Tài liệu Fab 05 ips²

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Sustainable Manufacturing and Factory Planning Industrial Product-Service Systems – IPS² 07.04.2017 Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl © IWF TU Berlin Page 1 Content  Economical and Ecological Motivation  IPS² in History  IPS² Business Models  Products, Services and Systems  Technical Solutions  Literature and References Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 2 Content  Economical and Ecological Motivation  IPS² in History  IPS² Business Models  Products, Services and Systems  Technical Solutions  Literature and References Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 3 Economical dimension Competitive Environment analysis: 5 Forces model www.made-in-china.com www. ud-germany.de Example: Analysis of DMG competitive environment. Market: Cutting Machines Threat of New Entrants Cutting machine tools production in China (1st worldwide in 2012 - 3rd in 2002, 19.1 MM€ turnover/annum) DMU 40 Steel Laser Cutting Machine, DMG Waterjet Metal Cutting Machine, Diamond Industrial China Suppliers‘ Bargaining Power Customers‘ Bargaining Power Transfer of the rising raw material costs, e.g. for steel and copper, to the machine tools producer Rivalry among existing competitors Price drop due to overcapacity within the machine tools suppliers and stagnating demand Threat of Substitution Products New technologies for cutting: e.g. water jet cutting machines may replace laser cutting machines. Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Quelle: [Por-85] Page 4 Ecological Dimension Reducing environmental impacts Impact = Population # 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛𝑠 x Amenity 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑜𝑛 x Technology 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑝𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 Adapted from: [Cal-10]  The environmental impacts of an economy is defined by the “IPAT formula” : Population  „Angry market“  Measured in terms of number of consumers requiring a given service  Can not be influenced Amenity  Volume of consumption  Measured in terms of number of consumed units of the given service  Influenced by consumption patterns Technology  Environmental effects resulting from the production of an unit of service  Measured in terms of environmental impacts by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)  Influenced by eco-design, clean production, green logistics, etc. Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source:[Cal-10] Page 5 Ecological Dimension Reducing impact by reducing amenity (1/2)  Why consuming products?  Products are potential units of utility/ Use is the realization of units of utility  „the main economic value of products does not originate in the mere existence of the product, but relates to its ability to deliver functionality or services to consumers over a certain period of time” [Mei-98]  Examples:  ownership of a car / kilometer traveled  ownership of a toy / number of fun.hours  State-of-the-art : waste of potential units of utility  Through low intensity of use  Cars are daily used only 5% of the time  During its entire lifetime, a drill is used only 12 to 13 minutes [Bol-10]  Through premature discarding  Physical lifetime ≠ Value lifetime  Average service time of a cellular phone is around 18 months Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Mei-98, Bol-10] Page 6 Ecological Dimension Reducing impact by reducing amenity (2/2) Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 7 Motivation summary Selling Use instead of Selling Product  Selling use instead of selling product is becoming a solution to improve the resource efficiency.  The needs of customers are intended to be fulfilled by the combination of services and products, like a system of products and services  a Product-Service System – PSS (and for industrial purposes an Industrial Product-Service System – IPS²)  Implementation in city mobility: Costs for products and their idle capacity Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Costs for enjoying the function only Page 8 PSS in value chains Contribution for impacts’ reduction Actor V  Product oriented business models Actor IV Actor III Actor II Actor I Adapted from [Lin-12] environmental impact 100% Design Production Logistics Usage EOL Integration of the actors of the whole product lifecycle Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Impact decided at a given phase of the product lifecycle Impact realized at a given phase of the product lifecycle time  Integrated product and service design Source: [Lin-12] Page 9 Content  Economical and Ecological Motivation  IPS² in History  IPS² Business Models  Products, Services and Systems  Technical Solutions  Literature and References Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 10  First used steam engines in the mid of 18th century where "atmospheric" engine by Thomas Newcomen  Scottish instrument maker, James Watt, noted during repairing a Newcomen engine how inefficient those machines are  Watt invented a condensator that leads to great savings of fuel Scheme of a steam machine invented by Thomas Newcomen (1663-1729) Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl en.wikisource.org/wiki/File:PSM_V12_D142_Newcomen_engine_as_improved_by_smeaton_1775.jpg Invention of the steam machine How a mechanical improvement become the first IPS² offer (1/2) Page 11 Invention of the steam machine How a mechanical improvement become the first IPS² offer (2/2)  Firm of Boulton & Watt (1775 – 1910) for offering steam engines  Watts steam machine got a six times higher energy efficiency  Boulton’s business model:  Offering steam machines for free news.bbc.co.uk  Machine installation and maintenance by Boulton & Watt  Gain of one third of annual savings by using Watt´s steam machine  Benefits  Machines have more power compared to the use of fossil resources (Coal consumption of Newcomen steam machines) Matthew Boulten (1728-1809) and James Watt (1736-1819) on a fifty Pounds banknote. Boulton: “I sell here, Sir, what all the world desires to have - power” Watt: “I can think of nothing else but this machine”  Expensive machine must not be sold for profit Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Ros-10, p. 170] Page 12 Boulton & Watt and their IPS² in England Examples  Coin Press en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Watt_steam_pumping_engine.JPG http:/www.valuable-coin-stories.com  Water pumps in mines Watt steam machine for pressing coins. This pennies were just examples to demonstrate the possibilities of steam machines by Watt. Scheme of a Watt steam machine for water pumping in mines Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 13 Content  Economical and Ecological Motivation  IPS² in History  IPS² Business Models  Products, Services and Systems  Technical Solutions  Literature and References Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 14 What is an Industrial Product-Service System? The Difference to a Product with a Service  Products and Services  Product-Service Systems  Product that are sold  System that combines products and services in one business  after identification of special needs Service  The name Industrial Product-Service Systems offerings were developed afterwards is used in business to business cases (B2B)  Example: Closed iOS for smartphones and  The name Product-Service Systems is used in shops that offers to “jailbreak” the phone (ability to use more functions) business to customer cases (B2C)  Example: Bikes designed for being rented at A Smartphone with an closed operating system www.werk5.com www.bz-berlin.de/ www.macworld.com unmanned stations A smartphone shop that offers a “jailbreak” service for iOS Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl A bike renting station with a slot system that fits only to bikes of one company iOS: Is a mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. Page 15 The Paradigm Shift From selling Products to selling Usability (1/2) Provider Manufacturing company High-quality, expensive production equipment/machine tools Classical Product Sale Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Technische Universität Berlin Customer Page 16 Customer Provider Interest in Production Processes Provides Products with Services to realize Production Processes Potential for new business models E.g. Selling functionality instead of product Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Technische Universität Berlin The Paradigm Shift From selling Products to selling usability (2/2) Page 17 IPS² Business Models Integrated product and service Product Service Systems Value mainly in product content Service content (intangible) Product content (tangible) Function oriented use model Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Availability oriented use model Value mainly in service content Result oriented use model Source: [Tuk-04, Mei-10] Page 18 Schedule of responsibilities by main IPS² business model category Function oriented use model Availability oriented use model Result oriented use model customer customer provider customer provider provider customer provider provider Ownership customer customer / provider provider Supply of maintenance personnel Service turnover model customer / provider Pay on service order provider provider Pay on availability Pay on production Production responsibility Supply of operating personnel Service initiative Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Mei-10] Page 19 IPS² Business Models Product and service Pure product Product oriented Use oriented Result oriented Product-related services Product lease Activity management/ outsourcing Advice and consultancy Product renting or sharing Pay per service unit Product pooling Functional result Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Pure service Source: [Tuk-04] Page 20
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