I leave this city, I ___________ here for four months. 10. Whenever Mark __________ angry, his nose gets red. 11. I __________ to the beach whenever the weather was fine, but now I don‟t have time to do that because I have to study. 12. We will have a big party when _____________. English for Specific Purposes 8 9 13. The next time I _________ to Hawaii, I‟m going to visit Mauna Loa, the world largest volcano. 14. I had fried chicken the last time I ___________ at that restaurant. B. Complete the following sentences. Punctuate carefully. Pay attention to verb tense usage. 1. Just as I was falling asleep last night ............................................................ 2. I‟ll help you with your homework as soon as I ............................................. 3. .................................................... as long as I live. 4. Just before I ................................................................ 5. The last time I ............................................................. 6. I had already ................................. when ...................... 7. Whenever .................................................................... 8. I will be here until I ...................................................... --- o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 9 10 UNIT 2: ENGINEERING MATERIALS A. Reading: Scanning tables In engineering, it is important to practice reading tables, charts, diagrams, and graphs because so much information is represented in these ways. Scanning is the best strategy for finding information in a table. With scanning, you know before you read what sort of information you are searching for. To scan a table, you move your eyes up and down the columns until you find the word or words you want. To scan quickly, you must learn to ignore any information which will not help you with your task. 1. Scan the table which follows to find a material which is: a. soft b. ductile c. malleable d. tough e. scratch-resistant f. conductive and malleable g. durable and hard h. stiff and brittle i. ductile and corrosion-resistant j. heat-resistant and chemical-resistant Materials Metal Aluminium Copper Properties Uses Light, soft, ductile, highly Aircraft, engine components, conductive, corrosion-resistant foil, cooking utensils. Very malleable, tough & ductile, Electric wiring, PCBs, tubing highly conductive, corrosionresistant. Brass (65% copper, Very corrosion-resistant. Casts well, Valves, taps, castings, ship 35% zinc) easily machined. Can be work fittings, electrical contacts hardened. Good conductor. Mild steel (iron High strength, ductile, tough, fairly with 0.15% to 0.3% malleable, cannot be hardened and carbon) tempered, low cost, poor corrosion General purpose resistance High carbon steel Hardest of the carbon steels but less Cutting tools such as drills, (iron with 0.7% to ductile and malleable. Can be files, saws 1.4% carbon) hardened and tempered. Thermoplastics ABS High impact strength & toughness, Safety helmets, car scratch-resistant, light & durable components, telephones, kitchenware English for Specific Purposes 10 11 Materials Properties Uses Acrylic Stiff, hard, very durable, clear, can Aircraft canopies, baths, be polished easily, can be formed double glazing easily Nylon Hard, tough, wear-resistant, self- Bearings, gears, castings lubricating for power tools Thermosetting plastics Epoxy resin Polyester resin Urea formaldehyde High strength when reinforced, Adhesive, encapsulation of good chemical & wear resistance electronic components Stiff, hard, brittle. Good chemical and heat resistance Moulding, boat and car bodies Stiff, hard, strong, brittle, heatresistant, and a good electrical Electrical fitting, adhesives insulator 2. Scan the table to find: a. A metal used to make aircraft. b. Plastics used for adhesives c. Steel which can be hardened d. An alloy suitable for castings e. A plastic with very low friction f. A material suitable for safety helmets g. A metal suitable for a salt-water environment h. A metal for general construction use but which should be protected from corrosion i. A plastic for car bodies j. The metal used for the conductors in printed circuit boards B. Language study: 1. Making definitions Study these facts from the table about aluminium: 1. Aluminium is a light metal. 2. Aluminium is used to make aircraft. We can link these facts to make a definition of aluminium: 1+2 Aluminium is a light metal which is used to make aircraft. We can use the relative pronoun which in making definition of something, and the which-clause is known as the adjective clause in these cases. Use the table above to make definitions of each of the materials in column A. Choose the correct information in column B and C to describe the materials in column A. English for Specific Purposes 11 12 A B 1. an alloy C a. allows heat or current to flow easily 2. a thermoplastic b. remains rigid at high temperatures 3. mild steel a metal c. does not allow heat or current to flow easily 4. a conductor a material d. contains iron & 0.7% to 1.4% carbon 5. an insulator an alloy e. becomes plastic when heated 6. high carbon steel f. contains iron & 0.15% to 0.3% carbon 7. brass g. formed by mixing other metals or elements 8. a thermosetting plastic h. consists of copper and zinc 2. Adding information to a text Study this sentence about aluminium Aluminium is used to make aircraft, engine components, and many items for the kitchen. We can add extra information to the sentence like this: Aluminium, which is light, soft, and ductile, is used to make aircraft, engine components – for example, cylinder heads – and many items for the kitchen, such as pots. Note that the extra information is marked with commas or dashes: , which …, - for example, … , such as …, Add this extra information to the following text about plastics. 1. Plastics can be moulded into plates, car components, and medical aids. 2. Thermoplastics soften when heated again and again. 3. Thermosetting plastics set hard and do not alter if heated again. 4. ABS is used for safety helmets. 5. Nylon is self-lubricating. 6. Nylon is used for motorized drives in cameras. 7. Acrylic is a clear thermoplastic. 8. Acrylic is used for aircraft canopies and double glazing. 9. Polyester resin is used for boat and car bodies. 10. Polyester resin is hard and has good chemical and heat resistance. Plastics are synthetic materials. They can be softened and moulded into useful articles. They have many applications in engineering. There are two types of plastics: thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. ABS is a thermoplastic which is tough and durable. Because it has high impact strength, English for Specific Purposes 12 13 it has application where sudden loads may occur. Nylons is a hard, tough thermoplastic. It is used where silent, low-friction operation is required. Acrylic can be formed in several ways. It is hard, durable, and has many uses. Polyester resin is a thermosetting plastic used for castings. It has a number of useful properties. C. Word study: Properties of materials Study these examples of adjective and noun pairs for describing the properties of materials. Adjective Noun Flexible flexibility Light lightness Strong strength Now fill in the gaps in this table with the missing adjectives and nouns Adjective ………. Noun wind resistance elastic ……… ……... plasticity tough ………. soft ……… rigid ………. wear-resistant ……… ……… brittleness hard ………. New words and expressions: - ductile (adj.): dễ kéo sợi, dễ uốn - malleable (adj.): dễ dát mỏng - scratch-resistant (adj.): chống trầy xướt - conductive (adj.): có tính dẫn điện - durable (adj.): bền - stiff and brittle (adj.): cứng và giòn, dễ gãy - corrosion-resistant (adj.): chống ăn mòn (kim loại) - friction (n.): lực ma sát - salt-water environment: môi trường nước mặn - circuit board: bảng điện - alloy (n.): hợp kim English for Specific Purposes 13 14 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS Using English to define Aristotle suggested that a good definition should include the general classification of a term plus the specific characteristics that differentiate the term from other members of its class. For example, a definition of a giraffe should include a classification, such as, A giraffe is an animal, and specific characteristics, such as, A giraffe is tall, African animal with a very long neck. Definition formula: Term = Class + characteristics Example: Chemical energy is potential energy that is stored in gasoline, food, and oil. (Frequently, the characteristics appear as a relative clause beginning with which, that, who, or where) Chemical energy = potential energy + that is stored in gasoline, food and oil. (term) (class) (characteristics) Relative clauses: A clause is a part of a sentence that contains a noun and a verb. A relative clause is one that begins with which, that, where, or who. Which and that are most commonly used in science definitions; who is used when referring to people. Science definitions often include relative clauses containing the characteristics that distinguish an item from others in the class. Formulating definitions: Using the information given in each series, write a definition. Use the sentence patterns above to guide you. 1. an amoeba / one-celled animal / constantly change its shape. An amoeba is a one-celled animal that constantly changes its shape. 2. an antibiotic / drug / cures bacterial diseases. 3. lung / organ / breathing. 4. acoustics / science / sound. 5. photosynthesis / process / plants manufacture food. 6. catalyst / substance / speeds up but is not changed by a chemical reaction. 7. calorie / unit / measures heat. 8. cyclotron / apparatus / bombards the nuclei of atoms. Creating definitions: A good way to see if the definition is complete is to reverse it. For example, if we reverse an elephant is an animal, we get an animal is an elephant, and it is obvious that the definition for each of the following words and test each one by reversing it. If you need help, use a dictionary. 1. a camera 2. a bridge 3. an x-ray 4. a butterfly 5. geology 6. a diamond 7. an echo 8. a virus 9. caffeine 10. an aquarium --- o0o -- English for Specific Purposes 14 15 UNIT 3: MECHANISMS A. Reading: Scanning a text Scanning is the best strategy for searching for specific information in a text. Move your eyes up and down the text until you find the word or words you want. Try to ignore any information which will not help you with your task. 1. mentioned 1. cam Scan the text opposite quickly to find out which of these mechanisms are 2. tap 3. pendulum 4. foot pump 5. Escalator Mechanisms are an important part of everyday life. They allow us to do simple things like switch on lights, turn taps, and open doors. They also make it possible to use escalators and lifts, travel in cars and fly from continent to continent. Mechanisms play a vital role in industry. While many industrial processes have electronic control systems, it is still mechanisms that deliver the power to do the work. They provide the forces to press steel sheets into car body panels, to lift large components from place to place, to force plastic through dies to make pipes. All mechanisms involve some kind of motion. The four basic kinds of motion are: Rotary: Wheels, gears, and rollers involve rotary movement. Oscillating: The pendulum of a clock oscillates – it swings backwards and forwards. Linear: The linear movement of a paper trimmer is used to cut the edge of the paper. Reciprocating: The piston in a combustion engine reciprocates. Many mechanisms involve changing one kind of motion into another type. For example, the reciprocating motion of a piston is changed into a rotary motion by the crankshaft, while a cam converts the rotary motion of the engine into the reciprocating motion to operate the valves. 2. Now read the text to find the answer to these questions. 1. What does a cam do? 2. What does oscillating mean? 3. How are plastic pipes formed? 4. What simple mechanisms in the home are mentioned directly or indirectly? 5. What is the function of the crankshaft? 6. Give an example of a device which can produce a linear movement? 7. How are car body panels formed? 8. What do mechanisms provide in industry? B. Language study: 1. Ways of linking ideas When we write, we may have to describe, explain, argue, persuade, complain, etc. in all these forms of writing, we use ideas. To make our writing effective, we have to make sure our readers can follow our ideas. One way of helping our readers is to make the links between the English for Specific Purposes 15 16 ideas in our writing. What are the links between these pairs of ideas ? What words can we use to mark the links ? 1. Mechanisms are important to us. 2. They allow us to travel. 3. Mechanisms deliver the power to do work. 4. They play a vital role in industry. 5. Friction is sometimes a help. 6. It is often a hindrance. Sentence 2 is a reason for sentence 1. We can link 1 and 2 like this: Mechanisms are important to us because/since/as they allow us to travel. Sentence 4 is a result of sentence 3. We can link 3 and 4 like this: Mechanisms deliver the power to do work so they play a vital role in industry. Mechanisms deliver the power to do work; therefore they play a vital role in industry. Sentence 6 contrasts with sentence 5. We can link 5 and 6 like this: Friction is sometimes a help but it is often a hindrance. Show the links between these sets of ideas using appropriate linking words. 1. Copper is highly conductive. It is used for electric wiring. 2. Weight is measured in newtons. Mass is measured in kilogram. 3. Nylon is used for bearings. It is self-lubricating. 4. ABS has high impact strength. It is used for safety helmets. 5. The foot pump is the class 2 lever. The load is between the effort and the fulcrum. 6. Friction is essential in brakes. Friction is a nuisance in an engine. 7. The upper surface of a beam is in compression. The lower surface is in tension. 8. Concrete beams have steel rods near the lower surface. Concrete is weak in tension. 2. Dealing with technical terms One of the difficult things about the English of engineering is that there are many technical terms to learn. Newer terms may be the same, or almost the same, in your own language. But many terms will be quite different and you may not always remember them. When this happens, you will have to use whatever English you know to make your meaning clear. The technical terms in column A are similar in meaning to the more general English in column B. Match them. A B 1. oscillates a. changes 2. rotates b. large, thin, flat pieces 3. reciprocates c. moving stairs 4. has a linear motion d. goes round and round 5. converts e. movement 6. motion f. goes in a line 7. escalator g. swings backwards and forwards 8. sheets h. goes up and down English for Specific Purposes 16 17 C. Word study: Noun and Noun compounds We can use adjectives to describe an object in greater detail. For example: light electric light a motor an electric motor steel stainless steel gears helical gear We can also use nouns. For example: light laser light a motor an air motor steel carbon steel gears titanium gears Many relationships are possible in noun compounds. For example: an air motor a motor which uses air carbon steel steel which contains carbon titanium gears gears made of titanium 1. Put each of these examples in the correct column. 1. carbon blocks 2. a power tool 3. aluminium alloy 4. a ball bearing 5. carbon fibre 6. a concrete beam 7. a gas burner 8. a diesel boat 9. roller bearings 10. a spring balance 11. a circuit board 12. a plastic tube 13. a plastic pipe 14. steel sheets 15. magnesium alloy Uses …………… …………... …………... …………... …………... …………... …………... …………... is made of ………………. ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… ……………… contains ……………….. ……………….. ……………….. ……………….. ……………….. ……………….. ……………….. ……………….. 2. What new relationships can you find in the example below? Rewrite each compound to show the relationship. For example: a foot pump a pump which is operated by foot a ribbon cable a cable which is like a ribbon English for Specific Purposes 17 18 a gear lever 1. chain wheel a lever for operating gears 6. College lecturer 2. disc wheel 7. Toe-clip 3. foot brake 8. Boiler thermostat 4. a hand throttle 9. Safety helmet 5. strain gauge 10. Aircraft engineer New words and expressions: - pendulum (n.): con lắc - escalator (n.): cầu thang cuốn - tap (n.): vòi nước - cam (camshaft) (n.): trục cam - make it possible: làm cho có thể - continent (n.): châu lục - play a vital role: đóng/giữ một vai trò quan trọng - industrial processes: qui trình công nghiệp - electronic control system: hệ thống điều khiển bằng điện tử - oscillating (n.): (chuyển động) dao động - linear (n.): (chuyển động) thẳng - reciprocating: (chuyển động) tới lui - rotary motion: chuyển động quay - steel sheet: tấm thép - fulcrum (n.): điểm tựa - concrete beam: dầm làm bằng bê-tông - stainless steel: thép không gỉ - a spring balance: cân lò xo - swing backwards and forwards: đung đưa lui tới - hindrance (n.): trở lực - self-lubricating: tự bôi trơn --- o0o --- English for Specific Purposes 18 19 LANGUAGE IN FOCUS A. Adjectives and adverbs Look at these examples: - Our vacation was too short – the time passed very quickly. - The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident. Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many adverbs are made from an adjective + -ly: Adjective: quick serious careful quiet Adverb: quickly seriously carefully heavy quietly bad heavily badly Not all words ending in –ly are adverbs. Some adjectives end in –ly too, for example: friendly lively elderly lonely silly lovely B. Adjective or adverb ? * Adjectives (quickly/careful, etc.) tell us * Adverbs (quickly/carefully, etc.) tell us about a about a noun. We use adjectives before nouns verb. An adverb tells us how somebody does and after some verbs, especially be: something or how something happens: - Tom is a careful driver. (not a carefully driver) - Tom drove carefully along the narrow road. (not drove careful) - We didn‟t go out because of the heavy rain. - We didn‟t go out because it was raining heavily (not raining heavy) - Please be quiet. - Please speak quietly. (not speak quiet) - I was disappointed that my test results were so bad. - I was disappointed that I did so badly on the test. (not did so bad) * We also use adjectives after the verbs look/feel/sound/taste/smell/seem, etc. - Why don‟t you ever take me seriously? - She speaks English perfectly. - Why do you always look so serious? She speak perfect English. Compare these sentences with look: Tom looked sad when I saw him. (= he seemed sad; his expression was sad) Tom looked at me sadly. (= he looked at me in a sad way) C. Comparison Look at these examples: - You should drive. It‟s cheaper. - Should I drive or take a train ? - Don‟t take the train. It‟s more expensive. Cheaper and more expensive are comparative forms. After comparatives you can use than: It‟s cheaper to drive than to take a train. Taking the train is more expensive than driving. English for Specific Purposes 19 20 The comparative form is –er or more ... We use –er for short words (one syllable): We use more ... for longer words (two syllables or more): more serious, more often, more expensive We also use –er for two syllable words that We use more... for adverbs that end in –ly: more slowly, more seriously, more quietly, end in –y (-y => -ier) more carefully lucky – luckier, early – earlier, easy – easier, pretty – prettier - You‟re more patient than me. cheap –cheaper, fast – faster, large – larger - you‟re older than me. - The exam was easy – easier than we expected. - Can you walk a little faster ? - I‟d like to have a bigger car. - Last night I went to bed earlier than usual. - The exam was difficult – more difficult than we expected. - Can you walk a little more slowly ? - I‟d like to have a more reliable car. - I don‟t play tennis much these days. I used to play more often. * You can use –er or more ... with some two-syllable adjectives, especially: quiet clever narrow shallow simple Example: It‟s too noisy here. Can we go somewhere quieter / more quiet? The adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative forms: Good/well => betterbad/badly => worse far => farther/further Comparison with as ... as ... You can use as ... as... (but not so ... as ...) in positive sentences and questions: Example: I‟m sorry I‟m late. I got here as fast as I could. There‟s plenty of food. You can have as much as you want. Can you send me the money as soon as possible, please ? Tom isn‟t as old as he look. (= Tom is older than he is.) It‟s not warm, but it isn‟t so cold as yesterday. Less ... (than) is similar to not as ... (as): I spent less money than you. ( = I didn‟t spend as much money as you.) The shopping mall was less crowded than usual. (= It wasn‟t as crowded as usual.) You can also use twice as ... as..., three time as ...as..., etc. Gas is twice expensive as it was a few years ago. Their house is about three times as big as ours. We say the same as (not the same like): Ann‟s salary is the same as mine. Or Ann makes the same salary as me. Tom is the same age as Brian. English for Specific Purposes 20
- Xem thêm -