Tài liệu Cẩm nang tự ôn và luyện thi sinh học

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Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt Ldl NOI DAU DC- C O t l i c d a l k c l q u a t o t t r o n g c a c k i t l i i T o t n g h i c p T H P T , t u y e n s i n l i v a o c a c Chu-orng 1. C O cut t r U f l n g C a o d a n g . D a i i i o c . h o c s i n h c a n n a m dUOc c h u a n k i c n ihiYc, k l n a n g ci'ia chUOng trinh T H P T . A. C d CHE DI TRUYEN 6 CAP DO PHAN TLf Cuthela: 1 - F h a i nh('(, n a m v i l n g , h i c u r o c a c k i c n thtfc c(J b a n t r o n g c h i r r i n g t r i n h , s a c i i g i a o k h o a m o n S i n h h o c c a p T H P T , c h u y e u l a I d p 12. 2 - P h a i bie't \&n d u n g c a c k i c n thifc d a h o c d e t r a D I TRUYjfeN I. TOM T A T NOI DUNG T r i f d c t i c n , h p c s i n h c a n n h d r d i he tho'ng l a i t o a n b o cac k i e ' n ihtJc da du'dc cac c a u h o i , gitii bai lap, l i i m h p c t r o n g chiTimg t r i n h T H P T v c CO sd thiTc hanh.... v a iJng d u n g v a o thifc t i e n , d t l i s o n g . 3 - P h a i r e n luyC-n c a c l h a o t a c , tu' d u y : P l i a n t i c h diftfc c a c sU k i e n , d f f k i e n thCfa, thie'u h o a c d i i d e g i a i q u y e t d i M c c a c v a n d c c i i t h e . X a c d i n h d i W c m o i q u a n h e giiTa c a c q u a t h o a dUOc nhiTng v a n d c r i e n g I c , c u t h e . S u y l u a n tiT nhCtng k i e ' n thiVc d a c 6 d e md C H A T va C d C H E D I T R U Y E N 1. G e n la cd sd v a t c h a t di t r u y e n (If c a p do p h a n tijT D t ) la m o t d o a n a x i l n u c l e i c ( A D N hotic A R N ) d i f d c c a n t a o lii4 loai nucleotit A , T , G , X . C o m p l cht'fc n a n g d i t r u y e n nhii't d i n h n h i f m a h o a c h u o i p o l i p e p t i t , h o a c p h i i n t i f A R N , d i e u h o a h o a l d p n g c u a gen,... r o n g k i c n thiJc, p h a t t r i e n n a n g liTc n h a n thiJc. H i c n n a y , d e t h i t o t n g h i e p T H P T , t u y e n s i n h v a o c a c trufcing C a o d a n g , D a i h o c d C A P D O P H A N T O . C t i t h e n h u ' sau: b o p h a n t r o n g t o a n t h e ; c u t h e h o a d m i c nhiTng v a n d e t r i f u t i f d n g ; n h a n b i e t v i i h i c u difrtc cac b o p h a n c a u t h a n h ; k e t hOp du'dc n h i c u y c u t o t h a n h m o t t d n g t h e h o a n c h i ' n h ; k h a i VAT ; ,, 2. G e n c a u t r u e c 6 3 vunj» t r i n h t\i n u c l e o t i t m o n S i n h h o c l a h i n h t h i f c t h i t r a c n g h i c m . D o l a h i n h thiJc k i e m t r a , m a t r o n g d o d c V i i n g d i e u h o a n a m d d i i u 3 ' c i i a m a c h m i i go'c m a n g t i n h i e u k h d i d p n g v i i k i e m I r a thirClng g o m n h i c u c a u h o i . M o i c a u n c u r a m o t v a n d e c i i n g v d i n h i f n g t h o n g t i n k i e m soat p h i e n m a . v u n g m i i hoa m a n g t h o n g t i n mix h o a cac a x i l a m i n , c 6 the c a n t h i c ' t , s a o c h o t h i s i n h c h i p h a i t r a I d i v a n t a t d o i v d i iCmg c a u h o i . D e l a m to't h i n h thiVc t h i t r a c n g h i e m , n g o a i v i c e o n t a p c 6 k e ' h o a c h , c h u a n h i n o i d u n g k l t h i h o c s i n h c a n p h a i l a m q u c n v d i h i n h thiJc t h i n a y . T u y n h i c n , k h o n g c a n p h a i l i e n l i i c ( d te b a o n h a n .sd) h o a c k h o n g h e n l i i c , tti'c l i i x e n k e c a c d o a n m a hoa a x i l a m i n ( c x t ) n ) lit c i i c d o a n k h o n g m i i h o a a x i l a m i n ( i n t r o n ) ( d te' b i l o n h a n l a m t h a t n h i c u , c h i c a n l i i m q u e n v d i m o t so c a u h o i t h e o t i f n g n p i d u n g , ti^ng p h a n h o c i h i f c ) ; v i i n g k e t i h u c n a m d d a u 5' c i i a m a c h goc m a n g t i n h i e u ke'l t h i i c p h i e n m a . nhif: C d c h c ' d i t r u y e n v i i bic'n d i , D i t r u y e n hoc q u d n t h e , D i I r u y e n hoc ngifdi,... dc n a m 3. du'dc e a c h r a d e t h i , kT t h u a t l i i m b i i i t h i trii'c n g h i c m . Q u a n t r o n g nhii't l i t p h a i t r a n g b i k i e n t h i f c d i i y d u , h e t h o n g , p h a i r e n l u y e n t o t ctic t h a o t a c tu" d u y i h i n i d i c d t h e d a t kc't qua t o l trong cac k i t h i . Vc ciiu h o i c d the chia thanh 2 loai; Ciiu hoi "thuoc b a i " v i i ciiu h o i " h i e u b a i " . T r o n g c u o n sach nay c h i i n g t o i k h o n g de cap d e n cac c a u h o i " t h u p c b a i " , k h o n g p h a i v i c h i i n g k h o n g q u a n t r o n g , m a v i c h i i n g d i i difdc t r i n h bay d a y d u , r o r i i n g d S G K . C h i i n g dung diidc b a i hpc. V I d u : C h i i n g t o i k h o n g h o i : Phien m a la gi? T r i n h bay d i e n bien va kc't q u a c i i a q u a t r i n h p h i e n m i l n h u ' d S G K m a c h i i n g c h i d c r a c a c c i i u h o i b i i p c h p c s i n h n g u y c n l i e u , e n z i m x i i c t i i c ) p h i e n m i l b a t d a u v a c h i i ' m diJt d v i t r i n i i o t r e n k h u o n , c h i c u c u a m a c h k h u o n , c h i e u t d n g h d p v a n g u y c n t a c t d n g h d p . H i c n t i f d n g x a y r a k h i kc't t h i i c p h i e n m a ? Q u a d d c h o bic'l c d c h e ' p h i e n m a l i i gi? m A R N difdc t a o t h i i n h sau p h i e n m a d dau V e b a i tiip cung c d the chia thanh 2 loai: B i i i tap t i f luan v i i b a i tap trac n g h i c m . C h i i n g t o i c h u y n h i c u h d n d d i v d i b i i i t a p t i f l u a n . V i t i f l u a n toi se trac n g h i c m t o t v a q u a t i f l u a n c d t h e r e n l u y e n t i f d u y t o t h d n , d a n h g i a du'dc d i i y d u h d n v e k e t q u i i h p c t a p c u a h p c s i n h . K i n h m o n g cac thay giao, cac bac p h u h u y n h v i i cac e m hpc sinh d d n g g d p t h e m y k i e n d c c d the b d sung, h o i i n t h i e n d i i n c u d n sach niiy. Tac gid b p ba m a h o a ( T r i p l e t ) 1 bp m d dau lii A U G t i f d n g I'fng v d i m a hoa a x i l a m i n m d ( M e l i o n i n h a y f o o c m i n M e t i o n i n ) 6 0 b p ba m a h o a c a c a x i t a m i n k h a c , va ba b p ba k e t t h i i c l i i U A A , U A G , U G A k h o n g m a hoa a x i l a m i n nao. M i l d i t r u y e n c 6 d a c d i e m : K h o n g go'i l e n n h a u , c 6 l i n h p h d b i c ' n ( c h u n g cho l o a i ) l i n h d a c h i e u ( m o t b p ba c h i m a h o a 1 a x i t a m i n ) v a l i n h I h o a i h o a (c6 mpi t h e n h i c u b p ba c i i n g m i i h o a m p l a x i l a m i n ) . Mai d i I r u y e n t r o n g A D N du'dc p h i e n m a sang A R N . 4. ' ' ^ Phien ma S i f I r u y e n t h o n g t i n d i I r u y e n p h a n Ivi A D N mach kep .sang p h a n tijf m a c h d d n ( m A R N , l A R N , r A R N ) la q u a t r i n h p h i e n m a ( h a y hdp te b a o n h i i n s d v a t e b a o n h a n thiTc k h a c n h a u d d i e m n a o ? ... 4^ = 6 4 64 c o d o n t r e n m A R N . T r o n g do co p h a i siV d u n g c a c t h a o t a c tu" d u y d c t i m h i e u c a c k i c n thuTc c u a b i i i p h i e n m i l nhu": T r o n g q u a t r i n h p h i e n nm c d su" t h a m g i a c u a c a c y e u t o n i l o ? V a i t r o c i i a m o i y c u t o d o ( k h u o n , hoa M a d i t r u y e n l i i m a b p b a , life la 3 n u c l e o t i t dtJng h e n n h a u m a h o a m p l a x i l a m i n . V i c6 4 n u c l e o t i t n e n c6 t o i c h i d e c a p c a u h o i " h i e u b i i i " tiJc l i i nhiTng c a u h o i g i t i p h o c p h a n t i c h , so s a n h , t d n g h d p , s u y l u a n d c c d t h e h i c u b a i m o t e a c h s a u sac. TCf d o m d i d c t h u p c b a i m d i v i i v a n G e n c h i f a t h o n ^ t i n di t r u y e n diftJi h i n h thufc m a l i i qua trinh ARN long ARN). O te b a o n h a n i h i f c , p h i e n m a d i e n r a t r o n g n h i i n te b i i o , 0 k i I r u n g g i a n g i i f a 2 Ian p h a n biio, liic N S T d d a n g sdi m a n h . Q u a t r i n h p h i e n ma h i n h thiinh m A R N d i e n b i e n n h U sau: Tru'dc l i e n , polimeraza nhan biet trinh hoa) de b a m vao l i f cac n u c l e o t i t dac b i e t t r e n A D N (lai viing ARN dieu v u n g d i e u h o a , l a m g e n t h a o x o S n d c Ip r a m a c h m a g d c chicu 3' -> 5'. A R N polimeraza trifdl t r e n m a c h goc, x u c lac l o n g h d p cd mARN Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt Ca'm nang \\J 6n va luygn thi Sinh hgc - Phung Duy D6ng Iheo nguycn lac bo sung (A - U , G - X ) . K h i gap tin hieu ke'l Ihi'ic (d vung kc't Dieu hoa boat dong ciia gen lai cac operon dien ra nhu' sau: K h i moi tru'dng thuc) till dtrng phicn ma, A R N du'Oc giai phong. Viing nao phien ma xong thi hai noi bao khong c6 chat cam u'ng, gen dieu hoa tdng hdp chat ifc che', gan vao mach ddn cua gen dong xoan ngay. viing van hanh (O) ngiin can phien ma cua nhom gen ca'u true (operon d trang O te bao nhan scf m A R N dtfrtc diing de dich ma ngay con d te' bao nhiin Ihifc thai vie che). K h i m o i tru'dng ndi bao c6 chat cam u'ng thi chat cam u'ng lien ke'l thi dirdc cat bo intron noi cac cxon lai thanh m A R N iriidng lhanh, m(1i diing de vdi chat (ic che' lam cho no khdng the lien ke'l difdc v d i viing van hiinh, nhom djch ma. gen ca'u true chuyen sang Irang thai hoat ddng, qua trinh phien ma, dich ma xay ra. 5. Djch ma 7. Sil" bieu hien kieu hinh ciia gen La giai doan ke tiep sau phien ma, truyen thong tin di truyen ttf m A R N (Ban ma sao) sang chuoi polipeptit. Tij" do quy dinh cac tinh Irang. Qua tnnh dich md fidin 2 iiiai doan: a) Hoat hoa axit amin Trong to bao chat, nhd cac enzim dac tru'ng va nang lu'dng A T P , mdi axit amin du'dc hoat hoa va gan vdi l A R N lu'dng iJug lao nen phi'fc he aa - l A R N . Thdng tin di truyen chi'fa trong gen du'dc bic'u hien lhanh tinh trang cua cd the thong qua c(< che phien ma tif gen sang m A R N rdi dich ma tCr m A R N sang protein va lif protein bieu hien lhanh tinh trang. M d i te bao deu chii'a day dii loan bd cac gen quy dinh ca'u triic tat ca cac loai protein cua cd the. Nhifng trong qua trinh phat trien ca the, tuy tifng te'bao trong liYng loai mo, tijy lifng giai doan phat trien ma chi mdt so' gen trong do boat b) Toiig lufp chuoi polipeptit ddng, life la te'bao chi long hdp loai prdtcin can ihic't vao liic can thiet thdng qua M o i riboxom gdm 2 lieu phan, binh Ihu'dng nam Uich nhau, k h i c6 mat m A R N cd che dieu hoa hoat ddng gen. chung lien ke'l v('Ji m A R N l a i codon m 5 dau. Tren r i b o x o m c6 2 v i I r i la P (peplil) va A (amin). M o i v i I r i tiTdng tfng vdti mot bo ba. N h d do r i b o x o m giiJ vai tro nhu" mot khung del giiJa m A R N v d i aa.lARN va giffa codon - anticodon. N h d CO bo ba doi ma (anticodon) ma aa - l A R N c6 the nhan bie't codon lu'dng iJng do mang axit amin den diing v i tri va khdp bd sung vdi codon lu'dng iJng tren mARN. Dau tien l A R N mang axit amin met dau la M e t i o n i n ( d te' bao nhan sd la foocmin M e t i o n i n ) den dung vi tri cua codon m d dau. Tiep theo l A R N mang axil amin thu' nhat (aai - t A R N ) den v i i r i codon thiJ nhat. L i e n ke'l peplil giffa M e t i o n i n va a x i l ihii' nhat du'dc lao lhanh (nhd xiic lac ciia enzim), l A R N rdi khoi ribdxdm. Sau do r i b o x o m bat dau chuyen dich tijfng na'c, m d i nac u'ng vdi mot codon va qua trinh dich ma lai xay ra lu'dng liT. K h i gap codon ke'l thuc thi diifng Sif bieu hien kieu hinh ciia gen con chiu sir tifdng lac giiTa cac gen, lu'dng tac giu'a kieu gen v d i mdi tru'dng va con phu thudc vao v i tri ciia gen nam tren NST thu'dng hay NST gidi tinh, nam trong nhan hay ngoiii nhan. vao sir phan l i ciia gen (phan l i ddc lap, phan li cung nhau). vao sir lien ke'l cua cac gen (lien ke'l hoan loan, lien ket khdng hoan loan). , ,. '. Tinh cha't ciia gen ^ V) CO can tao da phan nen: - Gen cd tinh da dang va tinh dac thii, do lhanh phan, so' lu'dng, trat lir xap xe'p ciic bo ba trong gen quy dinh. - Gen cd kha nang dot bien va di truyen cac ddl bie'n cho the' he sau. - Gen cd khii nang tai ban (qua sir nhan ddi ciia A D N ) cd kha nang phan l i phien ma. R i b o x o m tach khdi m A R N , chudi polipeptit du'dc giai phong, axit va i d hdp (qua sir phan li va i d hdp ciia NST) qua do truyen thdng tin d i truyen amin m d dau du'dc cat bd, chudi polipeptit tiep tuc hinh lhanh cac cii'u true bac cho cac the he sau. cao hdn, Ird lhanh protein hoan chinh. 9. Q u a trinh nhan ddi ciia A D N Tren m d i phan tu" m A R N thu'dng c6 mot so'ribdxdm hoiit ddng (poHribdxdm). Nhtf vay, m d i phan tii' m A R N cd the long hdp liT mdt de'n nhieu chudi polipeptit cung loai. Sau k h i tdng hdp, m A R N du'dc enzim phan giai, con ribdxdm du'dc sij" Dien ra ngay tru'dc khi te'bao bu'dc vao giai doan phan chia + O sinh vat nhan sd: Nhd enzim thao xoan (Helicaza), hai mach dcfn ciia phan li? A D N dirdc tach dung qua vai the'he te'bao. ra tao lhanh chac chCr Y (ddn v i lai biin). M d i mach ciia A D N deu dirdc lam 6. D i e u hoa boat dong cua gen khudn de long hdp mach A D N mdi. V i mach 3' La dieu hoa lu'dng san pham cua gen du'dc lao ra. 6 sinh vat phan sd, dieu hoa hoat dong cua gen chu ye'u dien ra d giai doan phien ma trong cac opcron. 6 thao xoan (T 5' phat trien ihuan vdi chieu 5 ' ) nen mach mdi tdng hdp tren mach khudn 3' hdp lien tuc theo chieu 5' 5' du'dc tdng 3' tao lhanh phan luT A D N con cd 2 mach chieu sinh vat nhan thifc, dieu hoa hoat dong cua gen dien ra qua nhieu giai doan nhU: ngirdc nhau. Con mach mdi long hdp tren mach khudn 5' —)• 3' phai tdng hdp NST thao xoan, dieu hoa phien ma va sau phien ma, dieu hoa dich ma va sau tirng doan ngan (doan Okazaki) ( v i ngu'dc vdi chieu phat trien ciia chac Y ) . Sau dich ma. Cty TMHH lyJTV D W H Khang Vi^t d m nang tij fin va luyjn thi Sinh hpc - Phung Duy Odng HU('/ng ddn do ciic doan nay diroc no'i lai vcfi nhau (nhcJ ezim no'i ligaza) mdi tao thanh phan tu' ADN con hoan chinh. Trong qua trinh nhan doi ADN c6 nhieu cnzim lham gia, trong do enzim chinh la ADN polimeraza, lam nhicm vu xiic tac siTkien ket gii?a cac nucleotit tiT do vdi cac nucleotit ciia mach khuoii iheo nguyen tiic bd sung (A - T, G - X). Cudi ciing tuf 1 phan lif ADN sau nhan doi tao thanh 2 phan tur A D N gio'ng het ADN ban dau. Trong moi phan tuf ADN du^dc tao thanh thi mot mach la mdi dm^c long help con mach kia la cua ADN ban dau (nguycn tac ban bao ton). Nhu'vay, qua trinh nhan doi ADN da dien ra Ihco nguyen tac bd sung va ban bao ton vdi sir xiic lac cua cac enzim dac tru'ng, nhd do da tao ra 2 ADN con gidng het ADN me, bao dam cho siTdi truyen cac gen qua cac he Ic bao mot each chinh xac. + O sinh vat nhan thi/c: ' Vi CO nhieu nhan lu" ADN kich thu'dc Idn nen su" nhan doi A D N x;iy ra lai nhieu diem trong mdi phan lit ADN tao ra nhieu ddn vj lai ban (nhan doi) va du'dc nhan doi ddng thdi. II. C A UH O IT U L U A N Ve cdu hoi tu luan chuiii^ toi chia thanh 2 lout: 1. Cau hoi phan tich bai hpc thanh tiTng phan, tiTng y mot each he thong dc hoc, de hieu va de nhd (cau 10, 11,12, 13, 14, 15,16). 2. Cau hoi ren luyen cac thao tac tu'duy de giiip cac em biet phat trien va van Ta't cii cac cau trcn chi diing trong nhiirng dieu kien nha't dinh. Vi gen cd cau true mach ddn (mpl sd chiing virut) mach thang, mach vdng.. Khdng phai gen nao Cling mang Ihdng tin ma hda mot san pham xac dinh, khdng phai mpi gen deu cd chifc nang di truyen, cd gen gay chet, gen bat hoal,... - Cd the Ira Idi nhu" sau: Gen la cd sd vat cha't di truyen d cap dp phan tii". Dd la mot doan axil nucleic cd mpl cMc nang di truyen nha't dinh, hoac bift hoal, gay chet,... Cau 2: Cau tao, chiJc nang, tinh chat ciia gen? Giai ihich vi sao gen cd nhffng tinh chaldd. HUoiigddit - Gen cd nhieu loai, mdi loai cd cau tao va cMc nang khac nhau. SGK chi trinh bay cau true chung ciia gen cau Iriic. - Gen cd linh da dang, tinh dac thii (do cd cau tao da phan), cd kha nang tai biin (VI gen la mot doan ciia ADN, nen khi ADN lai ban gen cijng du'dc lai ban) cd kha niing phan li vii id hdp (vi gen chiJa trong nhiem sac the, ti the, lap the nen khi chiing phan li va to hPp se dan den sifphan l i va id hdp cua gen). Gen cd khii nang dpthien do sifket cap khdng dung trong nhan doi hoac do tac nhan dot bien. Cau 3: Qua trinh nhan doi ciia ADN xiiy ra li'ic nao? Cd siT lham gia ciia cac yeu id' nao? Vai trd ciia cac yeu id' dd? Qua trinh nhan doi ciia ADN dien ra theo nguyen tac nao? Cd y nghia gi? Chieu thao xoan, chieu long hdp? dung kien thitc (cac cau con lai 1, 2, 3, 17 ^ 38). Cau 1: Gen la gi? Co cac each trii Idi sau: A. Gen la mot doan ciia phan tii' ADN, mang thong tin ma hda mot chuoi polipeptit hay mpl phan lu" ARN. B. Gen la mot doan cua phan tu* ADN mang thong tin ma hda cho mpl san pham Xiic dinh. C. Theo nghia rpng, gen la mpl doan phan ti'r axil nucleic mang thong tin quy dinh cau true ciia mpl chudi polipeptit, lARN, mARN hoae lam nhicm vu dieu hda, khdi ddng... D. Gen la vat chat di truyen d cap dp phan tij". E. Gen la mot doan phan tii' axil nucleic, du'dc cau tao tij" cac ddn phan nucleotit (A, T, G, X). G. Gen la mot doan ciia phan tu" ADN cd chtfc nang di truyen nhat dinh. Hay danh gia (dung luyct doi, dung tUdng doi, sai, Ihieu chinh xac, chifa dii,...) va du"a ra y kien ciia minh. Dung tu-png doi la dung trong mot dieu kien nhat dinh. V i du: Nu'dc sdi d 1(X)"C chi diing tu'dng doi (dung vdi dieu kien nhiet dp va ap suat binh thirdng). HUdiig ddn - Qua Irmh nhan doi ciia ADN xiiy ra d ki trung gian ngay tru'dc khi le bao bu'dc vao giai doan phan chia te bao. - Ccic yen i d lham gia: 2 mach ddn ciia gen (liim khudn); cac nucleotit tif do (nguyen lieu de idng hPp mach mdi); enzim xiic lac: hclicaza (lach 2 mach ddn); ADN polimeraza (xiic lac si; lien ket giffa cac nucleotit tiT do vdi cac nucleotit ciia mach khudn); ligaza (ndi Ccic doan dkazaki vdi nhau). - Nguyen tac: Nguyen lac bd sung (A - T, G - X) vii nguyen lac ban biio Ion (giu" lai mot mach). - Chieu lhao xoan: Ngu'dc vdi chieu xoan ciia phan lu" ADN (lir phiii sang trai). - Chieu tdng hdp: Ngu'dc vdi chieu ciia mdi mach khudn. - Y ngliTa: Tao dieu kien cho nhidm sac the nhan doi, Ic' bao phan chia va suf truyen 1 each chinh xac cac gen qua cac the'he ADN, the'he tc bao. Cau 4: Hay giai thich vi sao tren true chi? Y chi cd mot mach ciia phan tuf ciia ADN du'dc tdng hdp lien tuc, mach con lai difdc tdng hdp mot each gian doan. Co mot sd each gicii Ihich nhUsau: a) V i ADN polimeraza chi long hdp mach mdi theo chieu 3' —> 3'. ' h) VI ADN polimeraza chi cd the bd sung nucleotit vao nhdm 3' - OH. • • , • • 7 Cty TIMHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt c) V i A D N polimcraza khdi dau can c6 nhom 3'- O H d dau mach khuon. Thco c m tra Uli nhifcac each trcn c(3 dung khong? V I sao? Hay giai thich theo Ne'u V I A D N polimcraza chi long hdp mach m d i theo chieu 5' —> 3' i h i se Ne'u V I A D N polimcraza chi c6 the bo sung nucleotit vao nhom 3' - O H thi khong giiii thich difdc gi vl mach niio cung c6 nhom 3' - O H . Neu V I A D N polimcraza khdi dau can c6 nhom 3' - O H nhu'ng thao xoan ba trong gen khong go'i Icn nhau mdi co the quy dinh Irinh tif sitp xep cac axit protein. Tir dac tinh phd bie'n cua ma di Iruyen co the giai thich nguon goc thong nhcft cua sinh gidi cf miJc phan luT va so loai axit amin cua moi loai dcu nho hPn 64. C a u 7: V i sao A D N co kha nang tai ban va lai ban m p l each chinh xac. HU(fngddn bat dau ttjf dau 5' ciia mach ma goc thi sao? Co dung nvtii khong? Do do nguyen - nhan chii yeu la each thao xoan. Co the gicii thich nf^uyen nhcin cua sUtdn^ hcfp ngdt qudng Tijf ccic dac diem ciia ma di Iruyen co ine suy ra: T r i n h tu" siip xep cac bp amin trong chuoi polipeplit. TiT do m6i co the co tinh dac tru'ng ciia A D N , ciia khong dung khi thao xoan liTdau 5' ciia mach ma goc. - Neu so loai axit amin bang hoac Idn hPn so bp ba ma hoa thi dieu nay co the xay - HU(htg dan - Tai sao co the xay ra hien tu'png nhieu bp ba ciing msi hoa m p l a x i l amin? ra khong? suy nghi cua c m . - - nhusau: Do thao xoan bat d;ui tu" dau 3' ciia mach ma goc vii phia ngu'cfc v d i chieu xoan ciia phan tii" A D N nen mach A D N mdi, long hcfp til' khuon la mach ma goc (3' - > 5') se phat trien thuan vdi chieu phat trien ciia chac chu" Y nen du'c.^c long help lien luc. con mach A D N mc'Ji, long hcfp tu" khuon la mach bo sung v6i mach ma goc ( 5 ' ^ 3") phiii du'cfc long hdp tifng doan ngSn ngi/cfc vdi chieu phat trien cua chac chi? Y. Nhu" vay mc'-fi lao thanh phan tu" A D N mcfi co 2 mach ngu'dc chieu nhau. Gia sit thao xoan bat dau cuoi mach ma goc i h i ke't qua se ngu'cfc l a i , nghla la mach A D N dMc long hdp lit mach ma goc 3' - > 5' phai bi long hdp ngat quang. Do do nguyen nhan la do each thao xoitn va dac diem cau lao cua phan lii' A D N la CO 2 mach ngu'dc chieu nhau. V i A D N CO cau true mach kcp. lien ket giifa cac nucicotit Iren hai mach dcfn la lien kc'l hidro (lien ket yeu). Cac nucleotit giiJa hai mach ddn lien ket vdi nhau theo nguyen lac bo sung. Qua trinh lai ban dicn ra theo nguyen lac bd sung va ban bao ton. C a u 8: l i n g \6\l amin m d dau la M e l i o n i n co may bp ba ma hoa? Co 2 each trii Idi sau: • > a) Co 1 bp ba ma hoa ,. b) Co 3 bp ba ma hoa •l • Hay cho bie'l cau tra Idi nao dting? Hiidng - dan Ne'u noi M e l i o n i n co 1 bp ba mii hoa co nghia la trong 64 bp ba ma hoa thi M e l i o n i n chi co 1 bp ba ma hoa (trong 20 loai axit amin chi co 2 loai la M e l i o n i n va Triptophan chi co mot bp ba ma hoa, con lai deu co 2 hoac nhieu bp ba ma hoa, nhieu nha't la A e g i m i n co den 6 bp ba ma hoa). C a u 5: V I sao ma di Iruyen la ma bo ba. Ne'u trong phan tii' A D N c(3 cho 2 hoac 3 loai nucleotit thi c6 the mii hoa du'dc bao nhieu loai axit amin? Hid'fng dan V i CO 4 loai nucleotit ( A , T, G, X ) neu ma hoa bo mot se lao du'cfc 4' = 4 to hcfp, neu ma hoa bo hai se lao lhanh 4 ' = 16 to hdp khong dii de ma hoa 20 lo;ii axit amin. - Neu noi M e l i o n i n co 3 bp ba ma hoa co nghla la iJng vdi M e l i o n i n Ihi co 3 bp ma nam trcn phan tiV: T A X nam tren A D N , A U G nam Iren m A R N va U A X nam tren l A R N . N o i each khac la: M e l i o n i n co bp ba ma goc (Triplet) la T A X , bp ba ma sao (codon) la A U G va bp ba doi ma (anticodon) la U A X . • Noi chinh xac thi A irii Idi dung hPn B v i T A X , A U G , U A X deu la m p l trong 64 bp ba ma hoa. Ma hoa bo ba se du'Pc 4 ' = 64 to hdp ihijfa de ma hoa 20 loai a x i l amin khong C a u 9: Nguyen lac trong ccJ c h e n h a n doi A D N la gi? can phai ma hoa bo bon. HiiAng dan Neu trong phan tir c6 3 loai nucleotit thi se lao diTdc 3^ = 27 bo ba ma hoa. Neu CO 2 loai nucleotit se lao diidc 2" = 8 bp ba ma hoa. ThiTc te cung co the xay ra d ciic doan gen, cac doan m A R N , t A R N , r A R N chi co 2 hoac 3 loai nucleotit. - A D N CO khii niing nhan doi de lao thanh 2 phan tu" A D N con gidng nhau va gio'ng vdti A D N mc. - Qua irinh nhan doi A D N d te bao sinh vat nhan sP, sinh vat nhan thifc va C a u 6: T i f ciic dac d i e m cua mii di truycn co the suy ra dieu gi? V i sao ma di A D N ciia virul (dang sPi kcp) dcu thco nguyen utc bd sung va ban bao ton. Iruyen co cac diem do? C a u 10: Phicn mii lii gi? D i c n ra d dau? Co nhiJng yeu i d niio tham gia? ChiJc HU('fng dan - trong chuoi polipeplit se nhu" the" nao?) 8 niing ciia cac yeu i d do? H i c n lu'png gi xiiy ra khi k c l ihiic phicn mii? Neu ma di iruyen goi len nhau thi se dan den ket qua gi? (Cac axit amin Neu ma di truyen khong cx) tinh dac hicu thi co can den ma bp ba khong? HUifng dan + ' Phicn mii lii sif idng hpp A R N . 6 sinh vat nhan thifc, qua trinh long hpp mARN dicn ra trong nhan tc biio, cf ki U-ung gian, liic nhicm sac the cf dang dan xoan. 9 Ca'm nang ti; fin va luy§n thi S i n h hgc - Phung Duy D6ng + vao Cty TMHH MTV DVVH Khang VIM Cat- yen lo' tham gia: Mach - Enzim A R N polimcraza xiic tac qua trinh long hctp bang each: Bam VLing dieu hoa lam gen lhao xoiin, tri/dt doc iheo mach ma goc lit diem khdi ma goc C a u 13: CJ giai doan keo dai chuoi polipeplit da xay ra nhSng hien lu'dng gi? HU('iiigddn i: i ^ - 3' -> 5' ciia gen lam khuon. dau den diem k e l ihiic cua mach ma goc theo chicu 3 ' - > 5 ' de long hrip nen m A R N Iheo nguyen lac bo sung (A - U , G - X ) iheo chieu 5 ' + 3'. Sau phien ma: - Dau lien: - Anlicodon ciia phi'fc hdp aai - l A R N khdp bd sung vdi codon Ihir nha'l. - Enzim xiic Uic lien k e l peptil giCa a x i l amin ihuf nha't (aai) vdi axit amin m d dau ( M e l i o n i n ) . - l A R N (da tiich khdi axit amin mi^ dau) rdi khoi riboxom. r Phan lii" m A R N du'dc giai phong, gen dong xoan, m A R N ra le'bao chal Sau do: riboxom chuyen dich lij'ng nac, moi nac iJng vdi mot codon va qua de l a m khuon dich ma ngay (d le bao nhan s d ) hoac cal bo cac intron, no'i cac trinh dich ma lai xiiy ra Wcing ur tren (Anlicodon ciia phiJc hdp aa - l A R N khdp exon lai Ihiinh m A R N Iru'dng lhanh m d i roi mdi ra te bao chat lam khuon djch bd sung vdi codon liA^ng irtig, enzim xiic lac lien kel peptil, l A R N rdi khdi riboxom). nifi (te b a o nhan Ihi/c). C a u 14: (5 giai doan k e l thiic da xay ra nhifng hien Wdng gi? C a u 11: O giai doan hoat hoa trong qua trinh dich ma da xay ra nhiJng hicn Milng nao? Co nhCfng yeu to nao tham gia? V a i tro ciia cac yeu to do? San pham ciia giai doan nay la gi? Hiidng + ddn Co 2 hicn tu'c^ng xay ra la: J - Float hoa axil amin. - L i e n ket giiJa t A R N vc'li axit amin tU'dng iJng da difdc hoat hoa tao Yeu lo' tham gia: - A T P cung cap niing lifcfng de hoat hoa axil amin va lien ket vdi l A R N . - Cac enzim tham gia gdm: Enzim xuc lac lien kel giiJa l A R N vCl\t amin tiTdng iJng da du'dc hoat hoa de tao lhanh phiJc he aa - l A R N . San pham ciia giai doan nay la cac axil amin da dUdc hoat hoa va phiJc he aa - l A R N . C a u 12: O giai doan m d dau trong long hdp chuoi polipeplit da xay ra nhiJng hien lu'dng nao? HUdng ddn Cf giai doan mc'^ dau c6 3 hien tifdng xay ra: - T i e u phan be cua riboxom nhan biel va lien k e l vdi m A R N d vi i r i dac hieu, gdm codon m& dau. - Anlicodon ciia phitc hdp Met - l A R N khdp bd sung vdi eodon m d dau. - Tieu phan Idn ciia riboxom kel hdp tao riboxom hoiln chinh, s;Tn sang long hdp chuoi polipeplit (Theo SGK Sinh hoc Idp 1 2 - Chu'dng trinh chuan) (Thirc ra riboxom g a n vdi codon m d dau vii bat dau dich ma lai v i tri P rdi dich ma lai v i tri A tren riboxom, lien kel peptil giiJa 2 a x i l amin du'dc lhanh lap, l A R N (da Uich khoi a x i l amin ml^ dau) rdi khcM ribom ihi riboxom mdi chuyen sang codon liep Iheo de liep Uic dich ma). 10 - Qua trinh djch ma diJng lai khi riboxom liep xiic vdi ma ket thuc - A x i t amin m d dau du'dc cat khdi chuoi polipeplit (nhd enzim dac hieu) - Chuoi polipeplit hinh lhanh cac cau trilc bac cao hdn Ird lhanh protein C a u 15: Poliriboxom du'dc hinh lhanh nhu'the nao? Y nghia ciia no? - ? RiboxOm ihi? nhal chuyen dich du'dc 5 0 - I O O A " thi r i b o x o m IhiJ hai gan vao m A R N , liep theo la riboxom ihir 3 , thi? 4,... (thifdng cd l i i 5 - 2 0 riboxom) Enzim xuc lac lien k e l giffa axit amin vdi A T P de lhanh axit amin hoat dong + :( hoiin chinh. lhanh phiVc he aa - l A R N . + Huong ddn chiing tao lhanh mot nhom riboxom ciing tham gia dich ma trcn mdt phan lit m A R N . - Y nghia: Tong hdp lien liep du'dc nhieu phan lii' protein cijng loai, lam tang hieu sua't long hdp. Gin chil: De de nhd cac em nen chia ra nhu' sau: 1 . Riboxom giin vao m A R N lai codon m d da xay ra nhiJng sir kien gi? Da xiiy ra 3 su' kien: - Dich ma axil amin md dau va axil amin ihii' nhal (^(tog ling vdi 2 vi \xi P v;i A) - Enzim xuc uic hinh lhanh lien ket peptil giffa 2 a x i l amin. - l A R N (da tach khdi aa m d dau) rdi khdi riboxom. 2 . Riboxom chuyen dich lifng nac, 1 codon de liep tuc dich ma lu'dng tif Iren. 3. Riboxom gap ma kel thiic thi difng dich ma, axit amin m d dau bi ciil bd va chuoi polipeplit hinh lhanh cac ca'u Iriic bac cao hdn. C a u 16: Qua Irinh djch ma xay ra d dau, liic nao, c6 nhifng yeu to" nao tham gia, vai Ird ciia mdi yen to? San phifm hinh lhanh? Y nghia ciia qua trinh dich ma? HUdng ddn - Xay ra trong t e b a o chat, lai cac riboxom, ngay sau khi phien ma, liic c6 mat m A R N . - Ciic yeu td^ tham gia: + m A R N : Lam khuon long hdp protcm . + Nguyen lieu: Ciic axit amin ur do. + A T P : Cung cap nang iifdng. i,. • ' ' • „ , 1 1 Ca'm nang tu an va luygn thi Sinh hgc - Phung Duy B6ng + Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt C a c c n z i m l h a m g i a e n z i m : x i i c Uic l a o l h a n h phiJc h d p aa - lARN; 1. V e c a l l t a o : c n z i m x i l c Uic l i e n k e l giffa a x i l a m i n vCl'i A T P . c n z i m x i i c t a c l a o l h a n h l i e n k e t p e p l i l ; e n z i m x i i c l a c q u a I r i n h c a t b o a x i l a m i n md d a u k h o i c h u o i p o l i p c p l i l . + lam R i b o x o m : C a n v d i m A R N l a i v i t r i dac h i e u d e l A R N b a t d a u d i c h m a ; khung d d m A R N . + + P o l i r i b o x o m : T a n g h i e u suat l o n g hcfp p r o t e i n . + l A R N : m a n g a x i l a m i n d e n r i b o x o m v a tie'n h ; m h d i c h m a ( a n t i c o d o n - T h a n h p h a n , s d l i f t i n g v a I r i n h l i f sap x e p c a c n u c l c o l i l k h a c n h a u da t a o ra - C a n true k h o n g g i a n ciia g e n c i i n g khac n h a u n e n c u n g l a o r a n h i e u l o a i g e n Hitc'fng dan G e n m a n g t h o n g t i n c a u triic p r o t e i n ( t h o n g t i n d i I r u y e n ) . T h o n g t i n d i I r u y e n dift.lc m a h o a t r o n g g e n b i i n g m a h o a b o ba. M a d i I r u y e n t r o n g g e n dUdc p h i e n m a .sang m A R N i h e o n g u y e n ta'c b d sung. D o d o l h a n h p h a n , so lu'dng va t r a l l i r sap x e p cac b o ba m a h o a t r o n g g e n ( t r i p l e t ) q u y d i n h l h a n h p h a n , so k r o n g va Irat lu" sap x e p cac c o d o n t r o n g m A R N . K e t i e p sau q u a t r i n h p h i e n m a la q u a I r i n h d i c h m a v a m i i d i I r u y e n t r o n g m A R N du'dc d i c h ra l h a n h p h a n , so lUcing v a trat t i f sap x e p c a c a x i t a m i n t r o n g c h u o i p o l i p e p t i l . D o d o siT g i f i i m a m A R N c h i n h la g i a i m a g e n . Nhu" v a y m d i l i e n q u a n g i i f a g e n vc'Ji q u a t r i n h p h i e n m a , d i c h m a c h i n h la m d i l i e n q u a n giiJa - p r o t e i n m a b a n chat l a : T h a n h p h a n , so iu'dng, t r i n h t i f sap x e p sinh v a t n h a n Ihifc (eo cii'u true x o a n k e p ) , g e n I r o n g n h a n ( t r e n N S T ) , g e n n g o a i n h a n ( t r o n g l a p thc\i thc\, ecH-a'u t r i k m a c h x o a n k e p , t h a n g hocic v o n g . 2. V e chufc n a n g : C a u 17: M o ' i l i e n q u a n g i i f a g e n v('1i q u a I r i n h p h i e n m a , d i c h m a . gen - m A R N ' khac n h a u : nhu" g e n m o t s d c h i i n g v i r u l ( g i d n g ca'u true A R N ) , g e n Y nghTa: M a d i I r u y e n diftjc dich lhanh trinh tiTcac a x i l a m i n trong m a c h p o l i p e p t i l - ' ' n u c l e o l i l d a c iru'ng. khc'lp b d sung \xfi c o d o n l i f t i n g vCng). S a n p h a m la m a c h p o l i p e p t i l . - C o g e n phan m a n h , g e n khong phan miinh. v 6 so' l o a i g e n . M d i l o a i g e n c 6 l h a n h p h a n , sd^ lu'dng v a t r i n h tu" sa'p x e p cac Phtfc help aa - l A R N v a k h u n g dO c o d o n - a n t i c o d o n ; c h u y e n d i c h I r e n m A R N de k e o dai dich ma. - - - C o v 6 s d l o a i p d t e i n n e n c 6 v 6 s d l o a i g e n c a u true k h a c n h a u . - C o r a t n h i e u cMc n a n g d i I r u y e n k h a c n h a u n e n c u n g c o r a t n h i e u l o a i g e n k h a c n h a u nhu" g e n ca'u I r i l c ( t d n g help p r o t e i n , m A R N , l A R N , r A R N ) , g e n d i e u h o a , g e n k h d i d o n g , g e n t a n g ciTcIng, g e n bii'l h o a l , g e n g a y c h e l , g e n nhiiy,... C a u 19: C a c p h a n tu" m A R N c 6 g i g i d n g n h a u , v a k h a c n h a u ? T a i sao? 1 1 ^ / HUdngd&n - V e cii'u t r i i c : C a c p h a n tu" m A R N d e u g d m d i e m k h d i d a u , d o a n chiJa i h o n g t i n m a h o a a x i l a m i n v a d i e m k e t t h i j c d o q u a t r i n h p h i e n m a du'dc l i e n h a n h tir d i e m k h d i d a u v i i eha'm dift d d i e m k e t i h i i c ciia g e n . Ci d a u 3 ' d e u c o m d i I r i n h liT n u c l e o l i l d a c h i e u ( k h o n g dUcIc d i c h m a ) d e r i b o x o m n h a n b i e t v a ga'n v a o . Cac m A R N d e u du'ilc ca'u l a o b d i cac r i b o n u c l e o t i l , du'cle p h i e n m a l i f cac n u c l e o l i l . N h U n g d o l h a n h p h a n , s d lu'cing, t r a t tu" sap x e p c a c n u e l e o l i l c o ra't n h i e u each cac b o ba m a h o a t r o n g g e n q u y d i n h t h a n h p h a n , so' lu'dng v a t r i n h tif sap x e p k h a c n h a u , n e n c o r a t n h i e u l o a i g e n ca'u true l o n g help r a r a t n h i e u l o a i m A R N cac c o d o n t r o n g m A R N t i f d o q u y d j n h l h a n h p h a n , s d lu-dng v i l t r i n h tir sap x e p khac nhau. - cac a x i l a m i n t r o n g c h u o i p o l i p e p t i l . V e ehii'c n a n g : M o i p h a n tu" m A R N d e u du'cle d u n g l a m k h u o n d e t d n g help ra pre')tein. pre'nein ce'i n h i e u ehii'c n a n g nhu'ng khc^ng t h e ne)i m A R N ce) n h i e u C t i u 18: C o b a o n h i e u l o a i g e n ? C o cac e a c h Irii \^^\' : chiJc n a n g . a) G e n c 6 n h i e u l o a i n h u ' g e n c a u t r i i c , g e n d i e u hoa,... cau b) s i n h v a t n h a n thufc. V e chifc n a n g c 6 g e n c a u Iriic, g e n d i e u hoa, g e n tang cu'dng, g e n ba't hoal,... 2 0 : So s i i n h q u a t r i n h n h a n d o i ciia A D N v a p h i e n m a t d n g help r a m A R N e^ ' , HUOngddn c) C o v 6 s d l o a i g e n . H a y p h a n t i c h x e m c a c each Ira Ifli t r e n da thoa m a n v d i y e u c a u ciia c a u h o i k h o n g ? C o t h e Ira I d i n h i f the n i i o c h o d a y d i i , c h i n h x a c . HU(hig - dan T h e o e a c h c ) life la c a n cu" v a o ca'u t a o da p h a n ciia g e n d e suy ra l i n h da dang ciia g e n . - T h e o a ) v a b ) li'rc la c a n cir v a o chi?c n a n g d e k e ra v a i l o a i g e n . C o t h e tra Uii c a n h o i t r e n n h i f sau: 12 , , ^ 1. G i o n g n h a u : ;. - D i e u x a y ra d k i trung gian. - C h i e u t d n g help d e u ngifelc c h i c u ve'li c h i e u m a c h k h u o n . - D e u l i e n k e l c a c n u c l e o l i l t r o n g mc)i triTdng diTa t r e n c a c n u c l e o l i l t r o n g m a c h khu(')n t h e o n g u y e n l a c b d sung. - N g u y e n l i e u d e u l a cac n u c l e o l i l t i f d o . - D e u p h a i C O e n z i m d a c Iru'ng x i i c l a c . .. - ijv J , ' Ca'm nang tu fin v4 luy^n thi Sinh hoc - Phung Duy Ddng Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi§t 2. Khac nhaii; Hoc sinh tuphdt trien kien thi'fc theo f^(/i v sau: - V c nguycn lieu siV dung khac nhau nhu" the' nao? - V c e n / i m xiic tac khac nhau the'nao? - V e nguyen tac bd sung C O khac nhau khong? - V e c(l che khac nhau nhu" the niio? - V e ket qua c6 gi khac nhau? - m A R N difdc diing lam khuon tdng hdp protein nen c6 cii'u tao mach thang, C O v i tri dac hieu niim gan codon m d dau de r i b o x o m nhan biet vil Hen ket vdi m A R N . c6 bo ba m d diiu de t A R N nhan bic't va mang axit m d dau den dung " , . f^'H:- vj trI. Vil C O bo ba ket thuc de riboxom nhan biet va difng dich m i i . - t A R N liim nhicm vu van chuyen axit amin den r i b o x o m vii lam nhiem vii dich mii nen mot dau ciia no c6 trinh lif nuclcotit dac hieu de axit amin tu'dng C a u 21: Hay giiii thich v i sao phu nff khong c6 rau d cam, khong c6 ria d mep, itng nhiln biet va lien ket vdi t A R N . mot d;tu c6 bo ba doi mii (anticodon) de va dan ong hlc nho van khong c6 rau, ria nhu'ng den khi Irifdng thanh lai c6 rau, t A R N nhiln biet va lien ket bd sung vdi codon tu'dng iJng. ria (Can ci'r vao chifc nang cua gen, dicu hoa hoal dong gen de tra Icli). - C a u 22: V I sao noi: Giai mii m A R N cung chinh la giai ma A D N (Can ctJ" vao moi quan he giifa A D N - m A R N de trii Idi). r A R N lii thiinh phjln chii ye'u ca'u tao ra r i b d x d m nen chung c6 ca'u tao dac tru'ng thuan Idi cho vice lien ket vdi protein de tao thanh r i b o x o m . + V i giiJ ciic chu'c nang quan trong khac nhau nen ddi song cua cac loai C a u 23: V i sao phan \6n sinh vat nhan thifc tao ra m A R N chu'a siJ'dung djch ma A R N Cling khac nhau: Sau khi tdng hdp xong protein, m A R N Ihu'dng du'dc cac ngay difdc, con m A R N du'Oc tao ra tif sinh vat nhan sd lai siJ dung dich ma ngay enzim phan hiiy, con t A R N vii cac r A R N difdc sufdung qua vai the he te bao. du'Oc (Can ciV vao viing ma hoa ciia gen cau true de tra IfJi). C a u 28: Hay suy luan xem sif nhiin doi cua A D N c6 lien quan nhu' the' niio vdi C a u 24: Co phai tat ca moi gen deu chu'a day dii ca 4 loai nuclcotit la A , T, G, X sV tcii ban ciia gen, v d i sir phan chia te bao, vdi dot bie'n gen, v d i dot bie'n nhiem khong? Gia su' gen chi c6 2 loai nucleolit ihi mii hoa du'c.^c may loai axit amin. sac the? Giil sijfmARN chi c6 3 loai ribonuclcotil thi se ma hoa diTcfc bao nhieu loai axit amin,... H If (fug dan - Sir nhan'ddi cua A D N dan de'n su" nhan ddi (tai ban) ciia gen, sir nhiin ddi ciia V i gen chi la 1 doan ma cua phiin tii" axit nucleic nen c6 the khong c6 dij ca 4 loai nuclcotit. - HU(fngddn A D N tao d i c u kien cho nhiem sac the nhan doi, chuan bi cho su" phan bao. Cac tac nhan dot bien tac dong viio qua trinh nhan doi cua A D N c6 the gay dot bie'n Ciin ci? viio cong ihiJc to hdp de tim ra c6 bao nhieu to hdp bo ba tijr 2 loai nuclcotit, tir3 loai nuclcotit, tir4 loiii nuclcotit... gen. Dot bien ca'u triic nhicm siic the dan tdi thay ddi vj tri cua gen, mat can bang gen. C a u 29: K h i tien hanh nhiin ddi A D N trong d'ng nghiem phuc vu cho nghien ciTu C a u 25: Hiiy giai thich tai sao m A R N thifdng bi cac enzim phan hiiy sau khi va iJng dung thirc tien ngu'di ta thay cd nhu'ng doan A D N ngiin khoang vai tram long hdp xong protein ( v i de khuon luon m d i , khong bi hif hong do cap nuclcotit. H i e n tu'dng niiy du'dc giai thich nhu? the nao? SIJT dung lau hay do tac nhiin khac giiy ra). Hi((fng ddn C a u 26: V i sao gen khong diTdc su' dung liim khuon trifc tie'p tdng hdp protein? Do sir tdng hdp mach A D N Iren mach khuon 5' -> 3' xiiy ra ngat quang tao (vi thong tin di truyen ciTc k i quan trong, du'dc bao quiin to't trong NST, ti the,..., ra cac dojin ngan, nhu'ng thic'u enzim nd^i ligaza nen cac doan ngan khdng du'dc du-dc gicr gin ciin thiin. No la ban ma gdc c6 the dilng ban ma sao ( m A R N ) thay ndi lai v d i nhau tao thanh mot mach hoan chinh. the. Bcln sao cQng chi dirdc siV dung mot Ian, de diim bao ti'nh chinh xac cua Cfiu 30: N h d dau enzim A R N polimeraga c6 the thi/c hien cac chu'c nang cua no thong tin di truyen. trong phien ma tdng hdp m A R N . C a u 27: Co bao nhieu loai A R N . Chung c6 gi gidng nhau, c6 gi khac nhau? T a i sao? Trong qua trinh phien mti, enzim m A R N polimeraza c6 cac chu'c nang sau: Hi((fng dan + HUifng ddn V I deu du'dc tdng hdp tuf mot niach cua gen nen cac loai A R N nhu' m A R N , - B a m vao viing dieu hoa liim gen thao xoan va bat dau phien ma A R N polimeraza t h i r c h i e n chu'c nang nay lit nhd trong viing dieu hoa cua gen ca'u true t A R N , r A R N deu c6 cii'u triic mach ddn, deu du'dc cau tao tif cac ribdnucledtil. C O mot trat tir nuclcotit diic hieu goi la viing k h d i dong. N h d trinh tir nay ma Thanh phan, so' krdng va trat tif sap xe'p cac ribonuclcdtit deu do gen quy dinh. enzim A R N polimeraza co the nhan bic't, bam vao va bat dau tdng hdp m A R N + Qua trinh tdng hdp cac loai A R N deu theo cd chc tu'dng t i / nhau. + Chudi ribonucleotit hinh thanh xong se bien ddi ca'u hinh, hinh thiinh ca'u true dac tru'ng cua tiTng loai, phu hdp chifc nang cua m o i loai. V i vay cau true cua chilng khiic nhau. tai diem khcfi dau. - Tdng hdp phiin tuT m A R N : Sd d l A R N polimeraza thiTc hien chu'c nang nay la nhd nguyen tac bd sung. - Dirng phien ma: N h d vijng ke't thiic cua gen mang tin hieu ke'l thiic. dm nang lu 6n Cty TNHH MTV DWH Khang Vigt Iuy6n thi Sinh hpc - Phiing Duy Pgng C S u 3 1 : N o i r a n g : p h i c n m a l i i q u a t n n h l o n g h d p m A R N d u n g h a y sai? ( d u n g t i e n h a n h tCr d i e m k h d i d a u v a c h a m d i ? l d d i e m k e l t h i i c c i i a g e n t r e n nhu'ng chu'a di'i v i p h i c n m a c o n t a o r a t A R N v a r A R N niJa). C a u 3 2 : B o b a m i i h o a v a m a h o a b p ba c o gio'ng n h a u k h o n g ? T a i sao? B o b a m a h o a c 6 h e n q u a n d e n t i n h da d a n g c i i a s i n h v a t k h o n g ? cho bicl diem kh(":fi dau, diem k c l t h i i c c o p h a i la m o t d i e m khong? C h u n g CO tu'(ing I'rng v d i m a mc'^ d a u va m a k c t t h i i c t r e n g e n k h o n g ? C h u n g n a m HUOngddn K h o n g gio'ng n h a u : - M a h o a b o b a l a e a c h m a h o a , c o n b o ba m a h o a la m o t t o hcfp cija e a c h m a h o a b o ba tii" nhfJug yc'u t o ' c h o bie't. D i e m k h d i d a u k h o n g t i f d n g i f n g v d i m a nu'-f d a u v i i d i e m khcii d a u n a m d v u n g k h d i d p n g t r o n g v i m g d i e u h o a c i i a g e n . D o l a m o t t r i n h tu" n u c l e o t i t d a c h i e u g i i i p en/.im A R N pohmera/.a V i d u : N e u eo 4 n u c l c o t i t , se c 6 4^ = 6 4 b o ba m a h o a , (tiJc l a 6 4 t o h d p b p b a tiT 4 l o a i n u c l e o t i t ) . N e u c 6 3 l o a i n u c l c o t i t t h i so' to' h d p b p b a (so' b p b a m a h o a ) se l a 3 ' - 2 7 (ixic la 2 7 b p ba m a h o a ) , . . . -'• Hay ADN". vi tri nao tren gen? HU(fng dan - CSu 35: S a c h i i i a o k h o a S i n h h o c I d p 12 ~ N a n g c a o c o g h i : " Q u a t r i n h p h i c n m a v i m g ma hoa ciia g e n . - T h a n h p h a n , so' lu'dng v a t r a t t i f sap xe'p c i i a c a c b p b a m a h o a t r o n g p h a n n h a n bie't v i i h e n k e l d e k h d i d p n g q u a t r i n h p h i c n m a tii" d i e m k h d i d a u ciia g e n , c o n m a m d d a u n a m d v i t r i d a u l i e n t r o n g phicMi Diem k c l t h i i c c u n g k h o n g tifcing I'fng v d i m a ke't t h u c , v i n e u q u a t r i n h m a c h a m d i H d m a ke't t h u c t h i m A R N se k h o n g c o c o d o n ke't t h u c . NhU' tu" A D N C O r a t n h i e u e a c h k h a c n h a u n e n da t a o ra v 6 so' l o a i A D N k h a c n h a u . v i i y d i e m k e t i h i i c p h a i la d i e m cud'i c u n g c i i a g e n . D o l a c d s d p h a n tu" v e t i n h d a d a n g c u a s i n h g i d i . C a u 3 6 : S a c h g i a o k h o a S i n h h o c I d p 12 - N a n g c a o c h o bie't: " r i b o x o m l i e n k c t CAu 33: C h i c 6 - 64 bp ba m a hoa, trong do c6 3 b p ba k e t thuc k h o n g m a h o a a x i t a m i n n a o . L a m sao c 6 t h e m a h o a c h o v 6 s o ' l o a i p r o t e i n c i i a tat ca m p i loai sinh vat. v d i m A R N t a i c o d o n m d d a u va q u a I r i n h d i c h m a du'dc b a t d a u " . S a c h g i a o k h o a S i n h h o c I d p 12 - C h u a n c h o bie't: " l i e u p h a n b e r i b o x o m g ^ n vdi m A R N d v i t r i dac hieu n;lm gan codon m d dau, t A R N m a n g M c l i o n i n b d sung c h i n h x a c v d i c o d o n m d d a u . T i c u d d n v i I d n c i i a r i b o x o m Hiiiiiigddn 61 b p b a m a h o a m a h o a du'dc 6 1 l o a i a x i t a m i n . T a t ca c a c l o a i s i n h v a t k h o n g C O l o a i n a o c 6 so' l o a i a x i t a m i n I d n h d n 6 1 ( s u y r a tij" d i l c d i e m t i n h p h d NhU' v a y 2 c u o n sach g i a o k h o a c o sir k h a c n h a u . H a y p h a n l i c h n h i J n g k i e n IhiJc t r e n va c h o bie't y kie'n c i i a m i n h . bie'n c u a m a d i t r u y e n ) . Ta't ca cac s i n h v a t , p r o t e i n du'dc c a u t a o t i f 2 0 l o a i a x i t a m i n . V i d u , d ngiCdi c 6 k h o a n g 2 5 0 0 0 0 g e n d a m a h o a c h o r a t n h i e u p h a n tu" p r o t e i n c u n g c h a n g d u n g hc't 6 1 b p b a m a h o a . - a x i t a m i n m d d a u m d i s;Tn sang l o n g h d p c h u o i p o l i p e p t i t , c u n g l a d i e u v 6 l i v i nh\i v a y n g a y b a n d a u c h u o i p o l i p e p t i t da k h o n g c o a x i t a m i n m d d a u . dan M a d i t r u y e n k h o n g g o i l e n n h a u n e n cac a x i t a m i n t r o n g c h u o i p o l i p e p t i t k h o n g g o i l e n n h a u . G i a siir m a d i t r u y e n k h o n g c 6 d a c d i e m n a y t h i d a n d e n ke't M a d i t r u y e n c o t i n h pho' b i e n c 6 t h e s u y ta't c a cac l o a i p r o t i t c u a m p i l o a i s i n h v a t d e u c o c h u n g m o t m a d i t r u y e n v a suy r a n g u o n go'c t h o n g nha't c u a s i n h M a d i truyen co tinh thoai hoa, (co the co nhieu b p ba cung m a hoa m o t l o a i a x i t a m i n ) suy r a s o ' l o a i a x i t a m i n p h a i n h o h d n s o ' b p b a m a h o a . - a m i n m d d a u chu" k h o n g p h a i " l a p n i p " x o n g a x i t a m i n m d d i l u m d i s 3 n sang C f i u 3 7 : T i r n h u ' n g h i e u bie't v e g e n t r o n g p h a n n i i y h a y g i i i i t h i c h c d che' d i t r u y e n d c a p d p p h a n tu' ( g e n , A D N ) . ' ' '' M a d i t r u y e n eo t i n h dSc h i e u ( m o t b p b a m a h o a c h i m a h o a c h o m o t l o a i a x i t a m i n ) suy r a s o ' l o a i a x i t a m i n p h a i i t h d n h o a c b a n g so b p b a m a h o a , v a m a d i t r u y e n k h o n g the la m a h o a b p hai. m d i c h u y e n d i c h sang c o d o n l i e p t h e o d c t A R N dich m a liep. Nhu' vay, qua Irinh long hdp chuoi polipeptit bill dau lif axil t d n g h d p c h u o i p o l i p e p t i t nhu* S G K S i n h h p c I d p 12 c h u a n vie'l. g i d i d c a p d p p h a n tu". - T h i r c r a , t r e n r i b o x o m c d 2 v i t r i P ( p e p t i t ) v i i A ( a m i n ) . A x i l a m i n m d d a u va a x i t thu^ nha't d e u du'dc " l a p r a p " t a i v i t r i P v a A n a m t r o n g r i b o x o m . S a u k h i h i n h t h a n h l i e n ke't p e p t i t r i b o x o m q u a g i nffa. - Hitdngddn <• ••'•'^'t:y^;'m N e u r i b o x o m l i e n ke't v d i m A R N d v i t r i g o m c o d o n m d d i t u , t h i a x i t a m i n m d d a u k h o n g du'dc " l o n g h d p " t a i r i b o x o m . D o la d i e u chu'a h d p l i . " L a p r a p " x o n g C a u 3 4 : Tu" dac d i e m c u a m a d i t r u y e n c 6 t h e suy r a d i e u g i ? Hiidiig k c t h d p tao t h a n h r i b o x o m h o a n c h i n h san sang l o n g h d p c h u o i p o l i p e p t i t " . ^ . HUcIng ddn - G e n cii'u t r u e l i i m o t d o a n ciia p h i i n tiV a x i l n u c l e i c . 6 s i n h v a t n h a n thiTc, g e n c a u t r u e c o m a c h x o i i n k e p di/dc cfui t a o tir 4 l o a i n u c l e o t i t t h e o n g u y c n lite b d sung ( A - T , G - X ) 11 Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt Ca'm nang tu 6n va luygn thi Sinh hgc - Phiing Duy D6'ng Gen ( A D N ) la vat chat di truyen d cap do phan tu", chiJa thong tin quy dinh cau true cua protein (thong tin di truyen) thong tin di truyen diTdc ma trong gen bang ma hoa bo ba. - , ^ <«, Nh5 A D N CO cau true 2 mach ddn va lien ket gii?a'2 mach ddn la lien ket yeu (lien ket hidro) va cac nucleotit giffa 2 mach ddn lien ke't vdi nhau theo nguyen tac bo sung, nen A D N c6 kha nang nhan doi. A D N nhan doi theo nguyen tac bo sung va ban bao ton bao dam cho thong tin di truyen chtfa trong A D N difdc truyen qua cac the' he A D N mot each chinh xac. A D N nhan doi dan tdi su" nhan doi ciia gen. Sir nhan doi cua A D N tao dieu C a u 3: A D N CO mach xoan kep gap cf dang sinh vat nao? B ) Dong vat, thi/c vat C) V i r u t , v i khuan D ) Dap an A la dung nha't CSu 4: A D N dang mach vong c6 cf: A ) M o t so v i khuan B ) M o t so virut CSu 5: Gen la: , ^ C ) Lap the, t i the • Xty A) M o t doan A N D B ) M o t doan A R N C) M o t doan a x i l nucleic D ) Dap an C la dung nha't bao du'dc truyen cho the he te bao con mot each chinh xac qua cd che nhan doi B ) Co 2 loai gen la gen mach kcp va gen mach ddn. cua A D N (gen). C) Co 2 loai gen la boat dong va gen bat boat. djch ra thanh: so lu'dng, thanh phan, trat tu" sap xep cua cac axit amin trong chu6i :-m.. CSu 6: Co bao nhieu loai gen? A ) Co 2 loai gen la gen trong nhan va gen ngoai nhan. Thong qua phien ma va dich ma thong tin di truyen chtfa trong A D N diTdc D ) Ca A , B, C. ' kien cho sir phan bao. Nhu* vay thong tin di truyen trong A D N (gen) cua m 6i te - ,, v A ) Sinh vat nhsin thiTc ~- ' ,> 'u '> D ) Co v6 so'loai gen, tiiy vi t r i , cau tao, cbtfc nang,... Cfiu 7: T i n hieu khcfi dong nam d vimg nao cua gen cau true? > "i polipeptit ciia protein va du'dc bieu hien thanh nhifng dac d i e m ve cii'u tao va A ) V i i n g dieu boa B ) V i i n g ke't thiic 1 boat dong sinh l i cua te bao, ciia cd the. N o i each khac chung bieu hien thanh C) V i i n g ma boa D ) Viing van hanh '41 • tinh trang cija sinh vat. C a u 8: V i i n g dieu boa cua gen cau true nam d v i t r i nao? C a u 38: Trong cau true cua A D N c6 cac lien ke't gi? Hudng ddn Co lien ke't hidro giifa cac nucleotit gii?a 2 mach ddn, c6 l i e n ke't hoa t r i giiJa • / <' A ) Dau liiach ma goc B ) Dau mach b d sung C) Cudi mach ma gdc D ) Cudi mach bd sung. f>ri .5 n "3«: C&u 9: V i m g dieu hoa ciia gen cau Iriic c6 chiJc nang gi? i*;: cac nucleotit trong mach ddn (lien ke't phospho dieste) va lien ket hoa t r i giifa A ) Dieu hoa boat dong gen B ) K b d i dong boat dong gen dirdng d v i t r i C so'5 (5') v6[ a x i l photphoric trong moi nucleotit. C) Khcli dong va kiem soat phien ma. D ) Cham dut phien ma. C a u 39: V i sao phan tuf A D N vCra vffng chac vira linh boat? C a u 10: V i i n g ma boa cua gen cau true c6 chiJc nang gi? Hitdng ddn A ) M a boa cac a x i l amin. Phan tur A D N viTng chac la nhd lien ke't phospho dieste giiJa cac nucleotit la \ \i J " ' lien ke't rat vffng chac (nen k h i 2 mach ddn tach nhau ra, chuoi polinucleotit van C) M a n g thong tin ma boa cac axit amin. ton tai). D) C a A , B v i i C . L i e n ke't hidro ra't nhieu nhtfng ne'u vSng chac thi phan tu" A D N khong the *. ' C a u 1 1 : V i i n g ke't thiic CO cbtJc nang gi? ( ' M duoi, xoan tach nhau ra k h i can thiet (linh boat). M a t khac so' lu'dng lien ke't A ) Ket tbue phien ma B ) Ket tbiie dieb ma hidro rat Idn citng gop phan lam cho A D N vffng chac. C ) M a n g tin bieu ket tbue phien ma D ) CbiJa ma ke't thuc ' • >, ' III. CAU HOI TRAC NGHIEM CSu 12: D i e m k b d i dau cua gen nam 5 dau? CSu 1 : A D N ma cau true chi c6 mot mach gap 5 dang sinh vat nao sau day: A)Tbeankhuan B ) Virut C ) V i khuan D ) Ca A va B C f i u 2: M o t so virut vat chat di truyen la A R N . Sir t ^ i sinh cua A R N theo nguyen tac nao? . i^ A ) Nhan doi A R N B ) Sao ma ngiTdc 18 ' B) d codon ibiJ nha't C) D i e m dau lien cua gen D ) (J viing k b d i dong CSu 13: D i e m ket tbue ciia gen nam d dau? C) d diem cudi cung cua gen f ' , i' .< i A ) d ma md dau A ) d vimg ke't tbue K • *; B ) 6 sinh vat nhan tbirc D ) 6 virut ;v., / , , CSu 14: Gen phan manh c6 d sinh vat nao? C) Tong hdp A D N r o i tir do long hdp A R N A ) 6 sinh vat nhan sd B ) 6 sinh vat nhan thirc D ) Bao loan C)6vikbuan D ) 6 virut 19 Cam n a n g til fin vS luyen t h j _ ^ n h _ h Q C - Phiing Uiiy D n i i g Cty TIMHH MTV DVVH Khang ViSt C S u 15: Ma di iruyen la gi? A ) La bo ba ma hoa. C S u 24: V i sao dau 5' c6 mot trinh tU nuclcotit dac hieu khong diTdc djch ma? B) La ma hoa bo ba. A ) V i khong chufa thong tin di truyen. C ) La thong tin di Iruyen du'dc ma hoa. D) Ca A , B, C. B) V i dich ma bat dau d codon md dau u'ng vdi bp ba dau tien trong viing C a u 16: V i sao thong tin di truycn phai ma hoa bang ma "bo ba? ma hoa. A ) V i CO 4 loai nuclcotit. B) V i CO 20 loai axit amin. . > C ) V I qua trinh phien ma bat dau t i f d i e m khdi dau nam tru'dc codon m d dau. * D) Ca B va C. C ) V I ma hoa bo hai khong du dc ma hoa 20 loai a x i l amin. C a u 25: Sir k i c n cat bo cac intron va ndi cac cxon lai xay ra luc nao 6 sinh vat D) Ca A , B , C . C a u 17: M a hoa bo ba va bp ba ma hoa c6 giong nhau khong? Cciu Irii Idi nao nhan thyc? dung nhii't? A ) Gio'ng nhau C ) Giong nhau vi dcu la each ma hoa D) Khac nhau v i ma hoa bo ba la each ma hoa con bo ba ma hoa la mot to hdp cua cac ma hoa bp ba. D) Liic dich ma. C ) Chieu 3' - > 5' ciia mach bd sung D) Chieu 5' - > 3' ciia mach bd sung. • 3' cua mach ma gdc B) Chieu 3' - > 5' ciia mach ma gdc C ) Chieu 5' - > 3' ciia mach ma sao D) Chieu 3' - > 5' ciia mach ma sao. A ) V i axit amin tiT do khong 5 Irang thai hoat dpng. C ) Co chuTa ma di Iruyen nhu'ng khong chu'a axit amin. ^ CaAvaB. B) V i axit amin tU do chu'a lien ket vdi t A R N tUdng u'ng. C ) V i can tao ra phiJc he aa - t A R N de van chuyen axit amin den v i t r i tu'dng ' m u'ng tren m A R N . B) Khong chu'a v i khong lam nhiem vu ma hoa axit amin. 1 C ) Khong chu'a v i mang tin hieu ket Ihiie phicn ma. Cfiu 29: Riboxom c6 chiJc nang g i : D) V i cii A , B, C. A ) N d i dich ma. D) Co chu'a ma di truyen nhu'ng khong ma hoa axit amin. B) Vira la ndi dich ma vifa la khung dd giiTa. m A R N - aa - l A R N va giiJa C a u 20: M a ket thuc (bp ba ke't thuc) c6 chiJc nang gi? A ) DiYng phien ma B) DiTng dich ma • C ) M a n g tin hieu dijfng phien ma D) M a n g tin hieu diifng dich ma • C a u 21: Ma md dau c6 chtfc nang? 3' ciia mach ma gdc C a u 28: V i sao can c6 giai doan hoat hoa ciia axit amin: B) Khong chila v i mang tin hieu khdi dpng va k i e m soat qua trinh phien ma. A ) Khong chu'a v i khong mang thong tin ma hoa cac axit amin. B) Chieu 5" A ) Chieu 5' A ) Khong chiJa v i khong ma hoa axit amin. C a u 19: V u n g ke't thiic c6 chu'a ma di truyen khong? A ) Chieu 3' - > 5' cua mach ma gdc C a u 27: Chieu ciia m A R N diWc tdng hdp C a u 18: O viing d i c u hoa cua gen c6 chifa ma di truyen khong? P codon - anticodt)n liic dich ma. C ) Chuyen dich tren m A R N de t A R N dich ma. D ) C a A , B, C. C a u 30: Qua trinh dich ma bat dau tiT dau? K c l thiic d dau? A ) Mang tin hieu md dau phicn ma B) M a n g tin hieu md dau dich ma A ) Bat dau d d i e m khdi dau va cham dirt d diem ket thiic. C ) Mang tin hieu ciia axit amin thu" nhat B) Bat dau tiTcodon md dau va kcl thiic khi riboxom tiep xuc vdi ma ket thiic. D) Chu'a thong tin ma hoa axit amin md dau C ) Ba't dau d vimg khdi dpng, ket thiic d viing ke't thiic. C a u 22: Ma di truyen trong A D N du'cic phien ma sang m A R N nhd cd che'nao? A ) N h d cd che phien ma B) N h d cd che tdng hdp m A R N C ) N h d cd che djch ma D) N h d cd che tong hdp A R N C S u 23: M a di truyen trong A D N du'cic giai ma nhd cd che' nao? 20 B) Lilc bat dau dich ma C ) Sau phien ma C S u 26: Qua trinh phien ma xay ra theo chieu nao? ' B) Khac nhau D) A ) Liic phien ma D) Ca A v a C d e u d i i n g . Cfiu 31: Qua trinh dich ma diTng lai k h i : A ) Dot bien lam xuiit hien ma kcl thuc :/; ; s 'h , „. -i " i : B) K h i riboxom tiep xiic vdi ma ket thiic A ) N h d cd che dich ma. B) N h d cd che tdng hdp protein. C ) K h i riboxom tiep xuc vdi bp ba U A A hoac U A G hoac U G A C ) N h d t A R N van ehuyen. D) Ca A , B deu dung. D) Ca A , B , C d e u d i i n g . >; - Cty T N H H ' M T V DVVH Khang Vigt Ca'm nang tg fln va luygn thi Sinh hgc - Phiing Duy Dfl'ng C a u 32: Trong qua trinh dich ma, dau lien riboxom gan v6i m A R N d vung nao? C S u 40: A D N c6 tinh on dinh qua cac the' he la nhd A ) O v i Iri dac hieu nam gan codon md dau A ) sao ma. B ) O codon m d dau B ) dich ma. -:<•, , • \. ^^--^ V C ) nhan doi A D N theo nguycn lac bd sung va ban bao ton. _ nsv C ) ( J vung khdi dong r >t':' i - : .; , D ) d vung dicu hoa. i ' . T, D ) nguycn phan. „ C a u 33: V i sao A D N du-dc goi la cd sd vat chat di truycn: ) A ) V i chi?a thong tin di truycn B ) V i CO tinh dac trifng cho moi ca the, moi loai sinh vat va on dinh qua cac the he i7^l"r>vi: (i, • " • C ) V i A D N CO kha nang lai sinh, phan l i , to hap, kha nang bicn di va truycn thong tin d i truyen qua cac the' he 'i . Cfiu 41: Qua trinh nhan doi A D N xiiy ra tao thanh phan nao ciia te bao? A ) N h i e m sac the B ) T i the, lap the j OPlasmit D)Ca A,B,Cdeudung. '\ C a u 42: A D N con duWc tao ra theo nguycn lac ban bao ton nghla la: B ) M o i mach ciia A D N con co 1/2 nguycn lieu cii, 1/2 nguycn lieu m d i . . , C ) M o t mach cua A D N la mach khuon cua A D N me, mach kia du^dc tao bdi cac nucleotit tif do. C a u 34: A D N co d v i t r i niio sau day? A ) Trong nhan tc' bao B ) Trong ti the, hip the C ) Trong phan l o i cua mot so virut D ) Ca A , B, C. D ) M o t nii-a nguycn lieu cii, mot nufa nguycn lieu m d i . cau 43: N g u y e n tac bd sung trong cd che lai ban A D N dan den: )V A ) Ca 2 mach c6 chieu gio'ng nhau B ) L a m cho A D N con co can true gidng hct A D N me. B ) Mach ma goc c6 chieu 3' - > .S'. Mach bd sung c6 chieu 5' - > 3' C ) Gop phan dn dinh tinh Irang ciia loai qua cac the he. C ) Ca 2 mach xoan deu quanh mot true thco chieu D ) Ca A , B , C d e u d u n g . tiif Inii sang phai C a u 36: A D N ma cau true chi c6 mot mach gap d dang sinh vat nao? A)Theankhuan B ) Virut C ) Dong vat nguycn sinh D ) Ca A va B. ; A ) A D N polimcra/a chi Uic dong theo chieu 3' 5' cvia mach khuon. B ) A D N polimcraza tac dong thco nhieu ndi nhu^ng van theo chieu 3' - > 5' ciia mach khuon. C a u 37: Mach danh dau chieu 5' - > 3' nghia la: C ) D c i p an A sai. A ) L i e n ket hoa tri ba't dau tiT cacbon so 5' ciia nucleotil Ihu- nha't, k c l Ihiic d ';' ^ D ) Cii A va B deu sai. " C a u 45: K h i noi de'n doan okazaki dieu nao sau day la sai? cacbon so 3' trong nucleotit cuoi cijng ciia mach do. B ) L i e n ket hoa tri bat dau tir cacbon so' 3' ciia nucleotit thi? nha't, k c l Ihiic d A ) DuWc tdng hdp difa vao mach khuon 3' - > 5'. ''• ./i ^ K ( ' ! / i > l i . B ) Dirdc tdng hdp ngiWc chieu vi'ii mach khuon. cacbon so 5' trong nucleotit cuoi cung ciia mach do. C ) Ca A , B deu ,sai. C ) Dufdc tdng hdp tiVng doan ngiin difa vao nhieu diem ciia mot mach ddn. . D ) Ca A , B deu dung. '* D ) DiTdc tdng h d p difa vao mach khuon 5' - > 3'. C a u 38: Nguyen lac bd sung c6 tam quan trong vt'li crt che di truyen: 1. Nhan doi A N D , • C a u 46: C d che tai sinh ciia A D N co y nghia gi? 2. Hinh thanh mach ddn A ) La cd sd de N S T nhan d o i . 4. Dich ma. B) Dam bao cho A D N difdc 6n dinh ve cau true ham liTdng qua cac the he te bao Cau trii Icli dung la: ' C ) Gop phan dn dinh ciic tinh trang qua cac the he cua k x i i . B) 1 , 3 , 4 . ' C) 1,2,3. D) 1 , 2 , 4 . C a u 39: TCr nguycn tic bd sung c6 the suy ra dicu g i : C ) -77—^ = ^ , ., ;^ C a u 44: Cau nao sai k h i noi ve chieu lac dong ciia cn/.im? D) C a B , C d c u d u n g . A) A + G = T + X . A ) L a m cho tinh dac ihii cua A D N duMc on djnh. C a u 35: H a i mach cua A D N c6 chieu nhif sau: A) 1 , 2 , 3 . j;) uj A ) Trong hai A D N co mot A D N cii va mot A D N m d i . D) V i c a A, B,C. 3. Phien ma ^ B) A + X = so nucleotil ciia mot mach D)CaA,BvaC. D ) C i i A , B, C deu dung. , ' ,,. .;, ' ' C a u 47: T i n h dac ihu ciia A D N bieu hicn ct: A) So lifdng, thanh phan, trinh tif sap xcp cac nucleotil. B ) H a m lifdng A D N . 23 Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi§t Ca'm nang tij On va luygn thi Sinh hpc - Phiing Duy Dfl'ng OTHc D) C ) La enzim xiic tac sif lien ke'l giffa nucleotil tu* do vt'ti nucleotil ciia mach A±l. G +X khuon de tao lhanh mach A D N mdi, theo nguyen tSc bo sung A - T, G - X. Ca A , B, C. D ) La enzim khong phiii lam nhiem v i i long hdp mach md^i ma chi xiic lac C a u 48: N h d diic diem nho A D N c6 tinh cha't viTa vi?ng chac vi/a Hnh hoat, c6 the dong xoan, thao xoa'n, tach nhaii la Ichi can Ihict? A ) So lien kct h i d i o la lien ket yen va nhicu. phiin i^ng tao lhanh mach A D N mt'li. C 3 u 54: NhSng dac diem nao cua ma di truyen the hicn linh thong nhat va da dang sinh gic'ti'.' B ) Hai mach lien ket vc'Ji nhau theo ngiiycn tiic bo sung. A ) M a di iruycn c6 tinh phd bien. B ) M a di truyen khong gdi len nhau C ) L i e n ket hoa trj rat ben. C ) Ma di truyen c6 linh dac hieu. D ) Ca A va B . D ) Ca A , B, C dung. C a u 55: A R N C a u 49: NhCl dac diem nao A D N c6 linh da dang vii tinh dac thii? A) Nhil cau lao da phan. li) Nh(i nguyen trie bd sung. C ) Nhf< A D N la dai phan liV. D ) Nhcl lien ket hidro rat k'Jn. C a u 50: Nhct dac tinh nao c6 sir lien quan giiTa A D N va gen? CO mat ('<: A) Nhan le bao. B ) Te bao chat. C ) M o t so virul. D ) Cil A , B va C. C a u 56: SiTkhac biet trong ca'u tao hoa hpc ciia nucleotil so vc'fi ribonucleotit la: A) Tinh da dang, tinh dac thu. B ) Baz(t nitric vii difclng C^. B ) T i n h dilc trifng, on dinh qua cac the he. C ) Goc - O H trong phiin lii-dirdng C5. C ) Co kha nang tai sinh, phiin li, to hdp, dot bien. D ) Ca A vii B dijng. D) Ca A . B, C. C a u 5 1 : K h i noi ve ma di truyen. cau noi nao sau day khong dung? '• ; Cslu 57: H i i m lu'dng A R N trong l e b i i o thay ddi phii ihupc viio: A ) Te biio con non hay da giii. A ) Ban chat ma di truyen la 1 bo ba ma hoa mot axit amin. B ) Loai mo chiVa te biio do. B) Ban chat ma di truyen la thong tin quy dinh ciic tinh trang ciia cO the. C ) T c b i i o dang phat trien hay dang phan biio. C ) Ban cha't ma di truyen lii trinh lir ciia bo ba trong A D N quy dinh trinh tif D ) Cii A , B vii C deu dung. cac axit amin trong phan ti'f protein. D ) Thong tin di truyen du'dc ma hoa trong A D N bang ma hoa bp ba. C a u 52: C h i c6 khoang l,5V( so nucleotil trong he gen ngircli tham gia vao vice ma hoa cac chuoi polipeptit, so con lai c6 the giff vai tro gi? A ) Khong giu" vai tro gi ca (bat hoat). B ) Tham gia ca'u tao cac inlron, cau tao tarn dong, dau m i l l nhiem .sac the, trinh tif ciic nucleotil dac hieu dc giup riboxom nhan biet cho lien ke'l vdi m A R N , giup A R N polimera/a nhiin bie'l tin hieu khdi dong, tin hieu diTng phicn ma, giiip cha't vie c h e b a m vao de dieu hoa hoat dong gen.... C ) Ca A , B d e u d u n g . D ) Chi CO B dung. C a u 53: K h i noi den chifc nang ciia enzim A D N - polimera/a Irong qua trinh nhan doi A D N , cau niio sau day la dung nhfi'l? A ) La enzim long hdp mach A D N mc'^i. B ) L i i enzim lap rap cac nucleotil liTdo lhanh mach A D N m6i. -'i^ ' A) V i tri lien ket giffa axit, bazd vii difiJng. C a u 58: D i e m khac biet cd biin giiJa n i A R N , l A R N ve cau lao lii: A ) Chung khiic ve so lu'dng ddn phan. B ) m A R N khong c6 ca'u true xoan vii nguyen tiic bd sung, con l A R N ihi ngu'cfc lai. C ) l A R N CO lien ke'l hidro con m A R N thi khong. D ) Cii A , B vii C deu dung. C a u 59: N o i den chu'c nilng cua A R N , cau niio sau diiy sai? | ! A ) m A R N lii ban mil sao luf mach 3' hPp p r o l e i n . ' ' -> 5' ciia gen du^dc dung khuon long ,' ' l ' | B ) r A R N CO vai ird long hdp chudi polipeptit dac biet, tao thiinh riboxom. | C ) l A R N CO chi'rc niing viin chuycn axil amin den riboxom vii trifc ticp dich ma. D ) r A R N CO vai tro tdng hdp eo ihif cap ciia NST. Cfiu 60: A D N vii A R N gidng nhau d diem niio? : ' A) Deu CO 4 loai ddn phan. B ) M d i ddn phiin deu c6 axit, dirdng vii bazct nitric. • • '• " •' ' C ) Lien ket hoa tri giiTa difdng vii axil c6 vi tri gid'ng nhau. D ) Cii A , B , C deu dung. 24 25 Ca'm nang ti; fln f luygn thi Sinh hoc - Phiing Duy Dting C a u 61: NhiTng diem khac nhau ci1 ban ve cau iriic giffa A D N va A R N : A ) So lUWng mach vii so luWng ddn phan. rs';? < - B ) Trong A D N c6 T , khong c6 U , con trong A R N i h i ngiWc l a i , trong A D N co diTfJng C , H | o 0 4 , trong A R N co du-dng C ^ H H I O , . A D N la khuon, con A R N la stin pham du'dc tdng hdp lu" khuon A D N . C) D ) Ca A , B, C dcu diing. Cty TIMHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi6t C S u 67: Y e u to nao sau day chi phdi Idn nhal den tinh dac ihil ciia protein? A ) So lu-dng a x i l amin trong phan tii" protein do. B ) Thiinh phan a x i l amin trong phan tiir protein do. ? 1 , C) T r i n h tu" sap xep cac axil amin trong phan tuT protein do. D) Cau triic khong gian cua phan liV protein do. ,A C a u 68: Qua trinh tdng hdp prdlein qua cac giai doan nao sau day? • Cflu 62: V I dac diem nao trong cd che sao ma mil cau true A R N khac vdi doan A ) Phien ma idng hdp ra m A R N rdi djch ma thanh chudi polipeptil. A D N da tdng hdp ra no: B ) Hoat hoa axit amin va tdng hdp chudi polipeptil. : ; ,1; - ••'•)•/: . A) V I A R N chi diiilc tdng hdp lit mol mach dcJn cua A D N . D ) Ca A , B, C deu dung. ' C ) Nhan d o i A D N (liT sao) tdng hdp m A R N (sao ma) va tdng hdp chuoi B ) V i nguyen lieu ciia qua trinh sao ma (phien ma) la ribonucleotit. C ) V i tdng hdp theo nguyen tac bd sung A - U , G - X . polipeptil (dich mii hay giai ma). ^ji?!•;;),?;;f,'4, D) Ca A va B deu dung. C a u 69: Protein co tinh dac trifng va dn dinh la nhd: che tu" nhan doi ci'ia A D N (tir sao ma, ti/ tai ban): B ) A D N nhan ddi theo nguyen life bd sung va ban bao ton. > • , C ) T r i n h tir cac bo ba trong mach gde (Triplet) quy dinh trinh tif cac codon trong m A R N (qua c d che phien ma), trinh tu" cac codon trong m A R N quy B ) Deu tdng hdp theo nguyen lac bd sung. dinh trinh tiTcac axit amin trong chudi polipeptil (qua cd che dich mil). C ) Deu CO siTxiic tiic ci'ia e n / i m polimera/a va mach mdi deu du'dc tdng hdp D) N h d cii ba diJ kien tren, theo chieu ngu'dc lai vdi mach khuon. C a u 70: N o i dung niio sau day khong dung? D) Ca A , B, C deu dung. C a u 64: D i e m khac hiet giiTa cd che nhan ddi A D N vil c(t che phien ma: ' A ) Cac r i b o x d m chuyen dich trcn m A R N theo chieu 5 ' - > 3 ' tiTng bd ba, liTdng i?ng v d i 1 0 , 2 A " . . A ) Khtic nhau ve khuon (hai mach, mot mach). B ) Khac nhau ve nguyen lieu do moi Irirdng cung cap (loai ddn phan, so B ) Cac anticodon eiia l A R N dich ma sao tren m A R N theo nguyen tiic bd sung vdi tifng codon ihco liTng bifdc chuyen dich ciia riboxdm. krdng ddn phan). C ) Khac nhau enzim xuc lac va nguyen lac bd sung. C ) M i l ket thiie khong du'dc l A R N dich ma. D ) Ca A , B va C deu dung. D) Cd bao nhieu ribdxdm tham gia giiii ma se cd bii'y nhieu phan tuf protein C a u 65: Cac a x i l amin giong nhau va khac nhau i1 thanh phan nao trong cau true ciia no? . ,, A ) Giong nhau d nhom amin, nhom cacboxyl khac nhau d go'c R. B ) Giong nhau d axil, difdng, khac nhau ("t nhom amin. C ) Ca A va B deu dung. , , D) C h i c 6 A d i i n g . ^.^^ C a u 66: N o i dung nao sau day khong dung? A) Lien ket peplil la lien ket giiTa cac axil amin. B ) Thi/c chat ciia HCMI ket peplil \h lien ket hoa I r i . C ) LiC-n ket peptit difdc thifc hien giiTa nhom - C O O H ciia axil amin nay vdi nhom - NH2 ciia a x i l amin ben canh (loai irCr mot phan liV H . O ) . D) So lien kel peptit bang sd^ axil amin ciia chudi polipeptil. 26 4 , > ^ A ) A D N ed tinh dac tru'ng va dn dinh. J d , .^^ 'uh^'-'fua u C a u 63: D i e m giong nhau giiTa ed che tdng hdp A R N (sao ma, phien ma) va c d A ) Deu diTa vao A D N lam khuon. :; du'dc tdng hdp. r- ,^ C S u 71: Y e u i d niio giu" vai tro dicu hoa tdng hdp protein? , A ) Gen dieu hoa s;in xual ra prdlein lYc che. , B ) V i i n g khdi ddng de A R N polimera/.a bam viio de phien ma. C ) V i i n g viin hilnh do protein u'e che bam vao ngan can phien ma. D) Cci 3 yeu i d A , B vii C. , , '[ . , ^ C S u 72: Cau niio sau day khong diing? A ) M i l m d dau co chiJc nang khdi dau dich ma. B ) Bo ba m d diiu co chuTc niing ma hoa axil amin m d d;1u. C ) B d ba m d dau co chiJc niing khdi ditu phien mii. . D) Dich ma bill diiu iCr bo ba m d ditu tren m A R N . C a u 73: Cau niio sau day khong dung? ,'' ' A ) M a ket thiic quy djnh tin hicu ket thuc dich ma. B ) M i i ket thuc la cac bo ba: U A A , U A G , UGA. . 27, Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi^t Ca'm nang t i / fin va luygn thi Sinh hoc - Phung Duy D6'ng Lo^i 2: Xac dinh ca'u Iriic ciia phan tuf C) Ma kct thuc quy djnh tin hieu ket thi'ic phicn ma. D) Ma kc'l thiic nam d vung kct thuc ciia gen cau true. ,. - , C a u 74: V i t r i ciia bo ba mc'f dau nam ("J vung ciia gen, ciia m A R N , ciia chudi polipcptit do gen do tdng hdp. Loai nay c6 rat nhieu bai, chiing toi chi difa ra mot loai, chifa lha'y gap trong cac sach bai tap. A) khc'-fi dgng ciia gen. B ) dieu hoa ciia gen. C) ma hoa. D ) Ca A, B va C dcu dung. C a u 75: Cau nao sau day dung? i TiT mo'i quan he giiTa cac qua trinh phien ma va giai ma c6 the xac dinh cau true V i d i i : M o t gen rat ngiin du'dc tdng h(

A : T : G : X = a : a : b : b hoac ,,,.,.,-,,.,,„,„,,„,,,.., a 1. Tir cac v i dii cu the hay khai quat va cho biel: V i d u : A : G - 3 : 1 ^ A : T : G : X = 3 : 3 : I : 1. Co 4 loai nucleotit, neu to hdp bo 1, bo 2, bo 3,..., bo n thl se tao ra bao nhicu to help. 2. Neu chi c6 3 loai nucleotit A , X , G to hdp bo ma, se ma hoa di/dc bao nhieu axit amin. D i e u nay trong thifc te CO .xiiy ra khong? 3. Se CO bao nhieu id hdp cac bi) ba c6 chii'a it nha't 1 ribonucleotit loai A (DS: 37). 4. So to hdp cac bo ba chiVa 2A va 1U (DS: 8). 5. Co bao nhieu cac to hdp bo ba khong chiJa X (DS: 27). Gdi y trii Icfi: Lap biing to hc.Jp de tim hoac suy ra iCl' cong thu'c to hdp. a b b 2a + 2b N N Do do: A = T = — X 3; G = X =— x 1 ( N la long so nucleotit) 8 8 - So lien ket hidro - 2 A + 3G = 2T + 3G - 2A + 3X = 2T + 3 X . - So lien ket hoa tri trong 1 mach dcJn = N - 1 va trong phan tii" A D N = 2N - 2 (giiira axil va diTcJng). - So lien ke't hoa trj giffa cac nucleotit trong A D N = N - 2. - 'iv^j j.,^,,., . . So nucleotit trong mot vong xoan = 20 nucleotit. b) Can cii" vao mdi lien he giffa khdi lifclng phan tvf ( M ) , sd' Ming nucleotit (N), so lu'dng ribonucledtit (Nn,). so lu'dng axit amin (aa) va chieu dai (D) ciia cac phan tOr c6 the dien la mdi lien he do qua sd do sau: - ' • • 29 Cam luygn thi Sinh lioc - I'liung Duy D6ng nang ttj 6n Cty TIMHH MTV M(j,en) > < Chia 300 Nhan 300 Chia 300 N(gcn) < . • , Chia 110 Nhan 120 l-'(Chuoi poiipcptil) • Hoac Suy \ Nhan 300 N{mARN) M ( C h u o i polipcpltl) - so'nucleotit c u a mot m a c h r a : A + X = 1500 Giai la 1500. C ( p h U d n g t r i n h thi? h a i ) h e phu'dng trinh i A + X = 1500l A = 600=T > A=600 X=900 = G J DVVH Khang Vi?t yidu 2: Tim so' nucle6tit cua gen bie't so' lien kct hidro ciia g e n do la 3900. Va s6' lien ke't hoa trj giiJa cac nucleotit trong mot mach ddn lii 1499. Chia 2 nhan 3,4 Nhan 3,4 Chia 3, 4 nhan 2 Chia 3,4 Nhan 3 HUihig ddn Chia 3 A Doc de ta tha'y ngay 2 dieu kien, can ci'r vao mot dieu kien ta lap mot phi/dng trinh. Giai he phu'dng trinh bac nha't 2 an so ta c6 ngay dap an. ¥ T ^(gcn) MmARN) L(Chiioi IDlipcplil) Theo s d do tren khi dau bai cho bie't ba't ki mot yeu to niio Irong bang ta c6 the suy ra ta't ca cac yeu to khac trong bang. c) Can cu" vao mo'i quan he giiJa gen va mARN A, T, G, X, T . A2 X2 G2 Bie't so hen kct hidro bang 3900 ^ 2A + 3G = 3900 (1) Bie't so hen ke't hoa tri bang 1499 -> A + G = 1500 (2) Giai he phuTdng trinh niiy ta du'dc: , . , ,, / ' X =: G = 900 va A = T = 600 , Loai 5: Tim so' % moi loai ddn phan Cach giai nhu'ng bai toan thuoc loai nay cung tiTdng ti; nhiT each giai toan loai gen 4 da de cap tren. ' ' >• Can luu y: mARN •A(m) U ( m ) + De bai khong can cho biet 2 dieu kien nhiT d dang toan loai 4 ma chi can X(m) ^(m)(m) cho bie't mot dieu kien la du, vi mot dieu kien tat yeu da bie't la tong so % cac loai Til" mo'i quan he tren suy ra: A = T = A(n,) + U ( | „ ) . G nucleotit bang 100% ^ A % + X % = A % +G % = T % + G = X = G(n,) + A | = T 2 = A(m). T i = A 2 = U ( m ) . G| = X 2 Loai 4: Tim so l i f d n g moi loai ddn phan G(m). X| = G 2 = X(m). - Co 4 loai nucleotil nhu'ng vi A = T, G = X nen ta chi can tim so" lu'dng cua 2 loai nucleotit khong bo sung vdi nhau se bie't du'dc so lu'dng cua 4 loai. - Nhu" vay nhflng bai toiin ihuoc loai nay c6 2 an so, buoc de phiii c6 2 dieu kien. - Can cH vao moi dieu kien trong de bai ta lap mot phu'dng trinh bac nha't mot an so'. Giai he phu'dng trinh bac nhii't 2 an so ta se tim ngay ra dap an. Vidu 1: Bie't chicu dai cua gen la 0,51|jm gen co .so'nucleotit loai A - 600. Tim so'nucleotit moi loai cua gen do. HU('mg ddn - Theo de bai ta CO ngay phuTdng trinh 1 la: A = 600 - Bie't A = 600 T = 600. Nhu- vay an so thiJ hai phai tim la so loai nucleotil khong bo sung vdi A. Do la G hoac X. - Dieu kien thi? hai trong de bai khong noi ro so' nucleotit nhu'ng can cu" vao mo'i lien he giffa chicu dai gen (L gen) vdi so nucleotit ciia gen (N gen) trong bang he thong d muc 2 ta bie't ngay so'nucleotit cua gen la: 0,51x10^ A 3,4 30 = 1500x2. = T % + X % = 50% X(m). (c6 nghia la to'ng % cua 2 loai nucleotit khong bd sung nhau bang 50%) - Vi du: Bai loan cho bie't A = 20%. ta c6 ngay he A + X=50%1 A=20% phu'dng t r i n h : A = T = 20% J^X=G=30% Dieu kien cho bie't c6 the la mot trong 9 yeu to Irong bang he tho'ng (2) da trinh bay d tren. Tijr dieu kien do co suy dieu kien la can. + Hoc sinh thiTdng nham Ian khi tim so' lifdng moi loai nucleotit vdi so % m6i loai khi cho bie't so lieu trong moi mach ddn. Vidu: • A =3001 ' = > A = A , + A , - 3 0 0 + 200=500 A2=200j ' ^ A|=iO%l _ A | % + A 2 % 10+30 Nhu'ng ^=>A%=—! ^ =—-—=20% ^A2=30%j 2 2 ' i >' ChiJ khong phai A % = 10% + 30% = 40% (vi so vdi so Idn gap doi thi so %' giam21an). Loai 6: Toan ve c d che nhan doi cua A D N \ Muo'n giai loai loan nay can nam vilng: 1. Mot vongxoan dai 34A" CO 10 cap nucleotil. , 31 Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt Ca'm nang ti; 6n va luygn thi Sinh hgc - Phung Duy DO'ng d) Co bao nhieu lu'dl lARN du'dc dieu den de giai ma cho mARN? 2. Phan tu" ADN c6 2 mach ngiMc chieu nhau, mach ma goc c6 chicii 3' —> 5' e) Co bao nhieu axil amin duTdc lien ket vao cac phan luT protein de thifc hien va mach bd sung c6 chieu 5' 3'. Mach 5' ^ 3' la mach c6 lien ke'l hoa lri bill chiltnang? _ a'>;i;'f''v dau liY C so 5 (5') ciia nucleolil ihi? nha'l va kel ihi'ic cJ' C so 3 (3') ciia nucleolil Hiidng dan cuo'i Cling. - Tir chieu dai cua gen la 0,51 jam c6 the tinh diTdc so nucleotit cua gen la: 3. Ci? moi nucleolil c6 mol lien kel hoa lri giiJa diftJng c) vi tri C so'5 vdi axit pholphoric ciia nucleolil do (5' - P). ^ : ^ x 2 = 3000 ' • 3,4 4. Ciic nucleolil ke liep nhau trong moi mach ddn lien ket vcli nhau bhng lien A = 28% 1 A=T=28% kel hoa tri (con goi la lien ke'l phosphodiesle) gii^a C so 3 (3' - OH) cua - Giai he phiTdng trinh: ^=> _ nucleolil nay vd\l ciia nucleolil ben canh. ^ A + X=50%J G = X = 22% •, , . 5. Ciic nucleolil giiJa 2 mach dOn lien kel vcfi nhau bang lien kel hidro iheo Tiir do suy ra so'nucleotit moi loai: \< i . • nguyen utc bo sung. Do do: 98 22 - So lien kel hoa tri giffa cac nucleotit trong ADN biing N - 2 (N: long so A = T = 3000x—=840; G = X = 3000x -660 nucleolil trong ADN). 100 100 - 'Sau 5 ddt nhan doi lien tiep so lifdng nucleotit moi loai can cung ca'p la: - So lien ket hoa lri giiJa axil pholphoric va difc^ng deoxiribozd Irong ca A = T = (2' - 1) X 840 = 26040 nucleolil r ,r phan liVla 2N - 2. G = X = (2^ 1) X 660 = 20460 nucleolil - So lien ket hidro trong ADN la: 2A + 3G = 2A + 3X = 2T + 3G = 2T + 3X - So lien ket hidro bj pha v3: (2' - 1)[( 840 x 2) + (660 x 3)] = 113460 - Sau moi Ian tai sinh so lien ket hidro bi pha hi'iy bang 1/2 so hen ket hidro - So' lien ket hoa tri diTdc hinh thanh (phan tu" A D N dau lien khong phai du'dc tai lap, so lien kel hoa tri du"* lhanh lap bang so lien ket hoa lri cua ADN me. - Sau n Ian Uii sinh lien tiep ciia mot phan tiJ ADN se lao thanh 2" phan tufhinh thanh): (2' - 1)(3000 - 2) = 92938 ADN nhiTng nguyen lieu chi can cung cap cho 2" - 1 phan ti;'!" ADN difc/c lao - So lu-dng mARN du'dc long hdp tir cac gen con: 2^x3 = 96 mARN ^^^^^^^ - Tong so'ribonucleolil moi tru'dng cung ca'p: 96x1500 = 144000 lhanh (suy tii" nguyen tile bitn bao ton). 9 - So' lu'dt lARN can du'dc dieu de to'ng hdp mot chuoi polipeplit la: Logi 7: Toiin ve dich mil. • i ^ - 1 = 4 9 9 liTdt (VI ma ket thuc khong can tARN) '* 1. So niiich polipeplit diMc tiio ihiinh phu Ihuoc so'Ian sao mil (so mARN) va so riboxom irirdt Iren mot philn tu" mARN. Bai 2: Mot gen c6 chieu dai 0,408|jm. Hieu so nucleotit loai A vdi loai nucleotit 2. Xiic dinh thcfi gian long hrip chuoi polipeplit: khac la 240. Khi gen nhan doi, thdi gian tiep nhan va gan cac nucleotit loai A mat 15 giay. Th(ti gian long hilp 1 chuoi polipeplit bang Mli gian litp riip moi axil amin a) Tinh thdi gian can thiet de gen tif nhan doi mot Ian, biet rang thdi gian nhan vdi so axil amin du^dc lap rap. Hoac bang do dai phan tu" mARN chia cho tiep nhan va lap rap moi nucleotit deu nhu' nhau. van toe cua riboxom. b) Ne'u thdi gian hoan thanh long hdp 1 mARN tren gen mat 30 giay, tinh 3. Xac dinh van toe riboxom: Viin toe cua riboxom bang do dai phan HJ" van to'c sao ma (theo ribonucleotil/giay) mARN chia cho thcii gian riboxom Iru'Ot Iron mARN. c) Ne'u tren moi mARN c6 6 riboxom trUdt qua thdi gian giai ma 1 axit amin 4. Xiic dinh chieu diii cua mARN, ciia gen bang lich Viin toe ciia riboxom vdi tna:' t 0,2 giay. Khoang each thdi gian giffa 2 riboxom ke tiep nhau 1,4 giay. Cac thdi gian tr^dt ciia no Iren mARN,... riboxom chuyen dpng deu va each deu nhau. ^ .iv B A I T A P VAN D V N G - Tim van to'c cua riboxom? Bai 1: Mot gen eo chieu dai (),51|jm. Co A = 28% so' nucleotit cua gen. Gen • nhan doi 5 liin lien tiep Ifio ra cac gen con. Moi gen sao mii 3 liin, moi m;~i sao cho 5 riboxom Iru'dl qua khong Ird h i . a) Tinh so lu'dng moi loiii nucleolil moi tru'dng cung ca'p cho gen nhan doi? b) Trong qua Irinh nhan doi do gen can phii vd bao nhieu lien kel hidro, hinh thanh them bao nhieu lien ke'l hoa trj givta ciic nucleolil? c) Tong so'ribonucleolil moi lru"cfng ciin cung cap cho cttc gen con sao ma? 32 - Thdi gian cua qua trinh long hdp protein? ^, ^ HUcfng dan • Tir chieu dai cua gen bang 0,408 \im -> so" nucleotit cua gen la 2400 => A + G = 1200. A--G = 240 1 A = T = 7 2 0 Giai he phifdng trinh: A + G = 1200j G=X=480 ^3 Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vigt Ca'm nang ti; 6n va luygn thi Sinh hpc - Phiing Duy Pgng Thdi gian ticp nhan va gan cac nucleotit loai G (hay X) vao mach mdi bang: , 480x15 Thdi gian can thie't de gen tiT nhan doi 1 Ian: 10 giay + 15 giay = 25 giay , ^ _ 1200rib6nucle6tit ... Van toe sao ma: = 40 ribonucleotit/giay 30giay Thdi gian Ccin thiet de tdng help 1 chuoi polipeptit: 1200 — ^ X 0,2 giay = 8 giay - Van toe trifdt cua riboxom: (1200 x 3,4 A") : 80 giay = 51 A"/giay. - Thdi gian tiep xuc cham cua riboxom tren mARN: 1,4 giay x 5 = 7 giay - Thdi gian ca qua trinh tdng hdp protein: 80 giay + 7 giay = 87 giay Bai 3: Ba doan gen deu c6 600 nucleotit: , . AG + TX 1 2 Doan gen 1 CO 3:ti le A + T=—. G+X 3 G+X 2 Cho biet trong 3Adoan + T=gen , . do thi moi doan c6 bao nhieu Hen ke't hidro. Doan gen 2: 1 Dap so': Doan gen 1: 800 lien ke't hidro. ' Doan ge.n 2: 750 lien ket hidro. Doan gen 3: 780 hen ket hidro. A+T Bai 4: Neu 2 gen c6 cung so lien ket hidro la 1300, gen c6 ti le = 1, con G+X gen 2 CO ti le A—+ Tc 2h o bie't gen nao c6 so liTdng nucleotit nhieu hdn va ^ Z CO 11 ~• G + X ^ 3 ; nhieu hdn bao nhieu? Dap so': - Sdlufdng nucleotit cua gen 1: 1040 - So liTdng nucleotit cua gen 2: 1000 - So liTdng nucleotit gen 1 nhieu hdn gen 2 la 40. Bai 5: Mot gen c6 chicu dai 0,255|jm, c6 hieu sdgiiJa T vdi loai nucleotit khong bd sung bang 30% so nucleotit cua gen: mARN diTdc tdng hdp tijf gen do c6 U = 60% so ribonucleotit tren mot mach ddn cua gen c6 G = 14% so nucleotit cua mach va A b^ng 450 nucleotit. 1. So'lUdng nucleotit cua gen va cua tijrng mach ddn cua gen. 2. SdlUdng va ti le % tijfng loai ribonucleotit. ^ •* 3. So' lu'dng axit amin can cung cap cho qua trinh tdng hdp protein. Ne'u gen sao ma 4 Ian, trung binh moi mARN c6 8 riboxom trufdt khong lap lai. 4. Tinh khoang each deu giiJa cac riboxom (theo A"). Ne'u bie't thdi gian de tdng hdp xong mot phan tiir protein la 125 giay, thdi gian tiep xuc ciia mARN vdi 8 riboxom het 153 giay, cac riboxom each deu nhau khi trU'dt tren mARN. Dap so: . .....i . ,„.:v,...„^:''^';-v.i..„ t-.. - Sdnucleotit cua gen: 1500 . . - So liTdng nucleotit tiifng loai: A = T = 600. G = X = 150 - So liTdng ribonucleotit tren mARN: G(m) = 45. X(m) = 150. U(m) = 450. A(m) = 150 - So'axit amin cung cap: 7968 - Khoang each giffa cac riboxom: 81,6 A" Bai 6: Khi cho tdng hdp mot phan tijT mARN gen pha di?t 3600 lien ket hidro. Moi tru'dng te'bao cung cap 155G va 445X. Gen do sao ma khong vu'dt qua 4 Ian da can tdi 1500 ribonucleotit loai U. Sau do do nhu cau can tdng hdp them, protein gen lai tiep luc sao ma (tdng hdp mARN) va tao nen cac mARN mdi lai cantdi2625U. 1. Chieu dai cua gen v^ so lu'dng nucleotit cua gen. 2. So' lu'dng tiJCng loai ribonucleotit tren moi phan tuC mARN. 3. Vdi gia thie't neu tren ma so ma sao tao ra td'i da, moi ma sao (mARN) cho 5 riboxom tnfdt mot Ian thi moi tnldng npi bao phai cung cap cho bao nhieu axit amin. Co bao nhieu lU'dt tARN mang axit amin tdi giai ma? Dap so': - Chieu dai gen: 5 lOOA". - So liTdng nucleotit moi loai: A = T = 900. G = X = 600. ;' - G„, = 155, Xn, = 445, A„ = 525, = 375. , , ^ .^JM^Q^ - So axit amin cung ca'p: 27445. ' s"' - So' liTdt tARN tiTdng i^ng vdi so axit amin cung cap: 27445. ' Bai 7: Mot gen c6 hieu so % nucleotit loai G vdi nucleotit khong bd sung vdi no b^ng 20% va G = 1050 nucleotit. Tren mach ddn thii'nha't cua gen c6 A, + Gi = 600. Xi - Ti = 300. Khi tdng hdp mARN moi triTdng da cung cap 1350 ribonucleotit loai X. Moi phan tuf mARN c6 6 riboxom trU'dt qua mot Ian de tdng hdp protein. 1. Tinh khdi liTdng phan til cua gen? 2. Chieu dai gen? 3. So Irfdng va ti le % moi loai ribonucleotit cua mARN. ' 4. Tdng so axit amin diTdc lien ke't tren cac phan tuT protein de thifc hi6n chtfc iiang sinh hoc. Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi?t ca'm nang t\) 6n va luy$n thi Sinh hpc - PhCing Duy flB'ng 5. Thdi gian cua qua trinh tong hOp protein va khoang each deu ve do dai giu"a cac riboxom tren mARN? , Bie't rang thdi gian tong hdp protein deu ma't 1 phiit 40 giay. Khoang each ve thdi gian giffa 2 riboxom la 1,4 giay. Bai todn nay c6 2 each ^idi: Cdch nidi tM nhcit: Can ciJ vao dieu kien cua bai loan ta lap he phUdng trinh bac nha't CO 2 an so': T + X=50%' . >A=T-13,7%; G-X=36,3% T = 13,7% Dap so': - Kho'i lu'dng phan tuf cua gen 9.10'dvc • - Chieu dai gen: 0,51 |Lim . A = T = 15% = 450. G = X = 35% = 1050 - A„ = 300. Un, = 150. Gn, = 600. X^, = 450. - So'axit amin: 8964 - Thdi gian cua qua trinh to'ng hdp protein: 107 giay; khoang each giiJa cac Cdch fiidi tM hai: Khong can giai ma loai bo cac dap an khong dung vdi dieu ; kien cua bai toan: •-•-M^ ' ' ' "• Bai toan tim ti le phan tram ti^ng loai nucleotit bao gid cung phai phii hdp vdi dieu kien: A riboxom la 71,4 A". < % + X % = A % + G %) = T % + X %. = T % + G % = ^ = 50%) 2 Ta tha'y ngay cac dap an A , C, D deu khong phii hdp vdi dieu kien nay. Do Bai 8: Mot gen khi tong hdp 1 phan tij" mARN da lam dut 3450 hen ket hidro. do dap an phai la B. Trong gen hieu so' % loai A vdi loai khong bo sung vdi no bang 20% tong so Bai 2: Gen dai 3005,6A", C6 hieu giffa nucleotit loai T vdi loai nucleotit khac la nucleotit cua gen. Tren mARN so'ribonucleotit loai 0 = 300, loai A = 600. 272. So'lu'dng nucleotit moi loai ciia gen tren la: 1. Tinh so'lu'dng nucleotit moi loai cua gen? A) A = T = 289;G = X - 1 5 3 2. Chieu dai gen va kho'i lu'dng phan tu" cua gen? C) A = T=:578;G = X = 306 3. So lu'dng ribonucleotit moi loai tren mARN? B) A = T = 153; G = X =: 289 - D) A = T = 306; G = X = 578 HUdng ddn 4. Neu gen noi tren nhan doi lien ticp 5 ddt thi moi tru'dng noi bao da cung V i A = T va G = X nen chi can tim 2 loai nucleotit khong bo' sung nhau, nghla cap them moi loai nucleotit la bao nhieu? Trong qua trinh do c6 bao nhieu lien la bai toan chi c6 2 an so'. Do do can giai he phu'dng trinh bac nha't c6 2 an so'. ket hidro bi pha huy? Bao nhieu lien ket hoa tri difdc hinh thanh giiJa cac nucleotit? Phu'dng trinh thiJ nha't c6 the tha'y ngay la T - X = 272 con phu'dng trinh thiJ hai 5. Ne'u moi gen con tao ra sao ma 3 Ian, moi ma sao (mARN) cho 5 riboxom khong CO trong de bai toan. De chi cho biet chieu dai gen la 3005,6 A " vay thi tru'dt qua khong trd lai thi moi tru'dng da cung cap bao nhieu axit amin? Trong so' phu'dng trinh thiJ hai chac chan phai suy ra tCf dieu kien nay. That vay, chieu dai do CO bao nhieu axit amin du'dc lien ket vao cac phan tuf protein. Khi chung thi/c cua gen la 3005,6 A " ma moi nucleotit dai 3,4 A " . Nen so' nucleotit moi mach hien cac chut nang sinh hoc. Ne'u cho biet moi phan ttJf protein la mot chuoi polipeptit. Dap so': - A = T = 1050; G = X = 450 - 5100 A". 9x10'dvC. - Gm = 300; X „ = 150; An, = 600; U „ = 450. - A = T = 32550. G = X = 13950; 106950 hen ket hidro, 92938 hen ket hoa tri. - So axit amin cung cap: 239520, so' lu'dng axit amin lien ke't thiTc hien chiJc ddn la: ^ ^^^' ^ = 884 nucleotit. So' nucleotit trong mach bang tong so' nucleotit cua gen. Do do: T + X = 884 nang: 239040. T - X = 272l Giai he phi/dne trinh: •' ^ T + X = 884j A - T = 578 G = X = 306 • ^ - ; Vdi bai toan nay chi can can ciJ vao dieu kien hieu giifa T vdi loai nucleotit khac la 272 (T - X = 272) ta tha'y ngay dap so' la C vi tat ca cac dap so khac deu khong phii hdp vdi dieu kien cua de bai. V. B A I T A P T R A C N G H I E M Bai 3: Mot gen c6 tich giiJa 2 loai nucleotit khong bo sung bang 6%, ti le tifng Bai 1: Gen c6 so' nucleotit loai Timin bang 13,7% to'ng so' nucleotit, ti le phan tram tijfng loai nucleotit ciia gen tren la: A) A = T = 13,7%. G = X = 8,73% B) A = T = 13,7%. G = X = 36,3% C ) A = T = G = X = 13,7% D ) A = T = G = X = 36,3% loai nucleotit cua gen la: A) A = T = 30%. G = X = 20%. B) A = T = 35%.. G = X = 15%. C) A = T = 40%. G = X = 15%. D) A = T = 15%. G = X = 40%. 37 Cam nang tg 6n va luyen Ihi S i n h hoc - Phung Duy Ddng Hudng ddn Vi tdng so % cua 2 loai nucleotit khong bd sung nhau phai bang 50% nen chi CO 2 dap an A va B la phu hOp (loai dtfOc 2 dap an) tie'p tuc xet den dieu kien tich giffa 2 loai khong bd sung bang 6% ta loai them dtfOc dap an B. Vay con lai dap an A la dung. Bai 4: Mot gen c6 ti le giffa cac loai nucleotit la tirong quan ve gia tri G+X 7 giffa cac loai nucleotit tinh theo ti le phan tram la: i A) A = T = 35%;G = X = 15% \ B) (G + T ) % = (A + X ) % = 50% ,^ , v,,^ , C) A G = A X = T G = T X = 5,25% D) Ca A, B va C deu dung. HUclngddn Yi bai toan tim ti le % moi loai nucleotit chi can biet mot dieu kien la du, vi tdng ti le % cua 2 loai nucleotit khong bd sung bao gid cQng bang 50%. NhiT vay ta thay ngay dap an B la dung. Can ci? vao dieu kien de bai phai c6 ^^-5^1=1. Tu" dieu kien nay ta biet them G+X 7 dap an A ciing dung. Tir dap an A ta CO the suy ra ngay dap an C ciing dung. Nhu" vay c6 3 dap an diing. Bai 5: Mot gen c6 tdng so 2 loai nucleotit la 90%. Ti le phan tram tifng loai nucleotit cua gen tren la: A) A = T = 45%; G = X = 5% B) A = T = 5%; G = X = 45% C) A = T = 40%; G = X = 50% D) A va B diing. HUdng ddn Ddi chieu vdi dieu kien cua bai toan la tdng so 2 loai nucleotit la 90% thi dap an D va C la sai, 2 dap an con lai A, B deu diing. Khi xet den dieu kien tat ye'u phai c6 la tdng so % 2 loai nucleotit khong bd sung vcti nhau la 50% (dieu kien nay khong can c6 trong de bai) thi dap an D va C cung sai, con dap an A va B deu dung. Tai sao nhu^ vay? Vi dieu kien de bai cho biet tdng 2 loai nucleotit chicm 90% thi c6 the xay ra 2 tru^dng hc^p A + T = 90% hoac G + X = 90%. Do do bai toan c6 2 dap so: tog v6i tru-dng hdp A + T = 90% thi c6 dap so la A. Lfng vdi tru-dng hop G + X = 90% thi c6 dap an B. Bai 6: Gen c6 T > X va T ' + X' = 0,065. Gia tri nao la diing? A) A = T = 10%; G = X = 40% B) T^ = 5%; X^ = 1,5% D) G^ = 3,5%; T^ = 3% 38 C) A^ = 0,04; G-^ = 0,025 X X X X Cty TNHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi^t HUdng ddn Ta thay ngay de bai khong the giai du^dc bang each giai phu-Ong trinh (vi thieu dieu kien). Nhtf vay chi c6 the giai bang phiTdng phap loai trif. Vi T > X nen ca 3 d^p an B, C, D deu sai. Vay con lai dap an A la dung. De khang dinh A la dung ta thay ke't qua phii hdp vdi nguyen tac bd sung: A + G = T + X = 50%. Bai 7: Gen c6 96 chu ki xoan va ti le giiJa cac loai nucleotit la A = - G. So Wdng ti^ng loai nucleotit cua gen la: A) A = T = 120; G = X = 360. B) A = T = 240; G = X = 720. , C) A = T = 360; G = X = 120. D) A = T = 720; G = X = 240. HUdng ddn De bai co 2 dieu kien, du de lap he phu-dng trinh bac nhat 2 an so. Nhtfug khong can thiet, ta thay ngay dap an C va D khong dung vi khong phii hdp vdi dieu kien A = G. Con dap an A khong diing vi khong hdp vdi dieu kien con lai cua de bai la gen c6 96 chu ki xoan. Vay B la dap an cua bai toan. Bai 8: Gen dai 4080A", so lien ket hidro trong doan tiT (2700 - 3000) va c6 tich giii-a 2 loai nucleotit khong bd sung la 5,25%. Ti le phan tram va so lien ket hidrd cua gen la: A) A = T = 35%; G = X = 15% va 2700. B) A = T = 15%; G = X = 35% va 2760. ' C) A = T = 35%; G = X = 15% va 3240. D) A - T = 35%; G = X = 15% va 2760. HUdng ddn - Vi ca 4 dap an deu dung vdi dieu kien tich giffa 2 loai nucleotit khong bo sung la 5,25% va dung vdi nguyen tac bd sung. NhiT vay chi con mot each giai duy nha't la can ciJ vao dieu kien gen dai 4080A" de suy luan tiep. Nhu^ng tir chieu dai ciia gen de suy ra tdng so 2 loai nucleotit, khong the suy du"dc so lien ket hidrd. Vi vay, khong the suy luan bang phtfdng phap loai trij", ma phai giai bkng phu"dng phap lap he phu'dng trinh nhU sau: Gen dai 4080A" ^ A + X = 1200 (1) Theo de bai lai c6: A x X = 5,25% (2) ^ So lien ket hidro la 2760. Nhu" vay dap an A va D dung (vi deu c6 lien ket hidrd 2760) nhifng giai PhiTdng trinh cho thay A > X. Do do chi D dung. BAITAP VANDVNG Mgt mach ddn cua gen c6 1799 lien ket hoa tri giffa axit vd dUifng vd gen c6 2030 lien kit hidro. Hay suf dung cac di?kien tren tra Idi cac bai trac nghiem so 9, 10. fiai 9: Gen c6 khdi lu-dng: A) 540300 dvC B) 1080600 dvC C) 540000 dvc D) 1080000 dvC : 39 Cty TIMHH MTV DVVH Khang Vi^t ca'm nang ti; 6n va luyjn thi Sinh hgc - Phiing Duy D6ng C) Bai 10: So' li/dng tiifng loai nucleotit cua gen la: A ) A = T = 270. G = X = 630 B) A = T = 670. G = X = 230 C) A = T = 230. G = X = 670 D ) A = T = 1340. G = X = 460 a::^ loai nucleotit khdc Id 10%. ,. A ) 1147,5 A " B) 4590 A " C ) 2295 A " D)9180A". B) A = T = 405. G = X = 270 A, B) A, C) A, A) = 240; T, = 600; G| = 240; X| = 120. = 200; T , = 500; G, = 300; X , = 200. • = 300; T i = 200; G, = 300; X , = 400. ' C) A = T = 540. G = X = 810 D ) A = T - 810. G - X = 540 A) ket hidro cua gen vdi lien ket hoa tri trong niQt mach dcfn cua C) A A " • " ' , , = T = 1050; G = X = 450 B) A = T = 1050; G = X = 500 = T = 1050; G = X = 480 D) A = T - 1050; G = X = 405 Bai 21: Chieu dai cua gen la: A)0,51|jm. hidro cua gen la 2551. B)0,48|jm. C ) 0,498Mm. D ) 0,480|jm. Bai 22: So liTdng ribonucleotit tren m A R N l a : Surdung cac d i ^ k i e n tren, tra 151 cac bai tap 13, 14. Bai 13: So lien ket hidro va lien ke'l hoa tri giffa axit va diTdng trong gen tren la: A ) 4050 va 2998 B) 4050 va 5998 C ) 5998 va 4050 Bai 14: T i le % tiTng loai nucleotit cua gen la: D ) 4050 va 5998 0 2400. B) 1200. D) 1800. B)500. C ) 600. D) 400. Bai 24: M o t gen c6 A^ - G^ = 5% gia t r i nao sau day dung? B) A = T = 2 0 % ; G = X = 15% C) A = T = 15%; G = X = 3 5 % D) A = T = 3 5 % ; G = X = 15% Mot gen CO 120 chu ki xoan. Hieu so % nucleotit loai A v6i nucleotit A) 1500. Bai 23: Gen tren m a hoa du'dc mot chuoi polipeptit gom bao nhieu axit amin? A ) 498. A) A = T = 3 0 % ; G = X = 20% A) khong bo sung v&i no bang 20%. Tren phdn tv[ mARN tdng hcfp tU gen do c6 X,„ = 120 ribonucledtit. A' D)Ca3dapandeudi]ng. Bai 25: M o t gen c6 A > G v a A H G^ = 17%. Gia t r i nao sau day diing? A D ) Ca 2 cau A v a B deu dtlng. Mach thii nhat ciia gen dai 0,2448 |im. d mach dm tint hai c6 ti le cac loai fi A ) A = T = 3 5 % ; G = X = 15% B) A = T = 4 0 % ; G = X = 10% C) A = T = 3 0 % ; G = X = 2 0 % D ) A = T = 25%; G = X = 40% nucleotit A, T, G, X idn iMt la 1: 7: 4: 8. SuT dung cac du" k i e n tren de l a m bai so" 26, 27, 28. Bai 16: So'liTcing m o i loai nucleotit cua gen do la: Bai 26: T i le % tufng loai nucleotit A, T, G, X tren mach dcfn thtf nhat Ian liTdt la: A ) A = T = 8 4 0 ; G = X = 360 B) A = T = 800; G = X = 400 A ) 5%, 2 0 % , 3 5 % , 4 0 % . B) 4 0 % , 3 5 % , 2 0 % , 5%. C) A = T = 6 0 0 ; G = X = 400 D ) A = T = 700; G = X = 500 C) 4 0 % , 2 0 % , 3 5 % , 5%. D ) 3 5 % , 5%, 4 0 % , 2 0 % . Bai 17: T i le m oi loai ribonucleotit tren m A R N la: Bai 27: So liTdng tufng loai nucleotit A, T , G, X tren mach thu" h a i Ian lifdt la: A ) A „ = 2 0 % ; G „ = 2 0 % ; X^, = 10%; U „ = 5 0 % . A ) 36, 252, 288, 140 B) A „ = 10%; G^ = 2 0 % ; Xn, = 3 0 % ; U „ = 4 0 % . 0 C) A „ = 3 0 % ; G „ = 10%; X„, = 2 0 % ; U^, = 4 0 % . , B) A = T = 2 0 % = 288 240; X^, = 120. ' " D ) 3 6 , 2 5 2 , 144,288. , , ' ,. v a G = X = 30% = 432 C) A = T = 1 2 , 5 % = 1 8 0 v a G = X = 37,5% = 540 ' B) A „ = 200; U „ = 500; G „ = 400; X ^ = 100. , , 252,36,288,144 A > A = T = 3 0 % = 4 3 2 v a G = X = 2 0 % = 288 Bai 18: So lifdng m o i loai ribonucleotit tren m A R N la: ,40.,, , B) 288, 144, 252, 36 Bai 28: T i le % v a so liTdng tiTng loai nucleotit trong gen tren la: • D ) A „ = 2 0 % ; Gn, = 3 0 % ; X,„ = 15%; U „ = 35%. = 600; G„, ^ B) T + X = A + G = 5 0 % . = T = 4 0 % . G = X = 10% C) A^ = 10%. G^ = 7%. Bai 15: T i le % m o i loai nucleotit cua gen la: ' '^ ' B) A - G = 10%. = 2 5 % . G^ = 2 0 % . C) A = T = 3 0 % . C = X = 2 0 % . A) Hay su-dung cac d f f k i e n tren tra Idi cac bai so 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. A ) A „ = 240; - Bai 20: So lU'dng m o i loai nucleotit cua gen: gen Id 5549. Trong do lien ket hoa tri trong mgt match dm it hm so lien ket * = 240; U„, = 120; G„, = 600; X„, = 240. Hay surdung d i ^ k i e n tren tra Idi cac bai so 20, 2 1 , 22, 23. A ) A = T = 270. G - X = 405 " Mgt gen c6 khdi lU0ig phdn tiC 9.10^ dvC, trong d6A = 1050 nucleotit. Bai 12: So'lu'cfng tilfng loai nucleotit cua gen tren la: Tdng so'lien ::i D ) A i = 400; T, = 300; G, = 200; X , = 300. Bai 11: Chicu dai cua g e n t r e n la: : = 300; U „ = 200; G^ = 240; X „ = 260. Bai 19: So'liTdng m o i loai nucleotit trong mot mach cua gen la: MQtgen chvta 1755 lien ket hidro va c6 hieu so'giffa nucleotit loai X vdi mot S u r d u n g d f f k i e n t r a I d i c a c b a i 11, 12. D) A^ A^ ,, . D ) A = T = G = X = 2 5 % = 360. 41

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