Tài liệu Fab 02 value creation module sustainable manufacturing 2017

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Sustainable Manufacturing and Factory Planning Value Creation Module and Sustainable Manufacturing 03.04.2017 Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl © IWF TU Berlin Page 1 Content  Value Creation  Sustainable Manufacturing  Literature and References Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 2 Content  Value Creation Sustainable Manufacturing Literature and References Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 3 What is Value?  Value takes the form of:  Use value that is subjectively assessed by the customer, based on their perceptions of the usefulness of the product on offer.  Exchange value is realized when the product is sold. It is the amount paid by the buyer to the producer for the perceived use value. Water has a very high use-value but may have a very low exchangevalue. Diamonds have a very high exchangevalue but may satisfy no use-value. Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Bow-00] Page 4 Who Creates Value?  Individual as a source of value creation: individuals create value by developing novel and appropriate tasks, services, jobs, products, processes, or other contributions perceived to be of value by a target user.  Organization as a source of value creation: value is created when firms develop/invent new ways of doing things using new methods, new technologies, and/or new forms of raw material.  Society as a source of value creation: at a societal level, the process of value creation can be conceived in terms of programs and incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation intended to encourage existing organizations and new entrepreneurial ventures to innovate and expand their value to society and its members. Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Lep-07] Page 5 Value Creation Module  Value creation modules consist of the major factors needed to create value, these factors are:  Product  Process  Equipment  Organization  Humans  Modules are to be modelled and valuated on different levels of aggregation e.g. from a single workplace for component manufacturing to regional value adding in production equipment for mobility or energy as areas of human living. Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 6 Factors of the Value Creation Module  Process  Product ► Manufacturing ► Material ► Assembly ► Design ► Transport ► Geometry ► Inspection ► Structure ► … ► Quality ► …  Organization  Equipment ► Quantity/Lot size ► Dates ► Location ► … ► Machine tools  Human ► Qualification/Training ► Motivation ► Health ► Robots ► Transport systems ► Information systems ► … ► … Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 7 Product – Definition  DIN EN ISO 9000:2005  A product is the result of a process.  A process is a set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs.  Four generic product categories:  Services (e.g. transport)  Software (e.g. engine control software, dictionary)  Hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part, tire)  Processed materials (e.g. lubricant, fuel, cooling liquid)  Other definitions  In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.  In manufacturing, products are bought as raw materials and sold as finished goods. Commodities are usually raw materials such as metals and agricultural products, but a commodity can also be anything widely available in the open market.  In project management, a product is the end result of a project undertaken to produce it. Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [DIN-9000], [Kot-06], [Kal-13], [McG-07] Page 8 Product Types Products Tangible products Non durable goods Raw material for manufacturing, process industry, consumable goods, building material, … Services (intangible) Durable (often investment) goods Investment goods: production equipment, process equipment, transport equipment, IT products, Repairing, maintenance and installation of products, consulting, health services, education instruction, broker business, … Non-investment goods: household appliances, textiles, furniture, … Machine tool Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Maintenance services www.b-plastic.de E.g. Coolant lubricant Numerically controlled machine tool Source: [Kot-09] Page 9 Product – Product Life Cycle Economic View  Economic product life cycle  Covers the duration of the presence of a product in the market  Product life cycles vary for different product types  Automotive: 7 years  Mobile phones: 6 months Product modification Product introduction Product life cycle new life cycle Product elimination Profit and Turnover Legend: Turnover: Product profit: + 0 Development Introduction Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Growth Maturity Saturation Decline Relaunch Recycling/ Disposal Source: [Pahl-07] Page 10 Product – Product Life Cycle Technological View  Technological Product Life Cycle  Integrated model that covers all areas of a product‘s existence: Raw material production •Selection of material •Make-or-Buy Product development •Generation of ideas •Product development Production •Manufacturing •Assembly Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Distribution Use Phase •Design •Usage •Maintenance Product Remanufacturing End-of-Life Options Disposal Material Recycling Source: [Sel-00] Page 11 Factors of the Value Creation Module  Process  Product ► Manufacturing ► Material ► Assembly ► Design ► Transport ► Geometry ► Inspection ► Structure ► … ► Quality ► …  Organization  Equipment ► Quantity/Lot size ► Dates ► Location ► … ► Machine tools  Human ► Qualification/Training ► Motivation ► Health ► Robots ► Transport systems ► Information systems ► … ► … Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 12 Manufacturing Processes  Manufacturing processes are all operations employed for the creation of geometrically defined products. Manufacturing processes can be carried out either by hand as well as with the aid of machine tools or other appropriate equipment. Manufacturing Casting Forming Cutting Joining Coating Material properties altering Achieve cohesion Retain cohesion Degrade cohesion Increase cohesion Increase cohesion Alter material properties Welding, spinning Magnetron sputtering, plasma spraying Indentation hardness, sintering examples Die casting, injection molding Deep drawing, press brake forming Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Milling, sawing Source: [DIN-8580] Page 13 Manufacturing Process  Primary shaping  Primary shaping is the process in which a solid workpiece is manufactured from an amorphous material alu-tecwvg by creation of cohesion Die casting: Aluminum casting Sand casting  Forming Additive manufacturing or 3D printing  Forming is the process of deliberate change of form, surface and material properties of a workpiece dastuart keytecnl under retention of mass and contiguity of the substance Hydraulic deep-drawing Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Roll-threading: altering the thickness of steel slabs Source: [DIN-8580] Page 14 Manufacturing Process  Cutting  Cutting is the process in which the shape of a workpiece is changed, with reduction of cohesion in the htl-bregenz roemer-maschinenbau whole body  Joining Gear machining Turning a shaft  Joining is the process of durable linking of two or more workpieces of geometrically defined shapes or Metal hard-soldering Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Reis Robotics walter-automobiltechnik workpiece of amorphous materials. Cohesion is created locally and increased as a whole. Resistance welding of a car door Source: [DIN-8580] Page 15 Manufacturing Process  Coating  Coating is a process in which surface characteristics are improved with respect to functional and BMW Encarta decorative aspects of a workpiece. Electroplating  Material properties altering Coloring: painting a car body  Altering material properties is a process in which a workpiece is entirely or partly subjected to thermal Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Roughing metal components Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl TU Darmstadt Doctor Furnace cycles, physical and/or chemical changes in order to develop material properties (beneficial for their further processing) Sintering components after pressing Source: [DIN-8580] Page 16 Assembly Process  Assembly is the process of putting prefabricated parts and components together in order to produce a product. Assembly Joining* Handling Controlling examples Soldering, riveting, screwing Adjusting Special operations Tuning, aligning Cleaning, deburring, imprinting examples Gripping, arranging, storing Primary Assembly Measuring, testing Secondary Assembly * See manufacturing processes Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Spu-86], [DIN-8580, VDI-2860 ] Page 17 www.gottabemobile.com www.piotrbiniecki.files.wordpress.com Assembly Process Aircraft assembly www.cardiomyopathy.org www.mrautocar.wordpress.com Apple’s iPad and iPhone Foxconn Assembly Lines Auto assembly Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) Page 18 Factors of the Value Creation Module  Process  Product ► Manufacturing ► Material ► Assembly ► Design ► Transport ► Geometry ► Inspection ► Structure ► … ► Quality ► …  Organization  Equipment ► Quantity/Lot size ► Dates ► Location ► … ► Machine tools  Human ► Qualification/Training ► Motivation ► Health ► Robots ► Transport systems ► Information systems ► … ► … Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Page 19 Elements of Production Equipment (VDI 2815)  Production Equipment Production Equipment  All physical elements directly or indirectly used by a production company during its production activities Manufacturing Assembly Logistic Quality Information and communication technology Superordinate systems Maintenance and repair Technische Universität Berlin Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Holger Kohl Source: [Wie-05] Page 20
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