Tài liệu Module 4 cloud computing saas 2s

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8/25/2014 Module 4: Cloud Computing & SaaS Overview • • • • • • • Whatt iis cloud Wh l d computing? ti ? Business advantages Architecture Issues and challenges SaaS Utility Computing Grid computing 1 8/25/2014 Definitions • “The rise of the cloud is more than just another platform shift that gets geeks excited. It will undoubtedly transform the IT industry, but it will also profoundly change the way people work and companies operate.” - The Economist, “Let it Rise,” 10/23/08 (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) • “A pool of highly scalable, abstracted infrastructure, capable of hosting end-customer applications, that is billed by consumption”(Staten 2008, Forrester Research) • “Cloud computing is the set of disciplines, technologies, and business models used to render IT capabilities as on-demand services” (www.burtongroup.com) • “Cloud Computing is the sum of SaaS and Utility Computing” (Armbrustet al. 2009) Definitions (con) • “It’s one of the foundations of the next generation of computing. . .. It’s a world where the network is the platform for all computing, where everything we think of as a computer today is just a device that connects to the big computer we’re building. Cloud computing is a great way to think about how we’ll deliver computing services in the future.” —Tim O’Reilly, CEO, O’Reilly Media (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) • “A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of interconnected and virtualised computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources based on service-level agreements established through negotiation between the service provider and consumers” (Buyyaet al. 2008) • “Clouds are clearly next-generation data centerswith nodes “virtualized” through hypervisor technologies such as VMs, dynamically “provisioned” on demand as a personalized resource collection to meet a specific service-level agreement, which is established through a “negotiation” and accessible as a composable service via “Web 2.0” technologies»(Buyyaet al. 2008) 2 8/25/2014 What is Cloud Computing? • New computing paradigms have been proposed and adopted, with the emergence of technological advances d such h as cluster l t computing, ti G Grid id computing, ti P2P computing, service computing, market-oriented computing, and most recently Cloud computing(Buyyaet al. 2008) • “Clouds provide on demand resources or services over the Internet, usually at the scale and with the reliability of a data center” (Grossman 2008) • You Y use what h t you need d and d you pay ffor what h t you use e.g. Amazon S3 and Simple DB and Google App Engine all charge based on storage, bandwidth, and CPU time services run on shared infrastructure Cloud Computing “Cloud computing gives an edge to enterprises as they can add capabilities and increase capacities on the fly without having to invest in infrastructure, training or licenses. One of the most important features of cloud computing is automated management and reallocation of resources. This means that a user can work on a platform without worrying about adaptability, scalability and elasticity.” Kaustubh Dhavse Deputy Director of ICT practice at Frost & Sullivan 3 8/25/2014 Cloud Computing –3.19 min. Youtube Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ae_DKNwK_ms What is driving businesses to cloud-scale? 4 8/25/2014 Drivers Ranked Number 1 Ranked in Top 3 Cost saving 34% 65% Uptime/High availability 17% 46% Performance 12% 43% Consumption-based pricing 12% 33% Scalabilityy 7% 40% Flexibility 6% 41% Rapid deployment 5% 24% (Cloud Computing Trends Report 2009) Why Cloud Computing? • Cloud computing is more than “pay by drink” compute platforms – it is a convergence of two major interdependent IT trends (Sun Cloud Computing 2009): – IT Efficiency - Minimise costs though virtualisation, improve infrastructure resource deployment and utilisation – Business Agility - Maximise returns using IT as a competitive weapon through rapid time to market, integrated application stacks, instant machine image deployment, and petascale parallel programming • Example: The New York Times needed to convert 11 million articles and images in its archive (from 1851 to 1980) to PDF. Their Internal IT dept. dept said it would take them seven weeks weeks. In the meantime meantime, one developer using 100 Amazon EC2 simple Web service interface instances running Hadoop (an open-source implementation similar to MapReduce) completed the job in 24 hours for less than $300! (open.blogs.nytimes.com, “Self-service, Pro-rated Super Computing Fun!”) (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) 5 8/25/2014 Business Advantages • Cloud computing is a new and promising paradigm delivering IT services as computing utilities • Delivers higher efficiency, massive scalability, and faster, easier software development • It is i about b t new programming i models, d l new IT infrastructure, enabling of new business models Advantages • Use the cloud: best option for start-ups, research projects, Web 2.0 developers, or niche players who want a simple, low-cost way to load and go go.” “load • Leverage the cloud: – Development and testing: the easiest cloud use case for enterprises – Functional offloading: use the cloud for specific workloads – Augmentation: a new option for handling peak load or anticipated spikes in demand for services – Experimenting: software evaluation can be performed in the cloud, before licenses or support need to be purchased • Build the cloud: build private clouds to take advantage of the economics i off resource pools l and d standardize t d di th their i d development l t and d deployment processes • Be the cloud: includes both cloud computing service providers and cloud aggregators – companies that offer multiple types of cloud services (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) 6 8/25/2014 When to apply cloud computing? • Moving internal services to pay-as-you-go infrastructure • Quick provisioning and de-provisioning of users and resources • Mobility advantages accessing your application or data anytime, anywhere • Reducing specialised IT administration expertise through cloud infrastructure • Improved economics due to shared infrastructure • Lightweight entry/exit service acquisition • The business, security, and privacy concerns of cloudhosted identities and data Examples of Use (Staten 2008) 7 8/25/2014 Major Cloud Builders (Staten 2008) Why IT leaders will embrace cloud computing • Separation of data from apps: front end applications will be delivered in the Web browser while the backend will be powered by highly-scalable highly scalable databases • Front-end and backend databases: will be able to exist in separate locations much more easily and effectively • Offline access for online apps: Web applications develop an offline component in addition to the standard online component • Ubiquitous mobile Internet access: making Internet access virtually ubiquitous -or at least available anywhere you can connectt to t a cellll tower t • Moving CAPEX to OPEX: allows a company to move much of its infrastructure costs from being capital expenditure (CAPEX) to being operating expenditure (OPEX) (Hiner2009) 8 8/25/2014 Maturity Model • Stages of evolution for an enterprise data center t trying t i to t achieve hi cloud l d Ni NirvanaJames Urquhart Consolidation  Abstraction  Automation  Utility  Market (Urquhart 2008 ‘A maturity model for cloud computing’, http://news.cnet.com/8301‐19413_3‐10122295‐240.html) Steps in Maturity Model • Consolidation - reduce redundancy and wasted space and equipment by measured planning of both architecture (including facilities allocation and design) and process process. • Abstraction - occurs when data centers decouple the workloads and payloads of their data center infrastructure from the physical infrastructure itself, and manage to the abstraction instead of the infrastructure. • Automation - comes into play when data centers systematically remove manual labor requirements for run time operation of the data center. • Utility Utilit - is i th the stage t att which hi h d data t centers t iintroduce t d th the concepts of self-service and metering. • Market - is achieved when utilities can be brought together over the Internet to create an open competitive marketplace for IT capabilities (an "Inter-cloud", so to speak) Urquhart 2008 9 8/25/2014 The Architectural Services Layers of Cloud Computing • Software as a Service (SaaS) – SaaS is at the highest layer and features a complete application offered as a service, ondemand via multitenancy - e.g. ondemand, e g Google’s Google s email services • Platform as a Service (PaaS) – The middle layer, or PaaS, is the encapsulation of a development environment abstraction and the packaging of a payload of services, e.g. Commercial examples include Google App Engine, which serves applications on Google’s infrastructure • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – IaaS is at the lowest layer and is a means of delivering basic storage and compute capabilities as standardized services over the network networkcommercial example is Amazon Web Services, whose EC2 and S3 services offer bare-bones compute and storage services (respectively) (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) Cloud computing services • Virtualization - Solves core challenges of data center managers – – – – – – • • • • Higher utilization rates Resource consolidation Lower power usage/costs Space savings Disaster recovery/business continuity Reduced operations costs Operating System Virtualization Platform Virtualization Network Virtualization Application Virtualization (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) 10 8/25/2014 Cloud computing services • Software Deployment – Software Packaging -The The software software-based based packaging of software components, data, server and storage pools, and other cloud resources makes efficient resource allocation, re-use, and management possible – Machine Images - Machine images contain userspecific applications, libraries, data, and associated configuration settings and are hosted within the cloud e.g. Paid AMIs(Amazon Machine Images) can be created by ISVs and stored on Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) (Sun Cloud Computing 2009) Major Obstacles-cloud computing providers must overcome Cloud Computing Trends Report 2009 11 8/25/2014 High-level market-oriented cloud architecture (Buyya et al. 2008) Market – oriented Cloud Architecture • • • Cloud providers will need to consider and meet different QoS parameters of each individual consumer as negotiated in specific SLAs. Market-oriented resource management is necessary to regulate the supply and demand of Cloud resources at market equilibrium, provide feedback in terms of economic incentives for both Cloud consumers and providers, and promote QoS-based resource allocation mechanisms that differentiate service requests based on their utility There are basically four main entities involved – – – – Users/Brokers: Users or brokers acting on-their behalf submit service requests from anywhere in the world to the Data Center and Cloud to be processed. SLA Resource Allocator: The SLA Resource-Allocator Resource Allocator acts as the interface between the Data enter /Cloud service provider and external users/brokers. VMs: Multiple VM scan be started and stopped dynamically on a single physical machine to meet accepted service requests, hence providing maximum flexibility to configure various partitions of resources on the same physical machine to different specific requirements of service requests Physical Machines: The Data Center comprises multiple computing servers that provide resources to meet service demands. (Buyya et al. 2008) 12 8/25/2014 Cloud services (Linthicum 2006) Characteristics • Cloud Computing, the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping the way IT hardware is designed and purchased. • Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require the large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or the human expense to operate it • Cloud Computing refers to both the applications delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the datacenters that provide those services-referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS). • The data center hardware and software is what we will call a Cloud Cloud. When a Cloud is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public, we call it a Public Cloud-the service being sold is Utility Computing • Private Cloud to refer to internal data centers of a business or other organization, not made available to the general public. (Armbrust et al. 2009) 13 8/25/2014 Challenges • Enterprises currently employ conservative IT strategies and are unwilling to shift from the traditional controlled environments • Cloud computing uptake has only recently begun and many systems are in the proof-of concept stage • Regulatory pressures also mean that enterprises have to be careful about where their data gets processed, and therefore, are not able to employ Cloud services from an open market. • Could be mitigated through SLAs that specify strict constraints on the location of the resources • The state-of-the-art Cloud technologies have limited support for market-oriented resource management and they need to be extended to support: negotiation of QoS between users and providers to establish SLAs; mechanisms and algorithms for allocation of VM resources to meet SLAs; and manage risks associated with the violation of SLAs. (Armbrust et al. 2009) Challenges (Armbrust et al. 2009) 14 8/25/2014 Disadvantages • Latency and bandwidth related issues associated with any remote application • Various V i iissues related l t d tto multiple lti l customers t possibly ibl sharing h i the same piece of hardware • Having data accessible by third parties (such as the provider of cloud services) may present security, compliance or regulatory issues. • Clouds that provide on-demand capacity, portability and interoperability is much more problematic p – Hadoop p is by y far the most prevalent p system y that • Example provides on-demand capacity, but, for example, it is not straightforward for a Hadoop MapReduce application to run on another on-demand capacity cloud that is written in C++ (Grossman 2008) Infrastructure • • • • Transparency - The application delivery solution used to provide transparent load-balancing services will need to be automated and g into the p provisioning g workflow p process such that resources can integrated be provisioned on-demand at any time. Scalability - The "control node" often depicted in high-level diagrams of the "cloud computing mega data center" will need to provide on-demand dynamic application scalability. Intelligent monitoring - If the number of concurrent users accessing a service is reaching capacity, then the application delivery solution should be able to not only detect that through intelligent monitoring but participate in the provisioning of another instance of the service in order to ensure service to all clients Security - Cloud computing is somewhat risky in that if the security of the cloud is compromised potentially all services and associated data within the cloud are at risk. It should also provide full application security -from layer 2 to layer 7 -in order to thwart potential attacks at the edge. Network security, protocol security, transport layer security, and application security should be prime candidates for implementation at the edge of the cloud, in the control node. ‘4 Things You Need in a Cloud Computing Infrastructure’, www.devcentral.f5.com  15 8/25/2014 SaaS & Cloud Computing • Similar to utility computing – Pay as you use – Service on demand – High availability – Disaster recovery What is SaaS • SaaS = Software as a Service • It is a Deployment/Delivery model – Hosted and Managed by vendor – Delivered across the Internet • It is a Business Model: usage-based pricing (vs. perpetual license model of on-premise software). Examples: – Per user per month – Per transaction – Per GB of storage per month (Scio Consulting International 2009) 16 8/25/2014 History of SaaS • Born during dot-com era (late 90’s) – “ASP” ASP (Application Service Provider) • Apps hosted/managed by Vendor • Remote access through VPN • Almost died with dot-com burst • Early SaaS companies born in early 00’s • 2003-2005 High-speed g p Internet g growth = trigger for SaaS • Feb 2009 – Salesforce.com reported annual revenues of $1,000 Million USD (Scio Consulting International 2009) SaaS Evolution (Scio Consulting International 2009) 17 8/25/2014 How SaaS works • Network-based access to commercially available il bl software ft • Multi-tenancy (one-to-many) • Payment Model • Central Application Management – Software S ft – Infrastructure • Control of Upgrade Process (Scio Consulting International 2009) Benefits for clients • Lower entry point – No large up-front up front investment in • Software licenses • IT infrastructure • Lower operating/maintenance costs – Fast, easy deployment (Web browser) – Vendor maintains/upgrades application – No IT staff necessary to keep running • Consumption-based expenditure – Pay As You Go (OpEx vs CapEx) – Scale up/down as needed (Scio Consulting International 2009) 18 8/25/2014 Benefits for Users • Easy deployment/ramp up – Typically based on Web browser access – No additional hardware/software needed • Any time, Any where access – Outside the corporate firewall • Transparent updates • Support direct from Vendor (Scio Consulting International 2009) Benefits for Vendors • Economies of Scale – Derived from Multi-tenant architecture • Better B tt resource utilization tili ti • Simplified maintenance – For a well designed app, operating costs per customer drop as customer base grows • Better understanding of usage patterns – To drive innovation and enhancements • Faster release cycles to keep up with market and competition • De-facto access to Global market (Scio Consulting International 2009) 19 8/25/2014 Benefits for Vendors • Market Reach – Catch the Long Tail – Traditional Model (Scio Consulting International 2009) Long Tail Continued (Scio Consulting International 2009) 20
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