1. Necessity of the research
Hanoi is the leading political center and is one of the economic, cultural and
scientific centers of the whole country. In the past years, the strong development
of many forms of supermarkets has contributed to change the face of the city
towards the civilized and modern . Besides the general business supermarkets
serving the various demands of the different customers, has increasingly
appeared the specialized business supermarket on the fixed commodities or
commodity groups .
The specialized supermarket is a very specific business because it is the
product and services mixture. Goods in the specialized supermarket are imported
from the same suppliers. Most of the current commodities of the specialized
supermarket are similar . Therefore, the difference among the specialized
supermarkets is not the goods quality but is the service quality. The services of
the specialized supermarket are not only the normal sales services as other
retailer types but also the services arising from the goods characteristics of the
specialized supermarket beside the services that the specialized supermarket
provides to meet the demand of consumers.
To improve competitiveness and attract customers, thereby increase sales,
expand market shares and establish a strong foothold in the market, each
specialized supermarket is not only interested in the brand, origin, quality and
price of the goods but also pays special attention to expand the service types and
improve the service quality. The competition among the specialized
supermarkets is not only the product quality but also the service quality which
the specialized supermarkets provide
Unfortunately in fact, the specialized supermarkets do not always pay
adequate attention to this. The reports on consumer’s satisfaction also indicated
that although consumers are willing to pay more for higher service quality
corresponding to the quality of the goods that they purchase. However, the
service quality of the supermarket did not meet the customers’s expectations
(According to Thanh Nien in 2000; Commerce in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009,
In Vietnam, according to the Author's knowledge until now there are two
researches on the service quality and the service quality constituent elements in
the supermarket: The first research, "Service quality, satisfaction, and loyalty of
the supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City"(Author Trang Nguyen,in 2006). The
second research, "Factors affecting the quality of retail services in the
supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City" (Author Nhat Nguyen,in 2007). Two studies
had different conclusions about the component elements of service quality in the
supermarkets and were carried out in Ho Chi Minh City.
Therefore, the research on the service quality of the specialized supermarket
will have major theoretical contributions: (1) Clarify the theoretical issues about
the specialized supermarket and the service quality of the specialized
supermarket, (2) Identify the component elements and the assessment &
measurement methodology of the service quality of the specialized supermarket.
(3) Build the study model on the service quality of the specialized supermarket
to continue the studies in other cities in Vietnam.
Starting from the necessity in the practical operation of the specialized
supermarket in Hanoi city, the necessity of the theory of the service quality of
the specialized supermarket, the Author decided to choose the topic "The
service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city " that is the
doctoral research topic.
2. Research objectives of the thesis
The research objective of the thesis is to find the answers of five study
(1) What is the evaluation model of the service quality and the theoretical
framework of the specialized supermarket in the world and in Vietnam?
(2) What are the constituent factors of the service quality of the specialized
(3)What is the customer’s expectation and perceptions about the service quality
of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi city?
(4) What are the strengths and weaknesses of the service quality of the
specialized supermarket in Hanoi city nowadays? Which causes lead to the
weaknesses of the service quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi at
(5) What are the solutions to improve the service quality of the specialized
supermarkets in Hanoi city?
3. Objects and scope of the research
The study objects of the topic are the service quality, the specialized
supermarket and the service quality of the specialized supermarkets. Specialized
supermarkets under regulations of the supermarket and commercial center
management body on the specialized supermarket to improve service quality in
order to enhance competitiveness and ensure customer’s benefits.
5. Structure of the thesis
To present the entire contents of the research, the dissertation structure is
divided into seven main parts: (1) Introduction. (2) Chapter 1: Research
Overview . (3) Chapter 2: Theoretical basis and study model. (4) Chapter 3:
Research methodology of the service quality of the specialized supermarket. (5)
Chapter 4: Results on assesment of service quality model of the specialized
supermarket in Hanoi city. (6) Chapter 5: Solutions and Recommendations to
enhance the service quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. (7)
The scope of the study: On the space aspect, the research is deployed in
Hanoi city. On the time aspect, the secondary data: focus in the period from
2000 until now, the primary data: focus in 3 years: 2011 - 2012-2013.
CHAPTER 1: RESEARCH OVERVIEW
4. Research results of the thesis
1.1.1 Concept of service quality
Through the research, the Author has contributed some new knowledge about
the theoretical and practical aspects in business administration of the specialized
supermarket and in state management on the specialized supermarket.
When talking about service quality, without fail, we have to mention the huge
contribution of Parasuraman and his associates (1985, 1988, 1991). Parasuraman
and his associates (1988, page 17) defined service quality as "the difference
levels between the customer’s expectations for the expected services and their
perceptions about the experienced services". These Authors initiated and used
the qualitative research and the quantitative research to build and test the
component scale of service quality (called the SERVQUAL scale) [15, page 58].
1.1.2 Components of service quality
New theoretical con tributions: The thesis has new theoretical contributions
on service quality : (1) Develop and test the research model of the service
quality of the specialized supermarket. (2) Determine the component factors,
observed variables and measurement scale of the service quality of the
specialized supermarket. (3) Seek out new component factors of the service
quality of the specialized supermarket in Hanoi.
1.1 Service quality
On the practical aspect: the thesis has some contributions: (1) Find out the
expectations, perceptions and gaps of the service quality of the specialized
supermarket in Hanoi city. (2) Determine the causes of the weakness of service
quality. (3) Provide solutions for the specialized supermarket to improve the
service quality of the specialized supermarket to enhance competitiveness, more
satisfy consumer’s demands. (4) Make recommendations to the state
The SERVQUAL is a model measuring the customer’s evaluation levels
based on the most important elements. The assessment was generalized and
based on the gaps between the customer's expectations of the expected services
and the customer’s practical service use. In the 1st research of Parasuraman and
his associates (in 1985), the service quality comprise ten factors . The
SERVQUAL continue to be adjusted and tested in many different types of
services. In 1988, the research of Parasuraman and his associates collapsed the
component factors. Finally, The SERVQUAL consists of 22 observed variables
measuring five components of service quality such as: (1) Reliability, (2)
Tangibles (3) Responsiveness, (4) Assurance and (5) Empathy.
1.2 Specialized supermarket
1.2.1 Concept of specialized supermarket
According to Regulation of supermarket and commercial center of Vietnam
Ministry of Trade (now the Ministry of Industry and Trade) in 2004, specialized
supermarket is the modern type of store; specialized business; divers &
abundant commodity structure, quality assurance; meet the criteria of business
area, technical equipments and management skills, business organization;
civilized &convenient service modes to satisfy customer’s demand of goods
procurement . [3, page 3].
1.2.2 Classification of specialized supermarket
Under regulations, specialized supermarket is evaluated based on five
criteria: (1) business area, (2) the list of goods business, (3) buildings and
warehouse system and technical equipments, (5) goods
Table 1.5: Classification of specialized supermarket
Minimum Standards for
No.of brand name
Source: Regulations of supermarket and commercial center management,
Ministry of Trade, in 2014
1.2.3 Service types of specialized supermarket
The specialized supermarket include three main types of services that are: (1)
Sales services; (2) Specialized goods services ; (3) Value added services of
specialized supermarket as a supplemental industry.
Firstly, Sales services : These are the popular services like other retail
services such as a free parking services, membership card issuance with
member benefits, sales promotion program on holidays and birthdays, customer
gratitude programs, free delivery services, goods returns services in regulated
Secondly, Specialized goods services: These are the services associated with
the nature of goods. The main reason for these service types is because
specialized supermarket provide narrow and deep product ranges, most
customers can not fully understand the products. At the same time, with the
progress of technology, these products are continuously renewed therefore
consumers can not update the product as much as the specialized supermarket.
For example, a specialized supermarket on living room furniture will be an
expert on sofas and carpets such as tapestries, floor carpets, cleaning carpets .
Therefore, specialized supermarket must provide many services related to the
product. This is a type of characteristic service of specialized supermarket.
Thirdly, Value added services of specialized supermarket : It may include
services of warranty period extention after expiry of manufacturer’s warranty
period. Based on receipt manufacturer’s specifications and understand
customer’s demand. The specialized supermarkets provide additional warranty
services, product maintenance at home, complementary product services from
different suppliers, Services of old products shopping and new product
replacement for customers who want to upgrade their products.
Researches on retail service quality in the world and in Vietnam
Dabholka, Thorpe and Rentz (1996), based on qualitative research, previous
service theory and the SERVQUAL scale, gave five basic components of retail
service quality: 1 / Tangibles (physical aspects), 2 / Reliability, 3 / Personal
interaction, 4 / Problem solving and 5/Policy. Mehta and Associates (2000)
have found that component elements and scale of retail service quality (RSQS)
are more suitable to the retail environment "more goods than services," such as
Research ( Trang Nguyen, 2006) used the scale of retail service quality
(Dabholka & CTG, 1996) and adjusted , and additional components of service
quality of supermarkets in Vietnam. Research: "Elements affecting quality of
retail services in supermarkets in Ho Chi Minh City" (Nhat Nguyen, 2007).
These researches just studied one or some retail types and by scientific articles.
This is an important suggestion for further researches.
Also, the theory “Life cycle of store” has shown that: the traditional
retailers and the first generation supermarket have been losing their positions in
the market and have to find innovation to adapt competitive conditions.
Specialized stores and supermarkets are on the growth phase. The majority of
specialized stores and supermarkets are both acting internationally.
Study of Levy and Weitz (2009) has shown that there are 6 elements
determining the success of retail in general and specialized supermarket in
CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BASIS AND RESEARCH MODEL
particular. They are: (1) location of specialized supermarket; (2) goods of
2.1 Rationale of service quality and specialized supermarket
specialized supermarket; (3) retail price; (4) Information from and to customers;
2.1.1 Rationale of service quality
Based on research overview on service quality and retail service quality of
(5) designing and display; (6) customer service.
supermarket in the world and in Vietnam, Author focused on two research
2.2 Research models of service quality
2.3 Development of research pattern of service quality of specialized
Parasuraman’s reseach model of quality service: SERVQUAL model
consists of 5 component elements and 22 observed variables. Pattern of retail
service quality evaluation (RSQS model)
includes 5 components: (1)
Tangibles/Physical Aspects; (2) Reliability; (3) Personal interaction;
Problem solving và (5) Policy.
The first trend of study based on Gronroos’s studies has focused on service
quality study composed with 2 main elements, technical quality and functional
quality. The second one is based on Parasuraman’s study. These studies follow
trend of basing on five elements composing service quality, which was shown by
2.1.2 Rationale of specialized supermarket
The theory “the retail wheel” written by Proffesor Macolm P.McNair.
Content of this theory has shown that: In the beginning, the retailers start with
Parasuraman in 1988.
Table 2.1: Synthesis of component elements of service quality based on
Parasuraman’s research direction
the low price, simple operating regulations, and low profit. Gradually, because
competition is increasing, they are required to enhance and improve their
services, collection of goods and equipment. As a result, the business cost and
price have been raised. This theory has been demonstrated via the decline of
large department store and the rise of supermarket focusing on some sets of
intensive goods [16, page 9].
Willing to supply
model on 5 component elements of service quality, (3) Dabholkar’s study model
on 5 components of retail service quality.
carried out building research model on service quality of
supermarkets in Hanoi city. Author proposed research model as Figure 2.1.
and component elements of the specialized
In research on service quality model of specialized supermarket, Author
suggests 5 component elements: (1) Reliability, (2) Tangibles, (3) Personal
interaction, (4) Problem solving and (5) Expert consultancy.
Parasuraman(1988), Dadhoka (1996)
To measure component elements of service quality, Both Parasuraman and
Dadhokar use Renis Lidert scale (1932). Researches on retail service quality,
Researchers also use this scale. Therefore, in research on service quality of
Parasuraman(1988), Dadhoka (1996)
Rodolfo (2000), Sum(2010)
specialized supermarket, Author also uses Likert scale to measure.
Dadhoka (1996), Mehta(2000)
Siu (2001), Jin(2002)
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF SERVICE QUALITY
OF SPECIALIZED SUPERMARKET
3.1 Study process
The author uses combination of qualitative and quantitative research
Table 3.1: Research Methodology
Dadhoka (1996), Mehta(2005)
Figure 2.1: Research model on service quality of specialized supermarket
Author’s research model based on inheritance of 3 research models:
03 moths ( From May
to July /2012)
10/2012 To 03/2013)
(1)Gronroos’ research model on functional quality (2) Parasuraman’s research
Research process is carried out through the following steps: creating
pattern, checking pattern and scale, collecting official data, analyzing element,
examining reliability, examining pattern and researching hypotheses.
specialized supermarkets. This is basis of forming new component elements and
observed variables of service quality in specialized supermarket.
3.4 Elements in research model adjustment
3.2 Research site introduction
Specialized supermarkets trade goods like supermarkets and commercial
According to the author’s synthesis up to 5/2013, there is 75 specialized
centers – RSQS model. They provide lots of services in relation to specialized
supermarkets in Hanoi, which are distributed on over 10 districts.
products as well – SER perceptions QUAL model. Therefore, it is overview
Apart from supplying goods, the specialized supermarkets provide services
to customers as well. Most of specialized supermarkets provide 10 kinds of
services. They support customers to buying goods more rapidly in specialized
supermarkets and enhance convenience when customers use products at home.
combination of the previous studies and qualitative study that the author adjusts
3.3 Qualitative research
qualitative study consists of five factors: (1) Reliability; (2) Tangibles; (3)
To collect qualitative data, the author use technique of depth interview.
Author conducts to interview deeply 5 directors of specialized supermarkets, 26
brand managers and 66 customers.
the fifth element composing service quality of specialized supermarkets into
Research model of service quality of specialized supermarket adjusted after
personal interaction; (4) Problem solving; (5) Professionalism.
3.5 Trial quantitative study
The experimental study of 20 customers shows that, customers do not
Results of depth interviews with 5 directors show that services in
always expect in maximum like the comparative study in retail supermarket in
specialized supermarkets are not only sale services but also services arising from
Vietnam (Nguyen & Pham 2007). Therefore, table of questions in the author’s
the goods themselves. This is important basis to create new composing elements
study is required to measure both expectations and perceptions.
in researching pattern of the author.
3.6 Adjustment of observed variables of elements in research pattern
Results of depth interviews with 26 brand managers and 66 customers of
supermarkets in Hanoi market are participated by many staffs and goods. Staffs’
roles are not only salesmen at supermarket at sale – interacting staff role like in
RSQS pattern but also ones providing professional information about goods that
Observed variables adjusted and built in the first time by the author are
based on inheritance of questionnaires of two patterns, SERVQUAL and RSQS.
Also, they are required to be adjusted appropriate to results of qualitative studies
about specialized supermarkets.
customers can choose to buy, consulting customers’ use and consulting
However, when conducting experiments on 20 customers, observed
customers when goods are damaged. Also, element of staff are shown clearly via
variables do not fully respect specific features of specialized supermarkets. Also,
supporting customers to use goods, warrant and repair products bought from
specialized supermarkets have 3 differences compared to commercial centers
and supermarkets studied in RSQS pattern that: (1) less numbers of goods’
name, but more detailed level; (2) more salesmen for advising about products;
(3) products advising in not only specialized supermarkets but also using.
Therefore, observed variables adjusted in the second time consist of 37 ones.
3.7.2 Designing sample
Samples used in study are selected via method of probability, which is, in
particular, to select simple random sample . According to this method,
Table 3.2: Observed variables of SERVQUAL, RSQS and Author’s 2
Author uses random table with 75 specialized supermarkets listed in Appendix
7. Author selects randomly 19 in 75 specialized supermarkets for sampling.
Author’s research model –
Component elements (5)
3.7.3 Collecting data
Data collection is carried out by using questionnaire via directed customer
interview at specialized supermarket. Questionnaire table designed for customers
to answer includes 37 observation variables. Detail is referred in Appendix 6 –
Questionnaire on service quality of specialized supermarket in Hanoi market.
3/ Personal interaction
3.7.4 Analyzing data
4/ Problem solving
After receiving questionnaire table with answers, the author conducts to
clean information, filter questionnaire tables and encode necessary information
in questionnaire, enter data and analyze data via SPSS software version 16,
Total observed variables
conducting to describe collected data, numerate description of collected data.
Then, conducting steps (1) examine value of variable via method of analyzing
3.7 Official quantitative research
EFA factor, (2) assess reliability off scale via reliability factor Cronbach Alpha,
3.7.1 Designing table of questionaires
and (3) analyze multivariate regression.
Questionnaire table of this study firstly designed is based on result of
secondary research, which basically includes 3 main patterns: (1) Gronross
pattern; (2) SERVQUAL pattern; (3) RSQS pattern. The first questionnaire table
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS ON ASSESSMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY
includes 23 questions. Based on quantitative research, executing adjustment the
MODEL OF THE SPECIALIZED SUPERMARKET IN HANOI CITY
first time that is appropriate to the term of “specialized supermarket”. Author
4.1 Statistic of descriptive samples
conduct experiments on small samples (20 ones) to check in last time and adjust
After directly sending 410 questionnaires to customers in 19 above
in the second time in 10/2012. Content of questionnaire table includes 3 main
specialized supermarket in Hanoi, Author combines collected questionnaires.
parts ( refer to Appendix 6).
After being checked and sorted, 401 validity responses are collected. According
to statistic of descriptive samples, female ones account for 66.3%, single ones
occupied 76%. Therefore, young customers occupied most of research samples.
possible to use 7 factors to respect information provided from 37 observed
Customers in the age 21-40 account for 80%, they have had jobs and high
incomes, high spending as well. There is up to 47.6% of customers working for
4.3 Assessing reliability of elements and variables
private enterprise. Customers graduating universities and colleges account for
66.7%. whose average incomes per month are over 9.5 million occupied nearly
4.2 Analyze explored factor
Table 4.2: Result on reliability with factor system of Cronbach Alpha
Author’s research model
– Component elements
KMO and Bartlett's accreditations of 37 observed variables representing the
expectation of service quality in supermarket show high KMO indicator (0.961)
with significance of 0 (sig=0.000). Therefore, KMO indicator is greater than 0.5
3/ Personal interaction
4/ Problem solving
that applying explored factor analysis in this scale is appropriate.
Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings has peaked, about
69.712%. This shows that using 6 factors represented for 37 scales can explain
66.922% of capacity of explanation of all scales. In studying in science and
society, Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings of 50% can be
accepted. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is possible to use 6 factors to
respect information provided from 37 observed variables.
KMO and Bartlett's accreditations of 37 observed variables representing the
feeling of service quality at supermarket show high KMO indicator (0.941) with
significance of 0 (sig=0.000). Therefore, Therefore, KMO indicator is greater
than 0.5 that applying explored factor analysis in this scale is appropriate.
In table 4.2, Cronbach alpha is calculated to be greater than 0.8. Many
researchers agree that when Cronbach alpha is from 0.8 to 1, measured elements
are good, from 0.7 to nearly 0.8, it can be used (Nunnally, 1978; Peterson, 1994;
Slater, 1995). Thus, the element of professionalism included in service quality of
specialized supermarket is assessed to be very good.
Through testing reliability, all 5 elements and 37 observed variables reach
to allowable reliability. No element or variable is ruled out. Especially,
Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings has peaked, about
reliability assessment of professionalism – new element of service quality at
62.355%. This shows that using 7 factors represented for 37 observed variables
specialized supermarket in Hanoi shows that: reliability with expectation reaches
can explain 62.355% of capacity of explanation of all observed variables. In
0.944, reliability with perception/feelings reaches 0.889. Both of them are
studying in science and society, Total index of Rotation Sums of Squared
greater than 0.8, so professionalism of specialized supermarket is assessed to be
Loadings of 50% can be accepted. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is
reliable. Corrected item – total correlations of both expectations and actual
perceptions/feelings of elements are greater than 0.3 so no variable is ruled out.
4.4 Regression analysis
4.7 Gaps on customer service quality of the specialized supermarkets in
Using SPSS to conduct regression the relation between elements
(reliability, tangible, persional interaction, problem solvings, professionalism)
and service quality at specialized supermarket.
We have factor F = 6.057, with Sig. = 0.000 < significance of 0.05. Thus,
the data which had been given can totally reject the theory H0, or can be
considered as appropriated pattern to describe relation among elements and
assessment of service quality at specialized supermarket of customers.
Regression coefficient reflecting impacts of elements on assessment of
customers on service quality of specialized supermarket is shown in the
Gaps between customer’s expectations on service quality and perceptions on
experienced service quality in the specialized supermarkets
Table 4.4: Results on expectations, perception and gaps of service quality
following table of result:
Depending on results of regression coefficient listed in table 4.3, we have
pattern of regression reflecting impacts of elements on customer’s assessment on
service quality of specialized supermarket as follows:
Yi = 3.339 + 0.157TC + 0.097HH + 0.123TT + 0.095KN + 0.025CN
The said regression coefficients have the positive values. Therefore, all
elements have positive impacts on variability of customer’s assessment on
Overall, the gap between expectations and perceptions on service quality of
supermarkets: 0.89 shows that services of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi
city don’t satisfy customer’s expectations. Factor” problem solving” has the
largest gap: 1.11.
service quality of specialized supermarket.
In particular, based on standardized regression coefficients Betai, it is
CHAPTER 5: SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TO ENHANCE
possible to see that element of reliability of customer having the maximum
SERVICE QUALITY OF THE SPECIALIZED SUPERMARKETS IN
standardized regression coefficient of 0.173, this means this element has the
greatest impact on customers’ assessment on service quality of specialized
supermarket. This shows that customers always appreciate the reliability of
specialized supermarket more than the other elements in composing service
quality of specialized supermarket. This explains why customers often choose
specialized supermarket with brand, supermarket where they had ever purchased
or which they had been told to purchase.
5.1 Strengths and weaknesses in service quality of specialized supermarkets
in Hanoi city.
From results on service quality gaps of specialized supermarket, As we see,
factors having the largest gaps are “problem solving” (1.11) and personal
interaction (0.94). In factor “problem solving”, observed variables with the
largest gap is “ Supermarket is willing to receive returned or bartered goods
(1:24)”. The second “process and procedures for problem solving” of
supermarket that are unclear and staffs are not able to
5.2 Causes of weaknesses in service quality of the specialized supermarkets
in Hanoi city.
From analysis of causes of three component elements having the largest
gaps, 10 observed variables have the gaps which are larger than 15 observed
variables with the lowest expectations, 5 observed variables have the lowest
perceptions. Author carried out synthesis of causes of weaknesses in service
quality of the specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. It may include 3
following main causes.
The first cause is due to a band of staffs of specialized supermarket . In
particular, due to the cause of knowledge, skills and working attitude of staffs in
specialized supermarkets. Thus, specialized supermarket need to have solutions
to improve staff’s skills and motivation.
The second one is due to management skills of specialized supermarket.
This cause is derived from ability to manage the list of goods that does not meet
specialized business, displaying goods is not synchronized in order that
customers can choose according to criteria of specialized business of
The third one is due to ability to understand customer's expectations. In
particular, specialized supermarket does not have much information about
ptarget customers. Therefore, supplied services are not suitable to customer’s
are created from oral information about specialized supermarket. Apart from
advertisement publications given by specialized supermarket, Specialized
supermarket need to study 3 remaining information sources in order to
understand customer’s expectations.
Solutions to enhance staff’s working skills and motivation
Specific solutions to improve staff’s skills are training on products and
training on sale skills and customer care and working attitude supervision and
programs to create staff’s motivation.
5.6 Solutions to improve management skills of specialized supermarket
Solution to enhance management skills is also a factor to improve service
quality of specialized supermarket. Solutions should be focused on three key
issues: (1) Goods management skills based on products, (2) retail price
management skills, and (3) goods display management skills in order that
consumers can easily choose goods in specialized supermerket.
5.7 Some recommendations to state management bodies on service quality
of specialized supermarket.
Recommendations to state management bodies on building standards of
service quality of specialized supermarket. Recommendations on support to
enhance staff’s skills. Recommendations on dissemination to raise awareness
about service quality as well as goods quality.
5.8 Limitations and further research directions
5.4 Solutions to study customer’s expectations
As same with other studies, Author’s research also has some limitations: (1)
research scope only is in Hanoi city, (2) research object only is specialized
supermarket. Therefore, this research also opens a further research direction for
example research on retail service quality such as general supermarkets, Big
supermarkets, commercial centers, elective service stores. . . Research on service
quality of specialized supermarkets in other cities of Vietnam such as Ho Chi
Minh City, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Nha Trang.
Customers tend to have expectations on specialized supermarket not only
from individual demand but also from the previous purchases, the expectations
Further research can focus on: (1) Study on consumer’s expectations on
service quality; (2) study on perceived service quality of specialized supermarket
5.3. Solutions to improve service quality based on component elements.
system; (3) study on service quality of supermarkets specialized with smaller
goods industry; (4) study on service quality of specialized supermarkets not
selling goods through supermarket.
(1) staff’s skills, (2) Not understanding customer’s expectations, and (3)
supermarket management skills. Author also gives 3 recommendations to the
state management bodies for service quality and 4 suggestions for further
research directions on service quality of specialized supermarket.
Service quality studied by Parasuraman and his associates introduced
SERVQUAL scale is basis for the further research on specific sectors.
Dabhokars inherited Parasuraman’s research to build research model of retail
service quality called RSQS scale. Specialized supermarket is characterized by a
focusing on a group of narrow and deep goods. Research on service quality of
specialized supermarket have similarities with other retailers, but also have
By combining qualitative research and quantitative research, Qualitative
research was carried out through in-depth interviews with 5 directors, 26 brand
managers and 66 customers of specialized supermarket. Quantitative research
was conducted through questionnaires sent to 410 customers of 19 specialized
supermarkets in 6 districts in Hanoi city. Author’s research has given new
findings and important conclusions. In particular, this research pointed out 5
component elements of service quality of specialized supermarket, impact levels
of each factor. Especially, research have discovered and tested a new scale
system for dependent variable "service quality of specialized supermarket" in
accordance with specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. Author's research also
discovered, tested a new component element of service quality of specialized
supermarket that is professionalism with 9 observed variables.
Practically, the study also points out strengths and weaknesses in service
quality of specialized supermarkets in Hanoi city. The gap in service quality of
specialized supermarket is 0.89 in which component elements of service quality
has the biggest gap is “ problem solving” with a gap of 1.11. Analysis of causes
leading to weakness in service quality also pointed out 3 groups of main causes: