DONG NAI DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Title of the study:
A CALL Evaluation Report to Promote
Learner’s Autonomy in Learning English
Phan Thò Ngoï c Tuù
Tran Bien High School
2012 - 2013
SƠ LƯỢC LÝ LỊCH KHOA HỌC
THÔNG TIN CHUNG VỀ CÁ NHÂN
TRÌNH ĐỘ ĐÀO TẠO
Họ và tên :
Phan Thị Ngoc Tú
Ngày tháng năm sinh : 09/3/1976
Địa chỉ: 42/9 Đường Đặng Đức Thuật, khu phố 6 phường Tam
Hiệp, thành phố Biên Hoà, tỉnh Đồng Nai.
091 3 755 399
Nhiệm vụ: Giáo viên giảng dạy bộ môn Tiếng Anh
Đơn vị công tác:
Trường THPT Trấn Biên
Năm nhận bằng:
Chuyên ngành đào tạo:
Thạc sỹ giáo dục
Lý luận và phương pháp giảng dạy
KINH NGHIỆM KHOA HỌC
Lĩnh vực chuyên môn có kinh nghiệm: Giảng dạy bộ môn Tiếng
Số năm có kinh nghiệm: 14 năm.
Các sáng kiến kinh nghiệm đã có trong 5 năm gần đây:
Thành lập và duy trì câu lạc bộ tiếng Anh ở trường THPT Năm học:
2010 – 2011.
SỞ GD & ĐT ĐỒNG NAI CỘNG HÒA XÃ HỘI CHỦ NGHĨA VIỆT NAM
TRƯỜNG THPT TRẤN BIÊN
Độc Lập - Tự Do - Hạnh Phúc
-------Biên hòa, ngày 25 tháng 05 năm 2013
PHIẾU NHẬN XÉT, ĐÁNH GIÁ SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM
Năm học : 2012 – 2013
“A CALL Evaluation Report to Promote Learner Autonomy in Learning
Họ và tên tác giả: Phan Thị Ngoc Tú
Đơn vị (tổ) Ngoại ngữ
Quản lý giáo dục
Phương pháp dạy học bộ môn: GDTC
Phương pháp giáo dục
Lĩnh vực khác………………
- Có giải pháp hoàn toàn mới
- Có giải Pháp cải tiến, đổi mới từ giải pháp đã có
- Hoàn toàn mới và đã triển khai áp dụng trong toàn ngành có hiệu quả cao
- Có tính cải tiến hoặc đổi mới từ những giải pháp đã có và đã triển khai áp dụng
trong toàn ngành có hiệu quả cao
- Hoàn toàn mới và có áp dụng tại đơn vị có hiệu quả cao
- Có tính cải tiến hoặc đổi mới từ những giải pháp đã có và đã triển khai áp dụng
tại đơn vị đạt kết quả cao
Khả năng áp dụng
- Cung cấp được các luận cứ khoa học cho việc họach định dường lối chính
- Đưa các giải pháp khuyến nghị có khả năng ứng dụng thực tiễn dễ thực hiện và
dễ đi vào cuộc sống:
- Đã được ứng dụng trong thực tế đạt hiệu quả hoặc có khả năng áp dụng đạt
hiệu quả trong phạm vi rộng:
XÁC NHẬN CỦA TỔ
THỦ TRƯỞNG ĐƠN VỊ
Nguyễn Thị Thanh Hồng
Title of the study:
“A CALL Evaluation Report to Promote Learner’s
Autonomy in Learning English”
Name of candidate: Phan Thi Ngoc Tu
Tran Bien High School
Đặng Đức Thuật street –Tam Hòa ward–Biên Hòa city–Đồng Nai province.
In the beginning of the 21st century, high technology, notably in the form of
CALL (Computer-assisted language learning), has established a powerful presence
in foreign and second language pedagogy. A common justification for the use of
CALL applications in language teaching and learning is said to promote learner
autonomy, which researchers and practitioners alike now set as a very important
goal. This study probes a brief Web evaluation report in an effort to clarify the
process of second language acquisition (SLA) and develop a suitable Web
evaluation system for Websites used in Vietnamese high school. This paper also
offers a CALL activity that the teacher has a role to play in developing students'
sense of autonomy.
Vietnamese learners of English have long become habituated to the traditional
teaching methods and rigid curriculum and always suffer from mastering real, normal
and fluent English for lack of a live language environment. They have also been
passive learners for many years. Whether the use of the web for language learning
has helped them to understand the text in a more direct, visual, vivid and even
interactive way and whether they will feel comfortable in the flexible and active
learning environment provided by the web-based language learning (WBLL) activities
in an English language intensive course for high school students can be best used
for specific learners in specific contexts still remains questionable. In an effort to find
the effects of a global database of authentic materials given by the web on EFL
teaching and ESL education, there is thus a need for developing evaluation criteria of
using the web effectively and efficiently, which can enhance language learning and
teaching. In this coming information age, evaluation of language learning website
refers to empirical research intended to discover how successful the CALL materials
are for learners and how can they influence on learners’ language learning outcome.
In other words, it aims to gain a better understanding of the relationship of the CALL
materials to perceived changes in learners’ motivation, autonomy, learning strategies
as well as interactive & cooperative learning, so that we can design and implement
such CALL materials more effectively in the future.
I am fortunate to work at a modern state school in Bien Hoa city, Dong Nai province.
Our school is equipped three computer-labs with 40 computers in each lab and we
are encouraged to use computers in my teaching. Although we are given an
opportunity to reflect on our practice in a meaningful way and improve the learning of
our students with CALL activities, the current grammar-reading dominated testing,
learners’ needs and motivation, a language environment with “traditional” teaching
methods and limited materials and resources lead to low quality in EFL education.
Apparently, CALL environment provides additional means and innovative solution to
enhance and accomplish the way I teach and the way my students learn more
effectively and efficiently.
A number of researchers and practitioners have suggested that the web sites
provide a global database of authentic resources that can facilitate language learning
and teaching (see Kung, S.-C., & Chuo, T.-W, 2002; Son, 2005).
In order to explore factors that affect the appropriateness of the chosen
websites for my teaching I begin with constructivist ways whereby students can
design and explore simulations, problem solve in multimedia presentations and
investigate web sites. Thus, the ways in which students learn and understand will be
challenged, which will maximize their learning opportunities rather than minimize the
mind by copying information onto word processors. As Donna Ferguson says “The
task of the educational system should be to embrace the future and empower
children to learn with the tools available to them. Trying to think up clever ways to use
computers in a traditional classroom setting will not do the job.
If we assign
technology to a secondary role, which does not fully utilize its potential strengths, we
are failing to use it to its fullest potential”. Thereby, using constructivist theory in the
classroom to give learners the tools to develop and prosper in the technological age,
she also argues that technology should be used across the curriculum so learners
can prosper from its use.
From the constructivist perspective, learners come into a classroom with their
own experiences and a cognitive structure based on those experiences, for the
teachers, their role in a constructivist classroom isn't so much to lecture at learners
but to act as an expert learners who can guide their students into adopting cognitive
strategies such as self testing, articulating understanding, asking probing questions,
and reflection. Besides they can organize information around big ideas that engage
both learners’ interest and need and assist learners in developing new insights and
connect them with their previous learning. In other words, instead of being directly
involved in learners’ constructions of the language, the teacher interacts with them
primarily to solve their difficulties in using the target language (vocabulary, grammar,
etc.), while the students are given the free hand to use the language to interact with
the computer and/or other peers. Moreover, shy students can feel free in their own
students'-centered environment. This will raise their self-esteem and improve their
knowledge and the less-able students can become more active participants in the
class because class interaction is not limited to that directed by the teacher. In the
same way, the benefits in considering a move toward more learner-centered
approaches to foreign language learning were argued in Nunan’s (1988, p. 177 as
cited in Son’s, 2007) ''no curriculum can claim to be truly learner-centered unless the
learner's subjective needs and perceptions relating to the process of learning are
taken into account'' This is parallel with learner-centered instruction as proposed by
Brown (2001) “Learner-centered instruction includes…techniques that give some
control to the student, techniques that allow for student creativity and innovation, and
techniques that enhance a student’s sense of competence and self-worth”.
In addition, interactive features in Web environments ensure that learning
process takes place when learners engage in the lessons. Immediate feedbacks in
terms of scores, guidelines, and customized lessons given after learners' inputs are
assessed by the web-based tasks to assist learners improve their language
competency, which include language skills. Based on Krahshen's Monitor Theory,
CALL activities in Web environments can be a tool that helps teachers to facilitate
language learning process and it can be not only used to reinforce what has been
learned in the classrooms but also used as remedial to help learners with limited
Furthermore, Wilson (2000) maintained three isolated core principles for
effective use of the Web for learning:
- Provide access to rich sources of information.
- Encourage meaningful interactions with content.
- Bring people together to challenge, support, or respond to each other.
While the first principle is being dealt with the Web environments itself, the
second and the third usually need to be orchestrated by a teacher, hence, the first
task for a teacher is undoubtedly that of evaluating selected materials, methods, and
the WBLL activities for the learners to work with. Furthermore, evaluation of both the
learning process and the product, i.e. student level of competence acquired, calls for
a radical revision of current models of evaluation like examinations. With the new
perspectives on CALL for second language classrooms Chapelle & Hegelheimer,
(2004, p. 305) also state that “all teachers need to know how to use the Web as a
resource for current authentic language materials in written, audio, and visual
formats”, for that reason, It has been increasingly important to evaluate those
resource systematically before use. According to the list of guidelines for designing a
good Web site for ESL students (Kelly, 2000) which demonstrate what kinds of
questions can be asked in the evaluation of general types of Web sites. Also, this
evaluation system can provide a useful source for selecting and using Web sites and
identify strengths and weaknesses of a language learning, this indicates that user
responses Web site to each evaluation criterion of the system, importantly, would
allow teachers to choose specially well-designed Web-based activities or materials
and use them in best places (Son, 2007). In response to integrating WBLL activities
into classroom effectively, Yang & Chan (2008) state that many of the existing
studies of website evaluation criteria are not specific enough; the majority of them
seem to be entirely based on theory without including interests and needs of
teachers and learners; some of them lack emphasis on evaluating features to
transmits four skills; most do not offer a complete set of criteria for some language
learning aspects. On the other hand, they also show that "English learning websites
should organize the learning objectives based on the interaction of the four language
skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and also provide learning
opportunities for the semantic, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic usages" (Yang and
Chan, 2008, p. 405). After experiencing and evaluating WBLL activities, language
teachers should, however, adapt or modify the activities and materials to suit their
own teaching circumstances. For the sake of synthesis and convenience, this review
evaluates EnglishTestStore website, a popular English learning and testing website,
in terms of three aspects drawn from the above literature in accordance with English
learners' academic and social needs:
- Pedagogical aspects
- Technical aspects
The “EnglishTestStore” website is a learning website for ESL learners. This
website is not listed in Directory. It is IP address is 126.96.36.199, and its server is
located at Atlanta, Georgia, United States, Technical Contact:
The “EnglishTestStore” aims to encourage interest for learning English through
various and effective materials with following features:
Support all OS
Limit time clock show/hide
Show/hide questions list
No Register required
Report test result
Various of test types
The personal information is collected to provide us with the best and most
useful content and services. These include access to subscription-only areas, the
ability to post opinions or other content, participation in sweepstakes or contests as a
condition of usage.
Englishteststore.net completely focused on practicing free English tests online,
English grammar exercises and TOEFL, TOEIC, GRE, GMAT, SAT tests, joining
learning English community, finding answers for your English questions. Taking
funding from advertisers, there are some ads links on the site but not many.
Figure 1: EnglishTestStore main page
EnglishTestStore provides free English tests and exercises online for English
learners to practice. Visitors can select following favorite topic to start and choose
- Practice English grammar efficiently with many topics from basic to advanced
- Improve listening skill easily with systematical listening tests.
- Practice testing reading skills with various reading topics. Reading can help
you improve your vocabulary.
- Practice pronunciation and speaking skills for general speaking test, TOEFL,
TOEIC, IELTS …
- Practice and test your English vocabulary and enrich it efficiently.
- Take full English tests to know learners’ English level and get the highest
ranking in the list.
- Take free English tests for high-school students. They cover almost all kinds
- Take free TOEFL tests to practice many skills before taking a real TOEFL
- Practice free TOEIC tests with many skills before taking a real TOEIC test.
We not only can download free English tests as EXE and PDF format, which
are also available for some kind of tests for offline use if we don't have time to be
online but also chat with English learners to exchange experiences or we can
practice spoken English online.
Apart from the other English learning websites, EnglishTestStore offers a
forum in Facebook, the world's largest social network (Figure 2) as a platform for
asynchronous social interaction. To enter the forums, learners are required to
register Facebook before they can be involved in activities such as posting an
English language question, participating in student discussions about texts and
exams, or exchanging views on any topic related to learning English, in addition
learners from all over the world can do some private messaging with individuals. If
“EnglishTestStore”, we can contact and find them in Facebook.
Figure 2: EnglishTestStore forum in Facebook
From the home page of the website (Figure 1), the blue label of
Englishteststore.net with detailed instructions attracts learners' attention to the
concise themes of the website. It is worth noting that High School English Grammar
Tests allow my students to focus on skills that they want to improve, review, and
refresh their knowledge about High School English Grammar (grade 6-12). In
addition, not only instructions may be available for each test but also after finishing a
test the learner can review and get feedback for their answers.
Figure 3: High School English Grammar Tests
Finally, EnglishTestStore focuses on one of the most important aspects of
language, speaking skill, from the general to perfect speaking to help learners
become fluent quickly and take advantage of skill lessons to personalize their course,
visitors can take part in a pronounce training course. Besides, there are a lot of topics
for learners to practice before taking the real TOEFL Ibt speaking tests.
Figure 4: Practice Speaking English
Based on the three aspects defined previously and adapted Language
Learning Website Review Form (Son, 2003), the potential effectiveness and
shortcomings of EnglishTestStore are as follows;
1. Pedagogical aspects
First of all, this site has various resources for learners to utilize independently
and free of charge. Actually, there are not many private English education programs
in Vietnam. Therefore, this site could be suggested as alternative models to
Vietnamese learners who are learning English as a second or foreign language. The
second, it is classified as each skill or each topic. So learners can practice the part
more specify and deeply. This is not only useful for learners, but also effective for
teachers. The instructor could integrate their lesson purpose naturally and effectively
through this site. The third, this site gives the tests to practice that learners can be
habituated to a real test effectively. Besides, learners can download flash tests and
PDF to practice offline.
All in all, every website follows the design principles of being usable enough to
attract as many users as possible. Even websites specifically designed for ESL
students will not prove helpful unless the content is relevant and the instructions are
understandable. In this regard, EnglishTestStore has offered an abundance of
resources for my high school students with limited language ability to locate them
and know how to use them to enhance and supplement their language learning
experience. EnglishTestStore also fits the needs of intermediate and advanced
English learners to enhance their grammatical accuracy and expand vocabulary, as
well as get access to extensive reading, writing, listening and speaking practice. In
addition, EnglishTestStore’s practice tests of vocabulary and pronounce training
enhanced students’ use of correct word collocations and repeated practice to
increase learners’ memorization of the information.
In contrast, for learners aiming to become proficient at academic language,
the repeated gap fill drills of four skills may not facilitate the integrative and complex
practice of language skills they need. If this site spread their categories and topic
more visually, actively, intuitively and sequentially, like other educational portal site,
Vietnamese EFL learners could have much more opportunities, resources and
information about learning English.
The EnglishTestStore site is an idea practice test bank for Vietnamese
teachers and it is a useful stage for learners. It gives a practical opportunity they can
close to the target language testing easily. Most of the contexts are very wellstructuralized and systemic based on language testing theory. Therefore, learners
can understand well their learning and testing purpose through the pre-description
and this site provide enough opportunities for exercising the contents. This site is not
only classified exactly as Vietnamese learners’ levels, but also has various contents
for practical lesson and accompanying materials for teaching like teaching plan,
practice test. It would be supporting materials that are very valuable and teachable
and the instructor could manage the learners’ curriculum more effectively.
However, the feedbacks that are given after some test package is not much
appropriate, this can not get the motivation for successful learning. Furthermore, we
have a little information about authority. Therefore, we cannot believe their curriculum
without filtering, this lead to a hard work for us, teachers, who want to integrate this
website into our syllabus.
2. Technical aspects
I can personally say that this website is a user-friendly type for my students
who just have 45 minutes per lesson period. The website’s application only requires
them to have basic skills such as clicking, moving the mouse, typing, dragging, and
listening voice, recording via speakers. But, the young learners love pictures, colors,
wonderful intonation because they will become motivated once they see there are
cartoons, colorful writings and pictures on user interface, as well as, the right
combination of text and graphics will encourage learners to stay in the site or to
explore the site more thoroughly. Hence, this website is not actually a successful
attention grabbing yet knowledgeable especially for young learners.
On the other hand, this web site takes a short time to load into the browser
(maybe because of the small file size of the graphics) and the navigation of this web
is efficient enough for the students to maintain their interest. All links are still currently
active and that the links take the user to valid and appropriate content is another
essential component of the web navigation. EnglishTestStore contains content
designed for English learners only so the learners will feel free to find those practice
I personally think that
EnglishTestStore are enjoyable quizzes that they are very easy to handle, and time
effective. It moves us from one question to another and thus making the task very
practical to be done.
This web site provides ESL learners with forums, resources, and activities for
using chats this allows learners to share ideas and ask questions about English
learning, as well as links to Facebook thereby the topics provided by the website are
also broad. What’s more, the topics provided as in nature, people, grammar,
geography, history and others could broaden the student’s general knowledge that
they are not aware of, not particularly restricting their knowledge on the English
language learning per se. Though Englishteststore.net has many advantages, it also
has one major disadvantage of being web-based, that is the speed at which the user
can turn the pages and interact with the material. This could have an impact on the
users' motivation and patience. Finally, this website is more effective when integrated
with Google Chrome.
In my observation and exploration of Web-based application, Along with
SCORM (The Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard developed by
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), which is being applied by Vietnamese Ministry of
Education and Training (MOET) in education environments in Vietnam. Specifically,
DOET (Department of Education and Training) created a directive named
1801/2012/SGDDT-VP for all schools across the province to improve in education in
general and the teaching of English in particular through application of computer
technology in education in school years 2012-2013. In this school year, DOET also
launched a movement of Information Communication Technology (ICT) applications
in schools named ICT’s application school year; this movement is considered a big
step in ICT application in schools and is ongoing for the coming years. Additionally,
focusing on the stuffs for students, I am really impressed by the wide range of
learning topics under the quizzes and the chat room provided in the websites.
Certainly, I would exploit this application in my teaching work. I found out that there
are some ways to integrate the content of the website in to my CALL activities in my
Below is a lesson plan I have used to teach my students in computer lab. This
plan has been distributed to students’ computer through NetOpschool application
(see Appendix 5 & 6). My students nowadays are very advanced in technology. Most
of them are already familiar with technology and internet.
YOU AND ME
- Learning course: Unit 2:
- Trace a suitable site from the web about Past tenses practice.
Aims: To be able to locate specific information on a Website and to be able to
Guessing meaning in context
Understanding the sequence of events in a story
Talking about the past experiences and how they affected one’s life
Deciding on true false statements
Gap - filling
Writing a personal letter to describe a past experience
5. Language Focus:
Pronunciation: two consonants / m / / n / and / ŋ /
Present simple indicating past time
II. Technical Requirements:
One computer for each of students equipped with an Internet connection and
a Web Browser.
III. Procedure: (for language focus stage)
1. Ask the students if they can remember the use of Simple past tense, Past
perfect, and Past progressive.
2. Link the website chosen together with lesson and show them what the
website offers. (Appendix 1)
3. Explain to the students that they need to practice the test in site.
4. Discuss the answers with the class and explain unfamiliar words or phrases.
5. Facilitate students if they had any problems while using the website.
As an educator, I think that no website can offer all the components involved
in English learning to meet the needs of all kinds of learners. EnglishTestStore
provides learners with substantial tutorials on grammar, vocabulary, and test
packages to practice, links to authentic resources for online listening, reading, writing
and speaking, as well as forums for social interaction and collaborative learning.
However, the simply presented drill-and-practice approach to language learning, plus
the repeated quizzes and multiple-choice cloze tests, may fatigue most of engaged
learners. Further, it would be appropriate for the website to make its credentials
easily available, provide appropriate authority and more regular update to meet
cognitive challenges and promote learners’ comprehension abilities effectively. It is
worthwhile to prepare the concordance for integrating Web - based tasks into
teaching stage; thereby students will become more autonomous, relying on
themselves to practice to get more learning benefits instead of the teacher.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Chapelle, C. A. & Hegelheimer, V. (2004). The language teacher in the 21st century.
In S. Fotos & C. M.
Technology in a constructivist classroom. Information
Technology in childhood Education Annual 2001, pp. 45-55.
Godwin-Jones, Bob.(May 2001).Emerging Technologies: Language Testing Tools
and Technologies. Language Learning and Technology. Vol 5(1). Retrieved October
11, 2003 from http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num2/pdf/emerging.pd
Kelly, C. (2000). Guidelines for designing a good Web site for ESL students. The
Kung, S.-C., & Chuo, T.-W. (2002). Students’ perceptions of English learning
through ESL/EFL Websites. TESL-EJ, 6(1). Retrieved October 13, 2012, from
Son, J.-B. (2005, September). Making Web-based language learning meaningful.
Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Pedagogies and
Learning, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.
Son, J.-B. (2007). Learner experiences in Web-based language learning. Computer
Assisted Language Learning, 20 (1), 21-36.
Son, J.-B. (2008). Using Web-Based Language Learning Activities in the ESL
Classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, pp. 34-43. August
Wilson, B., & Lowry, M. (2000). Constructivist learning on the Web learning
technologies. In Burge, L. (Ed.), Reflective and strategic thinking. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education. Retrieved October
13, 2012 from http://carbon.ucdenver.edu/~bwilson/WebLearning.html
Yang, Y.-T. C. & Chan, C.-Y. (2008). Comprehensive evaluation criteria for English
learning websites using expert validity surveys. Computers & Education, pp. 403422. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://www.docin.com/p-337782549.html
Figure 5: Distributed Lesson
Figure 6: Link to EnglishTestStore
Language Learning Website Review Form
□ Grammar □ Vocabulary
□ Other - Please specify:
The “EnglishTestStore” website is a learning website for ESL learners, which
aims to encourage interest for learning English through various and effective materials
with following features. Englishteststore.net completely focused on practicing free
English tests online, English grammar exercises and TOEFL, TOEIC, GRE, GMAT,
SAT tests, joining learning English community, finding answers for your English
2. Accuracy: Is the content accurate? Are
spelling and grammar accurate?