Tài liệu The service quality of the specialized supermarkets in hanoi city

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INTRODUCTION 1. Necessity of the research Hanoi is the leading political center and is one of the economic, cultural and scientific centers of the whole country. In the past years, the strong development of many forms of supermarkets has contributed to change the face of the city towards the civilized and modern . Besides the general business supermarkets serving the various demands of the different customers, has increasingly appeared the specialized business supermarket on the fixed commodities or commodity groups . The specialized supermarket is a very specific business because it is the product and services mixture. Goods in the specialized supermarket are imported from the same suppliers. Most of the current commodities of the specialized supermarket are similar . Therefore, the difference among the specialized supermarkets is not the goods quality but is the service quality. The services of the specialized supermarket are not only the normal sales services as other retailer types but also the services arising from the goods characteristics of the specialized supermarket beside the services that the specialized supermarket provides to meet the demand of consumers. To improve competitiveness and attract customers, thereby increase sales, expand market shares and establish a strong foothold in the market, each specialized supermarket is not only interested in the brand, origin, quality and price of the goods but also pays special attention to expand the service types and improve the service quality. The competition among the specialized supermarkets is not only the product quality but also the service quality which the specialized supermarkets provide Unfortunately in fact, the specialized supermarkets do not always pay adequate attention to this. The reports on consumer’s satisfaction also indicated that although consumers are willing to pay more for higher service quality corresponding to the quality of the goods that they purchase. However, the service quality of the supermarket did not meet the customers’s expectations (According to Thanh Nien in 2000; Commerce in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2012). 1 In Vietnam, according to the Author's knowledge until now there are two researches on the service quality and the service quality constituent elements in the supermarket: The first research, "Service quality, satisfaction, and loyalty of the supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City"(Author Trang Nguyen,in 2006). The second research, "Factors affecting the quality of retail services in the supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City" (Author Nhat Nguyen,in 2007). Two studies had different conclusions about the component elements of service quality in the supermarkets and were carried out in Ho Chi Minh City. Therefore, the research on the service quality of the specialized supermarket will have major theoretical contributions: (1) Clarify the theoretical issues about the specialized supermarket and the service quality of the specialized supermarket, (2) Identify the component elements and the assessment & measurement methodology of the service quality of the specialized supermarket. (3) Build the study model on the service quality of the specialized supermarket to continue the studies in other cities in Vietnam. Starting from the necessity in the practical operation of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi city, the necessity of the theory of the service quality of the specialized supermarket, the Author decided to choose the topic "The service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city " that is the doctoral research topic. 2. Research objectives of the thesis The research objective of the thesis is to find the answers of five study questions: (1) What is the evaluation model of the service quality and the theoretical framework of the specialized supermarket in the world and in Vietnam? (2) What are the constituent factors of the service quality of the specialized supermarket? (3)What is the customer’s expectation and perceptions about the service quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi city? 2 (4) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the service quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi city nowadays? Which causes lead to the weaknesses of the service quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi at present? (5) What are the solutions to improve the service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city? 3. Objects and scope of the research The study objects of the topic are the service quality, the specialized supermarket and the service quality of the specialized supermarkets. Specialized supermarkets under regulations of the supermarket and commercial center (9/2004). management body on the specialized supermarket to improve service quality in order to enhance competitiveness and ensure customer’s benefits. 5. Structure of the thesis To present the entire contents of the research, the dissertation structure is divided into seven main parts: (1) Introduction. (2) Chapter 1: Research Overview . (3) Chapter 2: Theoretical basis and study model. (4) Chapter 3: Research methodology of the service quality of the specialized supermarket. (5) Chapter 4: Results on assesment of service quality model of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi city. (6) Chapter 5: Solutions and Recommendations to enhance the service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. (7) Conclusions. The scope of the study: On the space aspect, the research is deployed in Hanoi city. On the time aspect, the secondary data: focus in the period from 2000 until now, the primary data: focus in 3 years: 2011 - 2012-2013. CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH OVERVIEW 4. Research results of the thesis 1.1.1 Concept of service quality Through the research, the Author has contributed some new knowledge about the theoretical and practical aspects in business administration of the specialized supermarket and in state management on the specialized supermarket. When talking about service quality, without fail, we have to mention the huge contribution of Parasuraman and his associates (1985, 1988, 1991). Parasuraman and his associates (1988, page 17) defined service quality as "the difference levels between the customer’s expectations for the expected services and their perceptions about the experienced services". These Authors initiated and used the qualitative research and the quantitative research to build and test the component scale of service quality (called the SERVQUAL scale) [15, page 58]. 1.1.2 Components of service quality New theoretical con tributions: The thesis has new theoretical contributions on service quality : (1) Develop and test the research model of the service quality of the specialized supermarket. (2) Determine the component factors, observed variables and measurement scale of the service quality of the specialized supermarket. (3) Seek out new component factors of the service quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi. 1.1 Service quality On the practical aspect: the thesis has some contributions: (1) Find out the expectations, perceptions and gaps of the service quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi city. (2) Determine the causes of the weakness of service quality. (3) Provide solutions for the specialized supermarket to improve the service quality of the specialized supermarket to enhance competitiveness, more satisfy consumer’s demands. (4) Make recommendations to the state The SERVQUAL is a model measuring the customer’s evaluation levels based on the most important elements. The assessment was generalized and based on the gaps between the customer's expectations of the expected services and the customer’s practical service use. In the 1st research of Parasuraman and his associates (in 1985), the service quality comprise ten factors . The SERVQUAL continue to be adjusted and tested in many different types of services. In 1988, the research of Parasuraman and his associates collapsed the component factors. Finally, The SERVQUAL consists of 22 observed variables measuring five components of service quality such as: (1) Reliability, (2) Tangibles (3) Responsiveness, (4) Assurance and (5) Empathy. 3 4 1.2 Specialized supermarket 1.2.1 Concept of specialized supermarket According to Regulation of supermarket and commercial center of Vietnam Ministry of Trade (now the Ministry of Industry and Trade) in 2004, specialized supermarket is the modern type of store; specialized business; divers & abundant commodity structure, quality assurance; meet the criteria of business area, technical equipments and management skills, business organization; civilized &convenient service modes to satisfy customer’s demand of goods procurement . [3, page 3]. 1.2.2 Classification of specialized supermarket Under regulations, specialized supermarket is evaluated based on five criteria: (1) business area, (2) the list of goods business, (3) buildings and facilities, (4) warehouse system and technical equipments, (5) goods organization. Table 1.5: Classification of specialized supermarket Classification specialized supermarket of Minimum Standards for Business area(m2) No.of brand name Grade I 1.000 2000 Grade II 500 1000 Grade III 500 500 Source: Regulations of supermarket and commercial center management, Ministry of Trade, in 2014 1.2.3 Service types of specialized supermarket The specialized supermarket include three main types of services that are: (1) Sales services; (2) Specialized goods services ; (3) Value added services of specialized supermarket as a supplemental industry. 5 Firstly, Sales services : These are the popular services like other retail services such as a free parking services, membership card issuance with member benefits, sales promotion program on holidays and birthdays, customer gratitude programs, free delivery services, goods returns services in regulated time. Secondly, Specialized goods services: These are the services associated with the nature of goods. The main reason for these service types is because specialized supermarket provide narrow and deep product ranges, most customers can not fully understand the products. At the same time, with the progress of technology, these products are continuously renewed therefore consumers can not update the product as much as the specialized supermarket. For example, a specialized supermarket on living room furniture will be an expert on sofas and carpets such as tapestries, floor carpets, cleaning carpets . Therefore, specialized supermarket must provide many services related to the product. This is a type of characteristic service of specialized supermarket. Thirdly, Value added services of specialized supermarket : It may include services of warranty period extention after expiry of manufacturer’s warranty period. Based on receipt manufacturer’s specifications and understand customer’s demand. The specialized supermarkets provide additional warranty services, product maintenance at home, complementary product services from different suppliers, Services of old products shopping and new product replacement for customers who want to upgrade their products. 2.3 Researches on retail service quality in the world and in Vietnam Dabholka, Thorpe and Rentz (1996), based on qualitative research, previous service theory and the SERVQUAL scale, gave five basic components of retail service quality: 1 / Tangibles (physical aspects), 2 / Reliability, 3 / Personal interaction, 4 / Problem solving and 5/Policy. Mehta and Associates (2000) have found that component elements and scale of retail service quality (RSQS) are more suitable to the retail environment "more goods than services," such as supermarket. 6 Research ( Trang Nguyen, 2006) used the scale of retail service quality (Dabholka & CTG, 1996) and adjusted , and additional components of service quality of supermarkets in Vietnam. Research: "Elements affecting quality of retail services in supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City" (Nhat Nguyen, 2007). These researches just studied one or some retail types and by scientific articles. This is an important suggestion for further researches. Also, the theory “Life cycle of store” has shown that: the traditional retailers and the first generation supermarket have been losing their positions in the market and have to find innovation to adapt competitive conditions. Specialized stores and supermarkets are on the growth phase. The majority of specialized stores and supermarkets are both acting internationally. Study of Levy and Weitz (2009) has shown that there are 6 elements determining the success of retail in general and specialized supermarket in CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BASIS AND RESEARCH MODEL particular. They are: (1) location of specialized supermarket; (2) goods of 2.1 Rationale of service quality and specialized supermarket specialized supermarket; (3) retail price; (4) Information from and to customers; 2.1.1 Rationale of service quality Based on research overview on service quality and retail service quality of (5) designing and display; (6) customer service. supermarket in the world and in Vietnam, Author focused on two research 2.2 Research models of service quality models 2.3 Development of research pattern of service quality of specialized Parasuraman’s reseach model of quality service: SERVQUAL model consists of 5 component elements and 22 observed variables. Pattern of retail service quality evaluation (RSQS model) includes 5 components: (1) Tangibles/Physical Aspects; (2) Reliability; (3) Personal interaction; (4) Problem solving và (5) Policy. supermarket The first trend of study based on Gronroos’s studies has focused on service quality study composed with 2 main elements, technical quality and functional quality. The second one is based on Parasuraman’s study. These studies follow trend of basing on five elements composing service quality, which was shown by 2.1.2 Rationale of specialized supermarket The theory “the retail wheel” written by Proffesor Macolm P.McNair. Content of this theory has shown that: In the beginning, the retailers start with Parasuraman in 1988. Table 2.1: Synthesis of component elements of service quality based on Parasuraman’s research direction the low price, simple operating regulations, and low profit. Gradually, because Component Model of competition is increasing, they are required to enhance and improve their elements Model of Model of Parasuraman, Cronin Dabholkar, services, collection of goods and equipment. As a result, the business cost and Zeithaml and and Thorpe and price have been raised. This theory has been demonstrated via the decline of Berry Taylor Reztz large department store and the rise of supermarket focusing on some sets of Reliability X X X intensive goods [16, page 9]. Tangibles X X X Willing to supply X X 7 8 Assurance X X model on 5 component elements of service quality, (3) Dabholkar’s study model Empathy X X on 5 components of retail service quality. Author carried out building research model on service quality of Personal interaction X Prolem solving X specialized supermarket Policy X supermarkets in Hanoi city. Author proposed research model as Figure 2.1. and component elements of the specialized In research on service quality model of specialized supermarket, Author suggests 5 component elements: (1) Reliability, (2) Tangibles, (3) Personal Reliability interaction, (4) Problem solving and (5) Expert consultancy. • Parasuraman(1988), Dadhoka (1996) • Kaul(2007), Torlak(2010) To measure component elements of service quality, Both Parasuraman and Dadhokar use Renis Lidert scale (1932). Researches on retail service quality, Researchers also use this scale. Therefore, in research on service quality of Tangibles • Parasuraman(1988), Dadhoka (1996) • Rodolfo (2000), Sum(2010) specialized supermarket, Author also uses Likert scale to measure. Service quality of specializ ed superma rket Personal interaction • Dadhoka (1996), Mehta(2000) • Siu (2001), Jin(2002) Loyal custo mers CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF SERVICE QUALITY OF SPECIALIZED SUPERMARKET New custo mers 3.1 Study process The author uses combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Problem Solving Table 3.1: Research Methodology • Dadhoka (1996), Mehta(2005) • Siu(2001), Kaul(2005) Steps Methodology Expert Consultancy 1 Qualitative Figure 2.1: Research model on service quality of specialized supermarket Author’s research model based on inheritance of 3 research models: 2 Quantitative Technique Time In-depth 03 moths ( From May interview to July /2012) Questionnaire 06 ( From 10/2012 To 03/2013) (1)Gronroos’ research model on functional quality (2) Parasuraman’s research 9 months 10 Research process is carried out through the following steps: creating pattern, checking pattern and scale, collecting official data, analyzing element, examining reliability, examining pattern and researching hypotheses. specialized supermarkets. This is basis of forming new component elements and observed variables of service quality in specialized supermarket. 3.4 Elements in research model adjustment 3.2 Research site introduction Specialized supermarkets trade goods like supermarkets and commercial According to the author’s synthesis up to 5/2013, there is 75 specialized centers – RSQS model. They provide lots of services in relation to specialized supermarkets in Hanoi, which are distributed on over 10 districts. products as well – SER perceptions QUAL model. Therefore, it is overview Apart from supplying goods, the specialized supermarkets provide services to customers as well. Most of specialized supermarkets provide 10 kinds of services. They support customers to buying goods more rapidly in specialized supermarkets and enhance convenience when customers use products at home. combination of the previous studies and qualitative study that the author adjusts 3.3 Qualitative research qualitative study consists of five factors: (1) Reliability; (2) Tangibles; (3) To collect qualitative data, the author use technique of depth interview. Author conducts to interview deeply 5 directors of specialized supermarkets, 26 brand managers and 66 customers. the fifth element composing service quality of specialized supermarkets into PROFESSIONALISM. Research model of service quality of specialized supermarket adjusted after personal interaction; (4) Problem solving; (5) Professionalism. 3.5 Trial quantitative study The experimental study of 20 customers shows that, customers do not Results of depth interviews with 5 directors show that services in always expect in maximum like the comparative study in retail supermarket in specialized supermarkets are not only sale services but also services arising from Vietnam (Nguyen & Pham 2007). Therefore, table of questions in the author’s the goods themselves. This is important basis to create new composing elements study is required to measure both expectations and perceptions. in researching pattern of the author. 3.6 Adjustment of observed variables of elements in research pattern Results of depth interviews with 26 brand managers and 66 customers of specialized supermarkets show that elements composing specialized supermarkets in Hanoi market are participated by many staffs and goods. Staffs’ roles are not only salesmen at supermarket at sale – interacting staff role like in RSQS pattern but also ones providing professional information about goods that Observed variables adjusted and built in the first time by the author are based on inheritance of questionnaires of two patterns, SERVQUAL and RSQS. Also, they are required to be adjusted appropriate to results of qualitative studies about specialized supermarkets. customers can choose to buy, consulting customers’ use and consulting However, when conducting experiments on 20 customers, observed customers when goods are damaged. Also, element of staff are shown clearly via variables do not fully respect specific features of specialized supermarkets. Also, supporting customers to use goods, warrant and repair products bought from specialized supermarkets have 3 differences compared to commercial centers and supermarkets studied in RSQS pattern that: (1) less numbers of goods’ 11 12 name, but more detailed level; (2) more salesmen for advising about products; (3) products advising in not only specialized supermarkets but also using. Therefore, observed variables adjusted in the second time consist of 37 ones. 3.7.2 Designing sample Samples used in study are selected via method of probability, which is, in particular, to select simple random sample [12]. According to this method, nd Table 3.2: Observed variables of SERVQUAL, RSQS and Author’s 2 Author uses random table with 75 specialized supermarkets listed in Appendix adjustment 7. Author selects randomly 19 in 75 specialized supermarkets for sampling. Author’s research model – Component elements (5) Variable Variable SERQUAL RSQS Observed Observed variable variable st 1 time 2nd time 3.7.3 Collecting data Data collection is carried out by using questionnaire via directed customer interview at specialized supermarket. Questionnaire table designed for customers 1/ Reliability 4 4 5 6 to answer includes 37 observation variables. Detail is referred in Appendix 6 – 2/ Tangibles 5 6 6 8 Questionnaire on service quality of specialized supermarket in Hanoi market. 3/ Personal interaction 4 4 7 3.7.4 Analyzing data 4/ Problem solving 3 3 7 After receiving questionnaire table with answers, the author conducts to 5 9 clean information, filter questionnaire tables and encode necessary information 23 37 in questionnaire, enter data and analyze data via SPSS software version 16, 5/ Professionalism Total observed variables 22 21 conducting to describe collected data, numerate description of collected data. Then, conducting steps (1) examine value of variable via method of analyzing 3.7 Official quantitative research EFA factor, (2) assess reliability off scale via reliability factor Cronbach Alpha, 3.7.1 Designing table of questionaires and (3) analyze multivariate regression. Questionnaire table of this study firstly designed is based on result of secondary research, which basically includes 3 main patterns: (1) Gronross pattern; (2) SERVQUAL pattern; (3) RSQS pattern. The first questionnaire table CHAPTER 4: RESULTS ON ASSESSMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY includes 23 questions. Based on quantitative research, executing adjustment the MODEL OF THE SPECIALIZED SUPERMARKET IN HANOI CITY first time that is appropriate to the term of “specialized supermarket”. Author 4.1 Statistic of descriptive samples conduct experiments on small samples (20 ones) to check in last time and adjust After directly sending 410 questionnaires to customers in 19 above in the second time in 10/2012. Content of questionnaire table includes 3 main specialized supermarket in Hanoi, Author combines collected questionnaires. parts ( refer to Appendix 6). After being checked and sorted, 401 validity responses are collected. According to statistic of descriptive samples, female ones account for 66.3%, single ones 13 14 occupied 76%. Therefore, young customers occupied most of research samples. possible to use 7 factors to respect information provided from 37 observed Customers in the age 21-40 account for 80%, they have had jobs and high variables. incomes, high spending as well. There is up to 47.6% of customers working for 4.3 Assessing reliability of elements and variables private enterprise. Customers graduating universities and colleges account for 66.7%. whose average incomes per month are over 9.5 million occupied nearly 52%. 4.2 Analyze explored factor Table 4.2: Result on reliability with factor system of Cronbach Alpha Author’s research model No. of Cronbach Cronbach Alpha – Component elements variable Alpha with with perceptions (5) expectations KMO and Bartlett's accreditations of 37 observed variables representing the expectation of service quality in supermarket show high KMO indicator (0.961) 1/ Reliability 6 0,87 0,82 with significance of 0 (sig=0.000). Therefore, KMO indicator is greater than 0.5 2/ Tangibles 8 0,92 0,85 3/ Personal interaction 7 0.84 0,89 4/ Problem solving 7 0.93 0,89 5/ Professionalism 9 0,94 0,89 that applying explored factor analysis in this scale is appropriate. Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings has peaked, about 69.712%. This shows that using 6 factors represented for 37 scales can explain 66.922% of capacity of explanation of all scales. In studying in science and society, Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings of 50% can be accepted. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is possible to use 6 factors to respect information provided from 37 observed variables. KMO and Bartlett's accreditations of 37 observed variables representing the feeling of service quality at supermarket show high KMO indicator (0.941) with significance of 0 (sig=0.000). Therefore, Therefore, KMO indicator is greater than 0.5 that applying explored factor analysis in this scale is appropriate. In table 4.2, Cronbach alpha is calculated to be greater than 0.8. Many researchers agree that when Cronbach alpha is from 0.8 to 1, measured elements are good, from 0.7 to nearly 0.8, it can be used (Nunnally, 1978; Peterson, 1994; Slater, 1995). Thus, the element of professionalism included in service quality of specialized supermarket is assessed to be very good. Through testing reliability, all 5 elements and 37 observed variables reach to allowable reliability. No element or variable is ruled out. Especially, Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings has peaked, about reliability assessment of professionalism – new element of service quality at 62.355%. This shows that using 7 factors represented for 37 observed variables specialized supermarket in Hanoi shows that: reliability with expectation reaches can explain 62.355% of capacity of explanation of all observed variables. In 0.944, reliability with perception/feelings reaches 0.889. Both of them are studying in science and society, Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared greater than 0.8, so professionalism of specialized supermarket is assessed to be Loadings of 50% can be accepted. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is reliable. Corrected item – total correlations of both expectations and actual perceptions/feelings of elements are greater than 0.3 so no variable is ruled out. 15 16 4.4 Regression analysis 4.7 Gaps on customer service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Using SPSS to conduct regression the relation between elements (reliability, tangible, persional interaction, problem solvings, professionalism) and service quality at specialized supermarket. We have factor F = 6.057, with Sig. = 0.000 < significance of 0.05. Thus, the data which had been given can totally reject the theory H0, or can be considered as appropriated pattern to describe relation among elements and assessment of service quality at specialized supermarket of customers. Regression coefficient reflecting impacts of elements on assessment of customers on service quality of specialized supermarket is shown in the Hanoi city. Gaps between customer’s expectations on service quality and perceptions on experienced service quality in the specialized supermarkets Table 4.4: Results on expectations, perception and gaps of service quality Components Reliability Tangibles Personal interaction Problem solving following table of result: Depending on results of regression coefficient listed in table 4.3, we have Professionalism pattern of regression reflecting impacts of elements on customer’s assessment on service quality of specialized supermarket as follows: Yi = 3.339 + 0.157TC + 0.097HH + 0.123TT + 0.095KN + 0.025CN The said regression coefficients have the positive values. Therefore, all elements have positive impacts on variability of customer’s assessment on Expectations Perception Gaps 4.24 3.43 0.81 4.38 3.71 0.67 4.35 3.41 0.94 4.28 3.17 1.11 4.38 3.47 0.91 Overall, the gap between expectations and perceptions on service quality of supermarkets: 0.89 shows that services of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city don’t satisfy customer’s expectations. Factor” problem solving” has the largest gap: 1.11. service quality of specialized supermarket. In particular, based on standardized regression coefficients Betai, it is CHAPTER 5: SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO ENHANCE possible to see that element of reliability of customer having the maximum SERVICE QUALITY OF THE SPECIALIZED SUPERMARKETS IN standardized regression coefficient of 0.173, this means this element has the HANOI CITY greatest impact on customers’ assessment on service quality of specialized supermarket. This shows that customers always appreciate the reliability of specialized supermarket more than the other elements in composing service quality of specialized supermarket. This explains why customers often choose specialized supermarket with brand, supermarket where they had ever purchased or which they had been told to purchase. 17 5.1 Strengths and weaknesses in service quality of specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. From results on service quality gaps of specialized supermarket, As we see, factors having the largest gaps are “problem solving” (1.11) and personal interaction (0.94). In factor “problem solving”, observed variables with the largest gap is “ Supermarket is willing to receive returned or bartered goods (1:24)”. The second “process and procedures for problem solving” of 18 supermarket that are unclear and staffs are not able to immediately (1:17). solve problem 5.2 Causes of weaknesses in service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. From analysis of causes of three component elements having the largest gaps, 10 observed variables have the gaps which are larger than 15 observed variables with the lowest expectations, 5 observed variables have the lowest perceptions. Author carried out synthesis of causes of weaknesses in service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. It may include 3 following main causes. The first cause is due to a band of staffs of specialized supermarket . In particular, due to the cause of knowledge, skills and working attitude of staffs in specialized supermarkets. Thus, specialized supermarket need to have solutions to improve staff’s skills and motivation. The second one is due to management skills of specialized supermarket. This cause is derived from ability to manage the list of goods that does not meet specialized business, displaying goods is not synchronized in order that customers can choose according to criteria of specialized business of supermarket. The third one is due to ability to understand customer's expectations. In particular, specialized supermarket does not have much information about ptarget customers. Therefore, supplied services are not suitable to customer’s real expectations. are created from oral information about specialized supermarket. Apart from advertisement publications given by specialized supermarket, Specialized supermarket need to study 3 remaining information sources in order to understand customer’s expectations. 5.5 Solutions to enhance staff’s working skills and motivation Specific solutions to improve staff’s skills are training on products and training on sale skills and customer care and working attitude supervision and programs to create staff’s motivation. 5.6 Solutions to improve management skills of specialized supermarket Solution to enhance management skills is also a factor to improve service quality of specialized supermarket. Solutions should be focused on three key issues: (1) Goods management skills based on products, (2) retail price management skills, and (3) goods display management skills in order that consumers can easily choose goods in specialized supermerket. 5.7 Some recommendations to state management bodies on service quality of specialized supermarket. Recommendations to state management bodies on building standards of service quality of specialized supermarket. Recommendations on support to enhance staff’s skills. Recommendations on dissemination to raise awareness about service quality as well as goods quality. 5.8 Limitations and further research directions 5.4 Solutions to study customer’s expectations As same with other studies, Author’s research also has some limitations: (1) research scope only is in Hanoi city, (2) research object only is specialized supermarket. Therefore, this research also opens a further research direction for example research on retail service quality such as general supermarkets, Big supermarkets, commercial centers, elective service stores. . . Research on service quality of specialized supermarkets in other cities of Vietnam such as Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Nha Trang. Customers tend to have expectations on specialized supermarket not only from individual demand but also from the previous purchases, the expectations Further research can focus on: (1) Study on consumer’s expectations on service quality; (2) study on perceived service quality of specialized supermarket 19 20 5.3. Solutions to improve service quality based on component elements. system; (3) study on service quality of supermarkets specialized with smaller goods industry; (4) study on service quality of specialized supermarkets not selling goods through supermarket. (1) staff’s skills, (2) Not understanding customer’s expectations, and (3) supermarket management skills. Author also gives 3 recommendations to the state management bodies for service quality and 4 suggestions for further research directions on service quality of specialized supermarket. CONCLUSION Service quality studied by Parasuraman and his associates introduced SERVQUAL scale is basis for the further research on specific sectors. Dabhokars inherited Parasuraman’s research to build research model of retail service quality called RSQS scale. Specialized supermarket is characterized by a focusing on a group of narrow and deep goods. Research on service quality of specialized supermarket have similarities with other retailers, but also have differences. By combining qualitative research and quantitative research, Qualitative research was carried out through in-depth interviews with 5 directors, 26 brand managers and 66 customers of specialized supermarket. Quantitative research was conducted through questionnaires sent to 410 customers of 19 specialized supermarkets in 6 districts in Hanoi city. Author’s research has given new findings and important conclusions. In particular, this research pointed out 5 component elements of service quality of specialized supermarket, impact levels of each factor. Especially, research have discovered and tested a new scale system for dependent variable "service quality of specialized supermarket" in accordance with specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. Author's research also discovered, tested a new component element of service quality of specialized supermarket that is professionalism with 9 observed variables. Practically, the study also points out strengths and weaknesses in service quality of specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. The gap in service quality of specialized supermarket is 0.89 in which component elements of service quality has the biggest gap is “ problem solving” with a gap of 1.11. Analysis of causes leading to weakness in service quality also pointed out 3 groups of main causes: 21 22
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