Skkn cách viết một số dạng bài luận tiếng anh 9

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PHÒNG GIÁO DỤC & ĐÀO TẠO HUYỆN YÊN LẠC TRƯỜNG TRUNG HỌC CƠ SỞ ĐẠI TỰ BÁO CÁO KẾT QUA SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CÁCH VIẾT MỘT SỐ DẠNG BÀI LUẬN TIẾNG ANH ( BỒI DƯỠNG HỌC SINH GIỎI LỚP 9) Môn Tổ bộ môn Mã Người thực hiện Điện thoại Gmail : Tiếng Anh : Khoa học xã hội : 41 : Đặng Văn Dương : 0987 967 208 : Greenocean981@gmail.com Yên Lạc, năm 2013 0 MỤC LỤC Nội dung PHẦN MỞ ĐẦU Trang 2 I. Lý do chọn đề tài 1. Cơ sở lý luận 2. Cơ sở thực tiễn 2 2 2-3 II. Mục đích của đề tài 3 III. Đối tượng nghiên cứu 3 IV. Phương pháp nghiên cứu 3 V. Phạm vi và thời gian nghiên cứu 3 PHẦN NỘI DUNG 4 II. Descibing places/ Buildings4-6 I. Describing people 6-8 III. Describing festivals/ events/ ceremonies 8-9 IV. Narratives V. Discursive Essays 9-11 1. For and against essays 2. Opinion essays 3. Essay suggesting solutions to problems 4. The essay plans for the three types of discursive essays PHẦN KẾT LUẬN VÀ KIẾN NGHỊ19 VI. Kết quả ứng dụng và bài học kinh nghiệm I. Kết luận II. Kiến nghị TÀI LIỆU THAM KHAO 11 11-14 14-15 15-17 17 19 19 19-20 24 1 PHẦN MỞ ĐẦU I. LÝ DO CHỌN ĐỀ TÀI: 1. Cơ sở lý luận: Ngay từ khi bắt đầu học tiếng Anh, các em học sinh đã được tiếp xúc với bốn kỹ năng cơ bản của ngôn ngữ, đó là: nghe, nói, đọc, và viết. Đây là những kỹ năng quan trọng của người thầy trong việc truyền thụ kiến thức cho học sinh. Trong đó viết là một kỹ năng khó cho người học, nó đòi hỏi người dạy phải nắm được phương pháp giảng dạy hiệu quả và thực hiện tốt nguyên lý “Học đi đôi với hành”. Xuất phát từ quan điểm "lấy người học làm trung tâm’’, phương pháp dạy và học đã có những thay đổi căn bản. Người dạy không phải là người duy nhất nắm giữ kiến thức và truyền đạt kiến thức mà chỉ là người hướng dẫn, người hỗ trợ, người cố vấn, người kiểm tra..Người học không còn là người thụ động tiếp thu kiến thức mà là trung tâm của quá trình dạy học, chủ động sáng tạo trong quá trình học tập nhằm đạt được kết quả cao trong học tập và biết vận dụng vào thực tế cuộc sống. Dạy ngoại ngữ nói chung, dạy tiếng Anh nói riêng việc đổi mới phương pháp dạy học là rất quan trọng.Ngoài việc nắm vững kiến thức ngôn ngữ ,thực hiện tốt kĩ năng nghe, nói, đọc thì kỹ năng viết cũng đóng một vai trò quan trọng không kém. Dạy viết là một trong những nội dung cơ bản và thực sự là sự kết hợp tinh tế của việc giảng các kỹ năng ngôn ngữ khác. Từ những luận điểm trên việc áp dụng các phương pháp dạy viết như thế nào để giúp học sinh thực hiện một bài viết Tiếng Anh tốt, nghĩa là đảm bảo chính xác về yêu cầu bài viết, ngữ pháp, tính sáng tạo trong bài viết là rất quan trọng. 2. Cơ sở thực tiễn: Trong quá trình dạy và học tôi nhận thấy: Kĩ năng viết là một trong những kĩ năng khó nhất trong các kĩ năng. Nó đòi hỏi học sinh phải có vốn từ vựng, hiểu các cấu trúc ngữ pháp, các ý tưởng để lập dàn ý khi viết bài. Đặc biệt các em phải nắm được từng kiểu bài luận cần viết như thế nào. Kĩ năng viết giúp cho học sinh tái hiện lại những gì đã được học, giúp các em thực hành sử dụng ngôn ngữ một cách hiệu quả và đồng thời cũng luyện chữ viết cho các em. Kĩ năng viết phát huy khả năng sáng tạo của học sinh, nó phản ánh kết quả của quá trình nghe, nói, đọc, ngữ pháp, từ vựng của học sinh, thể hiện được mặt mạnh, mặt yếu, đồng thời nó cũng giúp cho giáo viên dễ dàng nhận thấy lỗi sai của học sinh hơn là khi nói. Hoạt động viết là một khâu rất quan trọng trong quá trình dạy và học Tiếng Anh. Đặc biệt đối với đối tượng là học sinh giỏi, ở mỗi cấp thi các em thường xuyên gặp phải những bài viết luận. Nhiều khi các em lúng túng, lẫn lộn không biết mình phải viết kiểu gì, trình bày bài luận ra sao, dùng những cấu trúc câu nào cho hợp lí.... Vì vậy tôi mạnh dạn chọn đề tài " Cách viết một số dạng bài luận Tiếng Anh" này để giúp các em nắm được cách viết một số 2 kiểu bài luận. Từ đó nâng cao hiệu qủa giảng dạy bộ môn, đặc biết chất lượng học sinh giỏi môn Tiếng Anh lớp 9. II. MỤC ĐÍCH CỦA ĐỀ TÀI: Từ thực tế trên, tôi không ngừng nghiên cứu, học tập, thực nghiệm những phương pháp, thủ thuật dạy viết để tìm ra cách dạy viết có hiệu qủa nhất như: - Giúp học sinh nắm được cách viết một số dạng bài luận. - Giúp học sinh biết cách sử dụng các cấu trúc ở từng phần trong bài luận - Rèn luyện cho học sinh có tính tư duy độc lập. - Giúp học sinh lòng yêu thích môn học, khắc phục tâm lí sợ bài luận khi tham gia các kỳ thi học sinh giỏi các cấp. - Giúp giáo viên hiểu sâu hơn về cách viết một số dạng bài luận III. ĐỐI TƯỢNG NGHIÊN CỨU: - Về qui mô: Tìm hiểu vận dụng các phương pháp dạy viết luận - Về không gian: Học sinh giỏi môn Tiếng Anh lớp 9- THCS, các dạng viết luận trong chương trình Tiếng Anh THCS - Về thời gian: Khảo sát từ tháng 8 năm 2010 đến nay. IV. PHƯƠNG PHÁP NGHIÊN CỨU: - Dựa trên đặc trưng bộ môn Tiếng Anh, theo phương pháp đổi mới dạy học cấp THCS. - Dự giờ đồng nghiệp để tìm hiểu thực trạng kĩ năng viết ở trường THCS - Áp dụng các hình thức viết khác nhau như bài viết có hướng dẫn hay bài tập viết sáng tạo. - Tham khảo kĩ năng dạy viết qua sách, báo, những thông tin liên quan trên mạng Internet. - Tiếp thu các ý kiến của đồng nghiệp để rút kinh nghiệm, chắt lọc các phương pháp hay để áp dụng cho phù hợp. V. PHẠM VI VÀ THỜI GIAN NGHIÊN CỨU: 1- Phạm vi nghiên cứu: Nghiên cứu sách giáo khoa, khai thác các thông tin trên Internet, các tài liệu có liên quan, xác định thể loại và dạng bài viết để xây dựng tiết dạy bồi dưỡng cho phù hợp. Thực nghiệm các học sinh tham gia đội tuyển khối lớp 9 trong trường THCS Đại Tự. 2- Thời gian nghiên cứu: Trong các năm học 2010-2011, 2011-2012 và 2012-2013 3 PHẦN NỘI DUNG I. Describing people: 1. Introduction: Who the person is/ When and how you first met or saw him/her. 2. Main body: + Physical appearance: height/build, age, facial features, hair, clothing ( From the most general aspects to the most specific detail) Eg: Bill, who is in his early twenties, is quite tall and well-built, with thick black hair and piercing blue eyes. He is usually dressed in jeans and a T-shirt. + Personality/ behavior(with justification/examples): give examples of manner and mannerism Eg: Mark is rather unsociable, usually sitting silently in a corner abserving others from a distance + Life/ lifestyle/beliefs: talk about the person's habits, interests, profession, daily routine, opinion, etc Eg: Being both a university student and a part-time assistant in a supermarket, Tom has little free time to go out in the evenings. 3. Conclusion: Comments/ feelings about person * Tips: If the instruction for the writing task ask you to describe someone related to the present, you will describe the person using Present tenses eg: " Describe a person who is unusual..." If you are asked to describe somebody related to the past. Somebody who is no longer alive or somebody you met some time ago, you will describe the person using Past simple tenses. * Linking words and Structures: Writing which contains a series of short sentences or the same simple linking words(such as"and") soon becomes boring and repetitive. To avoid this, you should use a wide range of linking words and structures - with: She is tall and striking, with long blonde hair - Relative Clauses: who/which/whose My neighbour, who is slightly eccentric, has dozens of filthy cats He is a scruffy child whose clothes are torn and dirty. He has a broken nose, which makes hims look like a boxer. - Result: so/such (a)...(that) She is so beautiful that she looks like a film star. - Addition: in addition to, as well as/ besides, moreover, furthermore, not only... but also...,etc. He is very tall, in addition to being very thin. 4 My grandmother has deep wrinkles, as well as thin grey hair. He is not only artistic, but also a successful businessman. - Contrast: but/yet/However/Nonetheless/Even so + Clause Although/(Even) though/ While + Clause In spite of/ Despite + -ing form/noun/the fact that He is temperamental, but/yet he is a loyal friend. He looks as through he's an old man. However, he is only 35. Although he has a huge, powerful body, he's a very gentle person. In spite of being very busy, she always has time for her children. - Linking cause and effect: She is open and friend.(cause) She is popular.(effect) Because/as/since owing to/due to(+-ing/noun/the fact that)... As a result/consequence of A/the result of ...is... ; as a result,... She is popular because she is open and friendly. She is popular due to being/due to the fact that she is open and friendly. A result of her being open is that she is popular. ..., so... therefore/for this reason... The reason(that/why)...is... She is open and friendly, so she is popular. She is open and friendly, therefore she is popular. The reason she is popular is that she is open and friendly * Impressions, Opinions and Reactions: I think/feel/etc (that) It seems to me that To me/To my mind As far as I'm concerned In my opinion/view/eyes Sb seems/ appear to be... Sb stribes people/comes across as (being)... Sb gives the impression of being.../ the impression that... I/ people/etc find/ consider sb to be... I think of/ see/ regard sb as being... * Compoud Adjectives: Compound adjectives are formed with - present participles: a hard-working student - past participles: an open-hearted young man - cardinal numbers + nouns: a three-year-old boy - well, badly, ill, poorly + past participle: a well-intensioned friend Topic: A Close Friend Jacques has been my close friend for two years. I first met him on a school exchange trip to Calais, France. I asked him the way to the library and we started talking. We've been friends ever since. 5 Jacques is quite good-looking. He's tall and slim, with olive skin and curly dark hair. Like many French people, he has a great sense of style, so he always looks well-dressed even in casual clothes. Jacques is very outgoing. He is always friendly and loves to have fun. He's got a fantastic sense of humour and he always makes me laugh. However, he can be a bit immature at times. For example, when he doesn't get what he wants, he acts childishly and stamps his feet. Jacques is very keen on water sports. He likes sailing and he spends a lot of time on his boat. He enjoys scuba diving, too, and loves exploring life under sea. All in all, I'm glad to have Hacques as my friend. It's a pleasure to be with him and I really enhoy his company. I'm sure we'll always be close friends. II. Descibing places/ Buildings 1. Introduction: name/ location/ population of the place, reason for choosing the place. + Factual information such as age, size, colour, material, etc. Eg: The temple, with 10-meter tall marble columns, was built in 800BC + Details relating to the senses ( sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste) to suggest mood and atmosphere Eg: Visitors' footsteps on the wom stone floors echo through the cool, dark corridors, disturbing the tranquil silence 2. Main body: general features and particular details + Place: surroundings, sights, facilities, free-time activities + Building: surroundings, detailed description of exterior/ interior. 3. Conclusion: Comments/ feelings or a recommendation * Notice: - Each aspect of the description should be presented in a separate paragraph beginning with a clear topic sentence. - Present tenses are normal used when describing a place for a tourist brochure or a magazine article. - Past tenses are normal used when describing a visit to a place/building. - First and second conditionals(will/would) can be used when you describe your ideal city/house,etc - When we give factual information about a place or building this is normally given using Present tenses Eg: I flew to Madrid last Monday. Madrid is situated in the central point of the Iberian peninsula with a population of about 3,000,000. * Expressing Impression & Reactions - You can express positive impressions of a place by: 6 + using a variety of adjectives such as: breathtaking, delightedful, eyecatching, outstanding, picturesque, etc. + using a variety of present or past participle from such verbs as: astound, amaze, astonish, impress, refresh,etc. Eg: I was/felt astounded at how beautiful Florida is in winter. + using a variety of nouns in expressions such as: to my amazement/ astonishment/ delight/ surprise/etc. Eg: To my delight, the place had kept its character. - You can express negative impressions of a place by: + using a variety of adjectives such as: disreputable, inhospitable, neglected + using a variety of present or past participles from such verbs as: disappoint, shock,etc. Eg: ... the disappointing view of the unsightly housing. + using a variety of nouns in expressions such as: to my disappointment/surprise/etc. * Useful language: Explaining Impression The most noticeable/outstanding feature of the place is its golden garden A huge statue of a lion is the first thing one notices upon entering the temple Without doubt, the most impressive thing about San Francisco is the Golden Gate Bridge. The thing which makes the strongest/most enduring impression is the hospitality of the locals. The first thing one notices about the house is its overgrown garden. The reason that the area is so depressing is that there are so may derelict buildings * Making comparisons: To compare places or building you can use - (just/nearly) as ... (positive degree) ... as Eg: In those days the main streets were just as congested as they are today - The same as Eg: The cottage was the same as it had been fifty years before. - (relatively/considerably) less ... (positive degree) ... than Eg: The new buildings are considerably less ornate than the old ones. - (much/far/considerably) more + adjective/ adverbs + than Eg: The northern area is more picturesque than the eastern area. - (by far) the most + adjective Eg: Hill Manor is by far the most elegant hotel in the region. - comparative + and + comparative Eg: The streets are becoming dirtier and dirtier. 7 - the comparative ..., the + comparative Eg: The further south you travel, the warmer it becomes. Topic: Describe your school I study in XYZ Secondary School. It is one of the best schools in Singapore. It consists of several Roman style buildings. Our school has all the facilities of a modern school, such as well furnished and airy class rooms, best laboratories, a big library with a huge collection of books, a vast play ground and even a swimming pool. Our school building is situated in the middle. There is motorway leading from the main entrance. The playground is on the left of the motorway and a big garden on the right. When you enter the building, the principal’s room is on the left. They are all well furnished. There are twenty classrooms. Our laboratories are well equipped. The school library has an up-to-date collection of books on many subjects. Our librarian and her two assistants are very helpful. Our school, like other schools, has prescribed a uniform for us. We have to wear white trousers, a white shirt and a black tie. The girls have to wear white shirts and skirts. Our principal is very strict as he pays strict attention to behavior, punctuality and cleanliness. The most well-behaved and punctual student will be assigned as the class prefect. Our principal is a strict disciplinarian. He accepts the help and advice of all teachers. Though our principal is strict, he is fair and loving. He tries to find out the reason and guides us. If one violates any rules, he will be punished. Our principal is very strict in this aspect. Our teachers are also very strict. They teach us with the utmost care, guide us with our assessments and other preparations and help us in times of need. I like my school very much and am proud to be a student of that school. III. Describing festivals/ events/ ceremonies: 1. Introduction: Set the scene ( name,time/date, place of event, reason(s) for celebrating) 2. Main body: Preparations( decorations, rehearse,etc.) Description of actual event (costumes, food, atmosphere, activities,etc.) 3. Conclusion: feelings, comments, thoughts * Notice: When you describe annual events( a celebration/festival which takes place every year), present tenses are used and the style is formal. However, when giving a personal account of an event which you witnessed or took part in, past tenses are used and the style may be less formal. The passive is frequently used to describe preparations/ activities which take place. 8 Eg: Pumpkins are carved and placed in windows and costumes are designed Topic: Indian Festival The Milwaukee Native American Indian Festival is truly and amazing event. For three days in September every year, thousands gather in Milwaukee, USA, to celebrate Indian culture. Last year, I was lucky enough to attend the festival and experience it for myself. The preparations take months. Dance teams from all over the country practise to compete in the tribal Pow Wow dance contest. Indian craftsmen work to produce the many traditional items on display. Then, in the week before the festival, the stalls are put up and the food is prepared, so that everything will be ready for the big day. The celebrations began at 4pm and there was plenty to see and do. I visited a traditional Indian village, watched skilled craftsmen carve totem poles, and even learned how to do tribal Indian dancing. It was also a great opportunity to sample some traditional native dishes, like corn bread and buffalo burgers. The festival was fun, entertaining and educational. It was a wonderful way to learn about Native American culture and celebrate the end of summer. IV. Narratives: 1. Introduction: Set the scene ( Who/what/when/where) Sets the scene(place, time, character(s), etc.), creates an intersting mood/ atmosphere to make the reader want to continue reading, and/or begins dramatically to capture the reader's attention. 2. Main body: Develope the story ( Describe incidents leading up to the main events and the event itself in detail. Describe people/ place/ emotions/ actions/etc) 3. Conclusion: End the story(complete the plot; describe feelings/ reactions; explain the conspuences) * Notice: - Before writing, you must first think of a suitable story outline, the you should decide on a detail plot, including how the story will begin, who the characters will be, where the story will happen, the events in the order you will present them, and how the story will end. - Narratives are normally set in the past, and therefore use a variety of past tenses.For example, Past Continuous is often used to set the scene (eg: The wind was howling...); Past simple is used for the main events(eg: He entered the room, looked around, and...); Past perfect is used to describe an event before the main events(eg: She had set out in the morning, full of hope, but now she felt...) - The sequence of events is important: before, after, then, in the evening, later, in the end, until, while, during, finally, etc. * Techniques for beginning or ending stories: - You can start your story by: + describing the weather, place, people, etc, using senses 9 + using direct speech + asking a rhetorical question + creating mystery or suspense + referring to feelings or moods + addressing the reader directly - You can end your story by: + using direct speech + referring to feelings or moods + describing people's reactions to the events developed in the main body. + creating mystery or suspense + asking a rhetorical question. * Past tenses and time words: - Past habits are not described using Past Continuous. In stead, use Past Simple, "used to" or "would", with an appropriate adverb of frequency. Eg: When I was child, my father often told me/ sometimes used to tell/ would always tell me stories to get me to fall asleep. ( Adverbs of frequency: always, usually, frequently/often, sometimes/occasionally, seldom/rarely, never) - Past continuous: Eg: I was watching TV while he was trying to phone/when there was a knock on the door/ at 3 o'clock yesterday. Time words/phrases: (at the same time) as , meanwhile, when, while - Past perfect: Eg: By the time I arrived, my friends had already left. Time words/phrases: after, as soon as, before, by the time, no sooner, not until, once,(only) when. - Inversion: + Some words, especially adverbs of frequency and time words/phrasals, are followed by inversion when they are used at the beginning of a sentence. Eg: Never Tom had imagined that he would find himself in such a situation. + The words/ phrasals followed by inversion are negative in meaning: Never(before/again), No sooner, No longer; Nowhere Not often, Not always; Not only(... but also) Seldom/Rarely = "not often" Hardly ever/anywhere =" almost never/nowhere" Not until. Not before Only when = "not until/before", Only if = "not unless" Eg: No sooner had I stepped under the shower than the doorbell rang Not only was I exhausted, but also extremely hungry 10 "Not until/before" and "Only when/if" are followed by inversion in the second part of the sentence. Eg: Not until it grew dark did they stop searching for the missing dog. Topic: Tell about the memories of your childhood? The memories of childhood have their own kind of nostalgia. With the passage of time, one feels more attached to this childhood, the best period of a man’s life. A child has no worries, anxieties and no work. He is free from the dirty and filthy noises of the world. His motto of life remains: eat, drink and be merry. The charm of childhood cannot be forgotten. These memories have everlasting impression on one’s life. When I recollect the days of my childhood, I feel very delighted over the pleasant period which I spent in my spirits. In my childhood I was carefree, having no worries at all. I used to wander like a deer in the open field and enjoyed the natural beauty in the gardens along with my other companions. Certain incidents are still fresh in my mind. For instance, at the age of five, I got a severe attack of typhoid. In those days, medical science was not so advanced, so in the absence of a proper diagnosis, I was reduced to a skeleton. After taking medicine for a long period, I was cured. The doctor advised me to go to some hill-station. So my father took me to Da Lat. Due to this attack in my early age, I became very weak and I still had not been able to recover my health. Another thing I still remember is my swimming accident. It was on a Sunday that I went with my friends for a picnic at Vung Tau beach. Some of us were expert swimmers but unfortunately I did not know much about swimming. My friends plunged into the sea in order to swim and persuaded me to do the same. Soon I was caught by the swift current in the water and was carried away. My scream of panic was heard by my friends who rescued me from drowning. I was really very grateful to them for saving my life. It is this period of childhood which has been described by poets and writers. To recollect the past is to plunge ourselves in a state of nostalgia. Wordsworth, the immortal poet of England, and a great worshipper of nature, describes in his poems his childhood period, which, to him, was full of pleasant memories. I too miss those good old days which had flown by so quickly. V. Discursive Essays: There are three main types of discursive essays 1. For and against essays: Present both sides of an issue, discussing points in favour of a particular topic as well as those against or the advantages and disadvantages of a particular question. Each point should be supported by justifications, examples, and/or reasons. The writer's own opinion should be presented only in the final paragraph. * Useful expressions and linking words/phrases: - To list points: 11 Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with Secondly, Thirdly, ..., Finally - To list advantages: One/Another/A further/ An additional(major) advantage of ... is ... The main/greatest/first advantage of ... is ... - To list disadvantages: One/Another/A further/ An additional(major) disadvantage/drawback of ... The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage/drawback of ... Another nagative aspect of ... - To introduce points/arguments for or against: One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of ... / against ... A further common criticism of ... / It could be argued that ..., It is often claimed/suggested widely argued/maintained that generally felt/believed/held Some/many/ most people/experts/ scientists/sceptics/ critics claim/suggeste/argue/feel that ... maintain/believe/point/agree/hold that ... advocate ( +ing/noun)/support the view that ... oppose the view that all in favour of/against ... 0f the opinion that/convinced that ... opposed to ... - To add more points to the same topic: In addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention ( the fact) that, also, not only ... but also/as well, both ... and. There i s another side to the issue/question/argument of ... - To make constrasting points: on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, it may be said/argued/claimed that, ... Others/ many peole Oppose this viewpoint ( strongly) disagree ..., Claim/feel/believe this argument is incorrect/misguided Although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that Opponents of ... argue/believe/claim that ... 12 The fact that ... contradicts the belief/idea that While it is true to say that ..., in fact While/Although ... , it cannot be denied that ... - To intruduce examples: For example, for instance, such as, like, in particular, particularly, especially, This is (clearly) illustrated/shown by the fact that ... One/A clear/striking/typical example of (this) ... The fact that ... shows/illustrates that ... - To emphasis a point: Clearly, obviously, it is obvious, naturally, of course, needless to say, indeed - To express reality: In fact, the fact (of the matter) is, actually, in practice, it is a fact that, in effect - To make general statements: As a (general) rule, generally, in general, on the whole, by and large, in most cases - To make partially correct statements: To a certain extent/ degree, to some extent/degree, in a way/sense, this is partly true (but), to a limited extent, there is some truth in (ths), in some cases, up to a point - To explain/clarify a point: In other words, that is to say, this/which means that - Conclusion expressing balanced considerations/opinion indirectly In conclusion, On balance, All things considered, Taking everything into account/consideration, To conclude, To sum up, All in all, Finally/Lastly, it can/must be said/claimed that ... it seems/appears that ... it would seem that ... it is likely/unlikely/possible/foreseeable that ... it is clear/obvious that ... there is no/little doubt that ... the best course of action would be to ... achieving a balance between ... would be ... it is true to say that although it must be said that ... it may be concluded/said that ... All things considered, the obvious conclusion to be drawn is that .../ There is no absolute answer to the question of ..., In the light of this evidence, it is clear/obvious/etc that ... In conclusion, All in all, It is Clear/apparent plain/obvious from above Evidence Points 13 To sum up, evident foregoing arguments - Conclusion expressing opinion directly: In conclusion, On balance, All things considered, Taking everything into account/consideration, To conclude, To sum up, All in all, Finally/Lastly, It is my belief.opinion that ... I (firmly) believe/feel/think that ... I am convinced that ... I am inclined to believe that ... I (do not) agree that/with ... Taking everything into account, I therefore conclude/feel/believe (that) ... For the above - mentioned reasons, therefore, I (firmly) believe that ... Topic: Should teachers give pupils too much homework? Discuss. Many people now think that teachers give pupils too much homework. They say that it is unnecessary for children to work at home in their free time. Moreover, they argue that most teachers do not properly plan the homework tasks they give to pupils. The result is that pupils have to repeat tasks which they have already done at school. Recently many parents complained about the difficult homework which teachers gave to their children. The parents said that most of the homework was a waste of time, and they wanted to stop it. Spain and Turkey are two countries which stopped homework recently. In Denmark, West Germany and several other countries in Europe, teachers cannot set homework at weekends. In Holland, teachers allow pupils to stay at school to do their homework. The children are free to help one another. Similar arrangements also exist in some British schools. Most people agree that homework is unfair. A pupil who can do his homework in a quiet and comfortable room is in a much better position than a pupil who does his homework in a small, noisy room with the television on. Some parents help their children with their homework. Other parents take no interest at all in their children’s homework. It is important, however, that teachers talk to parents about homework. A teacher suggests suitable tasks for parents to do with their children. Parents are often better at teaching their own children. 2. Opinion essays: Present the writer's personal opinion concerning the topic, clearly stated and supported by reasons and/or examples. The opposing viewpoint and reason should be included in a separate paragraph before the closing one, together with an argument that shows it is an unconvincing viewpoint. The writer's opinion 14 should be included in the introduction, and summarised/ restated in the conclusion. - Useful Expressions for giving Opinions: To my mind/To my way of thinking, ... It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction (that) ... In my opinion/view ... My opinion is that, I (firmly) believe ... I (definitely) feel/think that ... I am (not) convinced that ... I am inclined to believe that ... I (do not) agree that/with ... It seems/appears to me ... It strikes me that ... As far as I am concerned, ... Topic: Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Maybe someone will choose to study with a group of students, and they can give you sound reasons for their choice. I prefer to study alone because I am sure that study alone will profer you with silence, freedom and enough choice, which is indespensible for a student, but regretly, group study cannot offer. First, when you study alone, you will not be abstracted by the sound made by other students from your study. It is fretful that when you want to study hard but others drone beside your ears like bees. And always you will be angry enough to begin to quarrel with them. That will certainly lead to an unfruitful study. Second, many people have their own study styles. Some want to have something to eat when he is studying, some want to lie down with a book in his hand, while still some want to study without anything doing. And when you study alone, you can take your favorite way and needn't regard what others feel. Third, studying alone profer you with enough choice as you want to do. You can have your media playing, you can open the window, also, you can sing your song when you are in a high spirit. That is great. I always sing a good song when I solve a difficult problem and to think that nobody will criticise you for making noise is a lovely experience. So, may there some problems for studying alone, I'll prefer to study alone. 3. Essay suggesting solutions to problems: In which the problems associated with a particular issue or situation are analysed and possible solutions are put forward, together with any expected results/ consequences. The writer's opinion may be mentioned, directly or indirectly, in the introduction and/or conclusion. * Notice: - Present each point in a separate paragraph - Well-known quotations or though-provoking statements are useful devices to make your composition more interesting. 15 - Before writing, you should always make a list of the points you will present - Do not use informal style or very strong language( eg: I know, I am sure...) - Useful language for Essay suggesting Solution to problems: + To express cause: since/because, in view of/because of/owing to/due to (the fact that) ... The season that .../why .../for ... is that ... + To express effect: thus/therefore/so/consequetly/ as a result/consequence, the result of ... would be ..., .... would result in ... + To express purpose: so that ..., so as/in order (not) to ..., with the purpose of/intention of (+ing) + To express possibility/probability: It can/could/may/might ..., It is possible/probable/(unlike)ly/forseeable/certain that ..., ... is (unlikely) to/bound to/certain to/possible/probable ... The likelihood/possibility/probability of (-ing/noun) is ... - Useful Expressions: Problems & Solution: Steps Measures Should Must/ could be taken So as to Solve/overcome/combat ... In order to Deal with/eradicate ... Serious attempts to halt/prevent/solve ... must be made. One (possible) Another An alternative solve/overcome combat/deal with eradicate way to People Governments We should focus their/ our attention on ways this problem Would be/ the problem (of) ... is ... to solve/overcome the problem of ... to improve the situation of ... to reduce the impact of ... on society ... If steps/measures were taken to ... If ... happened/were to happen If attempts were made to address the problem The effect/result/ Consequence would be ... By (+ing) ..., we/governments/etc, can ensure that/ prevent ... The ... situation could be improved if .../ It would be good idea if ... The effect/consequence outcome/result Of (+noun/ing) would might be Topic: The difficulties in learning English and how to overcome them Beginners of foreign language always meet difficulties from the outset. For me, I had to overcome these problems when I started learning English. English pronunciation is my first obstacle. The pronunciation in English puzzles me a lot because the same letter has different sounds. For example the letter “a” in “bath” is not pronounced in the same way of that in “bathe”. The 16 “ou” in “South” is also different from “ou” in “Southern”. Generally verbs and nouns are pronounced differently although they are written the same. Record is a good example to illustrate it. In order to solve this puzzling question I carefully study The A.P.A (The International Phonetic Alphabets) which helps me pronounce English words correctly. In order to have an accent just like the native speakers, I often listen to tapes and repeat after them, trying to imitate them. Moreover, my everyday conversation with the foreigners I meet in the street will enable me to acquire a proper accent. Compared with French, English grammar is much easier. However, this does not mean that learners meet no difficulties in learning it. It took me a long time to learn how to master the tenses in English grammar, to endeavor to do as many grammar exercises as possible and read various grammar books. In writing English, English language has its own style. In order to drill writing skills, I have tried to read famous novels of distinguished America and English writers. I enjoy the humorous style of writing in Mark Twain’s masterpieces, the elaborate and polished style of George Eliot and the sentimental and lyrical style of John Keats. After long and hard years of English study, how pleased I feel when I am able to read English and American authors without any obstacles and difficulties at all. 4. The essay plans for the three types of discursive essays: For and against Opinion Solutions to Problems Introduction State topic(without stating your opinion) Introduction Sate the topic and your opinion Introduction State the problem and its causes/ effects Main Body Arguments for & justifications, examples or reasons Main Body Viewpoints & reasons/ examples Main Body Suggestions & results Conclusion Balanced consideration or opinion Conclusion Summarise/ restate your opinion Conclusion Summarise your opinion * Formal style: - Dicursive essay are written in formal style. This means you should use: + Passive voice, impersonal constructions Eg: It is argued that ...; It is a common belief that ..... + Formal linking words/phrases: furthermore, however, nonetheless + Complex sentences with a variety of links, dependent clauses, etc. 17 - You should not use: + short form (eg: I'm, it's) except when these are part of a quotation. + colloquial expressions, phrasal verbs, idioms: ,lots of, put up with,etc. + simplistic vocabulary (eg: Experts say they think this is bad, ...) + a series of short sentences (eg: Many people think so. They are wrong) + simple linking words (eg: and, but, so) except for variety. * Useful Tips for Discursive Essays: - When writing a discursive essay, you should: + use topic sentences to introduce the subject of each paragraph + write well-developed paragraphs, giving reasons/examples + use generalisations (eg: In most developed countries, education ...) + use sequencing (eg: Firstly, Secondly, etc)and linking words/phrases + make references to other source (eg: Expert have proved that ...) - You should not: + use very emotional language (eg: I absolutely detest people who ...) + express personal opinions too strongly (eg: I know ...) + use personal examples (eg: In my school ...) * How to categorise: Questions Types - Discuss (this opinion). Do you agree or disagree with this opinion? - Discuss both of the views. Which do you agree with? - Present arguments for and against the above opinion. Which one do you agree with? FOR AND AGAINST - To what extent do you agree or disagree? - What do you think ( of this statement)? - What is you opinion about ...? - Is it a good idea to ...? - Which of the views do you agree with? - Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the given statement. OPINION - What do you think are some of the problems facing a mordern city? - What in your opinion can be done to help the poor improve their situation/ - Discuss the reasons why people move to live in cities - Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 18 computer for communication. VI. Kết quả ứng dụng và bài học kinh nghiệm: a- Kết quả. - Các em không bị nhầm lẫn về kiểu bài viết. - Học sinh biết cách sử dụng những cấu trúc hay - Học sinh tự tin hơn khi gặp phải các đề thi có bài luận. - Nhiều em đạt giải trong các cuộc thi học sinh giỏi cấp huyện cũng như cấp tỉnh. b- Bài học kinh nghiệm. - Giáo viên nên chuẩn bị bài dạy một cách kĩ lưỡng, công phu, áp dụng các dạng bài tập viết một cách linh hoạt hiệu quả, gợi mở, hướng dẫn chi tiết, đưa ra nhiều tình huống viết để học sinh nắm bắt và lựa chọn cho bài viết, phù hợp với mọi đối tượng học sinh. - Sửa chữa những lỗi sai kịp thời như từ vựng, cấu trúc câu, ngữ nghĩa giúp học sinh hiểu và ghi nhớ. - Biểu dương những bài viết hay nhằm khơi dậy khả năng sáng tạo, tư duy trong khi viết. - Giáo viên cần tăng cường kiểm tra khi giao đề cho các em viết ở nhà. PHẦN KẾT LUẬN VÀ KIẾN NGHỊ I. KẾT LUẬN: Trên đây là một số kinh nghiệm về cách viết một số dạng bài luận Tiếng Anh cho học sinh giỏi THCS mà tôi đã tìm hiểu, nghiên cứu và ứng dụng vào từng năm bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi. Tôi nhận thấy học sinh từng khoá tiếp thu bài dễ dàng hơn, kết qủa học tập của học sinh khả quan hơn, phát huy được tính tích cực, chủ động, sáng tạo của học sinh, thực hiện đúng theo quan điểm đổi mới phương pháp dạy và học môn Tiếng Anh THCS của Bộ Giáo dục và Đào tạo. Tuy nhiên trên đây chỉ là một số kinh nhiệm nhỏ trong quá trình dạy kĩ năng viết rất mong lãnh đạo các cấp và đồng nghiệp đóng góp chân thành để tôi hoàn thiện tốt hơn trong việc dạy kĩ năng viết nhằm bồi dưỡng cho học sinh giỏi đạt kết quả cao hơn. II. KIẾN NGHỊ: 1- Về học sinh: - Cần chuẩn bị bài chu đáo trước khi đến lớp, trong khi học phải thật chú ý lắng nghe bài giảng, tích cực phát biểu đưa ra những ý tưởng, tình huống hay để áp dụng vào bài viết. - Tránh rụt rè, nhút nhát phải tự tin vào chính mình. 19
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