Tài liệu The sales success handbook

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TE AM FL Y “Top producers today realize they can no longer get by on product expertise alone. They know the real expert is the customer.” “The deeper the dialogue, the greater the sales results.” The Sales Success Handbook: 20 Lessons to Open and Close Sales Now LINDA RICHARDSON M C G RAW -H ILL New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Copyright © 2003 by Linda Richardson. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-142565-9 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-141636-6 All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. 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Contents Sales talk Create a dialogue Always be preparing Sharpen your critical skills Open with a focus on your customer Relate to your customers Position your questioning Develop a questioning strategy Think questions Develop deeper need dialogues Focus on how skillfully you ask questions Listen effectively Position your message Assess your competitors Use objections to move forward Check for customer feedback Don't negotiate too early Treat closing as a process Leverage all resources Follow up flawlessly Validate the opportunity Make it happen vii Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. viii 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 ✓Sales talk S ales talk. What is it? It is more than you talking. Sales talk takes two. It is not a monologue. It is a dialogue. It is a customer-centered exchange of information that begins and ends with the customer whose needs must drive the conversation. You have a sales approach you use consciously or unconsciously every day. How open are you to looking at your sales talk up close? If you are open, these lessons can help you assess yourself, spot your strengths and weaknesses, and change your sales talk. You will tap into your natural skills, leverage your knowledge, and sell more by creating compelling dialogues with your customers. You are probably thinking, “But I already do all that.” And it is likely that you do. But how are you keeping up with the changes that are occurring everywhere around you—with your customers, your competitors, your markets, and your own organization? Relying solely on product knowledge or technical expertise doesn’t work in today’s environment. The Internet is a free and convenient source of knowledge, giving customers more information than ever before. Salespeople face a tough business climate in which they need to win all the good deals that are out there. In this environment, products—once the key differentiator—are the equalizer. Instead of talking about products, your role is to communicate a message in which you add value, provide perspective, and show how your features and benefits apply to and satisfy customer needs. Most salespeople use a model for selling that has been the predominant model for decades. It primarily relies on the old, tried-butviii Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. no-longer-true feature-and-benefit focus. Too many salespeople tell their product stories too soon, without necessarily meaning to do so, and invariably talk from a generic product vs. customer point of view. When they ask about needs, they don’t go far enough. When they identify a need, they jump to product, rather than create a rich dialogue to understand why, how, or when. Selling today is more demanding. As business becomes more challenging, salespeople need a higher level of skill. My experience, in more than two decades of working with tens of thousands of salespeople in some of the finest organizations in the world, shows that at best only 30% of salespeople truly practice need-based consultative selling and no more than one third of those achieve trusted-advisor level with their customers. The bottom line is that too many salespeople are still too quick to tell a product story. While most think solution, they present product. Because they tend to talk more than they listen, they create an imbalanced give/get ratio instead of a 50/50 dialogue. Overall, the level of preparation and questioning does not measure up. Most sales organizations have good salespeople, but they lack enough superb salespeople to drive the growth they need to succeed. As much as everything else is changing, the old formulas of selling features and benefits are still around, blocking dialogues and holding good salespeople back from becoming superb. The lessons in The Sales Success Handbook will let you tap into your natural talents by helping you take advantage of your personal strengths, build on them, and create Sales talk that sells. “Check your sales talk. Measure your ‘give/get ratio.’” ix Tell your story ✓Create a dialogue I f you were to ask 100 salespeople you know whether their approach TE AM FL Y was customer-centered or product-centered, what would they say? Few, if any, would boast about selling “a box.” Most salespeople believe that they know their customers’ needs. They believe they are positioning solutions, not products. They believe they are customer-focused. These beliefs are the biggest obstacles keeping them from making the changes they need to make in their Sales talk. Selling styles run the gamut. There is a sales style continuum. At one end of the continuum is generic product selling, basically a monologue, a “product dump.” At the other end is consultative selling, an interactive dialogue that focuses on the specific needs of the customer. 100% on either end is impossible. All salespeople are somewhere in between. Some salespeople are charismatic sellers who rely on their interpersonal skills and charm. Others are technical experts, substantive in content but weak in customer focus. There are the “killers,” always rushing to the close, often at the expense of the relationship. These characterizations of sales types are extreme, but they set the context for thinking about how salespeople approach sales. The majority of salespeople today use a combination of approaches. They want to be liked, they want to be credible, they want to close, and they want to meet the needs of their customers. But for most salespeople, this amalgamation has resulted in a quasiconsultative approach at best. While quasi-consultative salespeople 1 Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. identify customer needs and are productive, they fall short of what they could accomplish. Salespeople who are at the consultative end of the continuum create efficient but robust dialogues with their customers that enable them to connect and learn more with each conversation. The dialogues are active, with balanced exchanges between the salesperson and the customer. What they do looks easy and sounds like common sense, but it is far from simple and it is not common practice. The line between quasi-consultative selling and consultative selling is fine, but if all other factors are basically equal, the line means the difference between winning business or losing to a competitor. It can be the difference between being viewed as a technical specialist and being a trusted advisor. With relatively equal competitors, it is the sales talk of the salesperson or sales team that makes the difference between winning and losing business. Here are ways you can create a robust dialogue: Assess your sales talk: How interactive are your sales dialogues? What is your give/get ratio? Commit to do something different: Ask more probing questions. Stop thinking in terms of educating customers: Think more about educating yourself about your customers. “Increase your sales dialogue to increase your sales results.” 2 Be prepared ✓Always be preparing T op performers treat preparation differently. They are always preparing—before and after each customer meeting. How do you prepare? Do you think to yourself—what does my customer need, what can I position that will make it easy for my customer to say yes? Do you let ideas percolate in your mind so you can be creative and proactive? Having a preparation strategy will shorten your preparation time and increase the impact. As you prepare, follow these three steps: ■ ■ ■ Begin with strategic preparation. Think about your longer-term relationship objectives and then set your short-term immediate objective for the call. Make sure your objective is measurable, is achievable, and has a time frame so you can maintain momentum, assess the outcome of your call, and accelerate your close. Visualize the flow of your call and build in time for the customer to talk. Next, do customer preparation. Think about your customer’s objectives, situation, needs, and decision criteria. Finally, focus on your product/technical preparation. Use your range of products and capabilities to meet your customer’s needs. Plan the questions you will ask, anticipate objections, and customize your materials. Most salespeople prepare backwards. They start with product/technical preparation. Beginning with strategic preparation will help you save time by letting you target your efforts and remain customer-focused. 3 Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. To help you in your preparation, stay up to date on industry and company news. Leverage your team for ideas. Review your customer files so that you can build on any information you already have and avoid unnecessary repetition. Prepare the materials you think you will need and tailor whatever you plan to give to the customer to make sure it applies to the customer. As you visualize your agenda for the call, make sure you remain customer-focused. Prior to the call, whenever possible, get customer input on your agenda. But even when you get input, always check your agenda to get the feedback you need to get buy-in, make adjustments, and go forward. Here are tips to help you prepare: Prepare for all customer calls: Set a measurable objective with a time frame for each call to help you maintain momentum and accelerate your close. Tailor all material: Show your customer your focus is on his or her needs. Visualize your call: Plan the flow of your call and build in time for the customer to talk. “In preparing put first things first. Start with your objective.” 4 Brush up on your skills ✓Sharpen your critical skills T op performers often say that their sales dialogues feel more like brainstorming with their customers than “selling.” These are the six critical skills that are fundamental to making their dialogues so fluid and productive: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Presence—communicating energy, conviction, and interest when speaking and listening Relating—building rapport, using acknowledgment, and expressing empathy to connect with customers Questioning—creating a logical questioning strategy and effectively using probing skills to uncover needs Listening—understanding what the customer communicates in words, tone, and body language Positioning—persuasively demonstrating value and application to the customer by customizing your product knowledge to the needs of the customer Checking—eliciting feedback on what you have said to gauge customer understanding and agreement These skills are the tools of selling. The sharper the skills, the more effective the salesperson. A weakness in any one of the skills puts a cap on effectiveness. For example, if the salesperson can’t establish rapport with the customer, it is unlikely the customer will open up in answering questions. If the salesperson is a poor listener, answers lose their value. And without an understanding of customer 5 Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. needs, it’s almost impossible to connect capabilities to customer needs. Dialogue selling requires product knowledge and technical expertise, but equal to these is customer knowledge and skill. In dialogue selling, the salesperson becomes a resource person who, because he or she fully understands that particular customer’s specific needs, can meet the needs that relate to his or her product and also cross-sell and meet the customer’s broader spectrum of needs. To succeed in dialogue selling, you must master the six critical skills. Here are ways you can sharpen these skills: Assess your six critical skills: presence, relating, questioning, listening, positioning, checking. Force-rank the skills. Identify your strengths and areas for improvement. Work on one skill at a time to get it to the next level. Commit to self-critique: At the end of each call, critique your skills as well as the content of the meeting. Ask for feedback: Elicit feedback from your customers and colleagues. “Salespeople are made, not born. For most salespeople, sales excellence does not just come naturally.” 6 Grab the spotlight ✓Open with a focus on your customer T he opening of the call sets the tone. There are four important things to accomplish as you open: establish rapport with the customer, clarify the purpose of the meeting, set the focus on the customer, and bridge to needs. Where you are in the sales cycle determines the emphasis on each. But even in the quickest follow-up telephone call, the best salespeople fully leverage their openings. Don’t skimp on building rapport. Take the time as you prepare to plan your rapport while staying alert to cues for spontaneous rapport, such as photos or other, more personal signals. Be sensitive to customers who are not open to rapport at that moment. After you have established rapport, state the purpose of your call from your customer’s perspective. Briefly bullet the key items of your agenda and check with the customer that the agenda meets his or her expectations. While your objective is the measurable action step you want to achieve, your purpose answers the all-important question, “What’s in it for the customer?” Aim for your objective, but position your purpose as you open to engage and gain the interest of the customer. Consider the following two openings: Opening 1: You state your objective: “Bill, John said you might be interested in the new things we are doing in research with . . . , so I’m here to talk with you about our ….” The spotlight is on you and you are moving to discuss product. 7 Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. Opening 2: You state your purpose: “Bill, thanks for taking the time to meet with me ... (rapport). I know how busy you are and I appreciate the time. John said you are doing some interesting things in .... I’ve given thought to that and looked at your new Web site, which looks great. I’d like to learn more about what you are doing in ... and then explore how we might ... (briefly bullet your agenda). How does that sound?” The spotlight is on the customer and you are positioned to identify needs. Opening 1 is headed toward a generic product discussion, while Opening 2 is leading to an interactive dialogue to understand the customer’s objective and needs before you cover your capabilities or ideas. During the meeting, get credit for your preparation. Leverage that you are prepared by positioning the homework you have done to increase your credibility (as in Opening 2). Many salespeople are self-focused as they open, which actually hurts not only rapport but also the relationship. The customer-focused salesperson realizes the importance of an opening that builds common ground and a shared understanding of the customer’s needs. Here are some tips for optimizing your opening: Prepare for rapport: Take the time to plan how you will build rapport. Fully leverage your opening: Plan your opening from what you want to accomplish— your greeting, rapport, purpose/agenda, and checking of the agenda. Define your purpose: Translate your measurable objective into your customer-focused purpose to gain the interest of the customer. “There are three rules for a good opening: rapport, rapport, and rapport.” 8 Engage in small talk ✓Relate to your customers T he critical skills of questioning, listening, positioning, and checking are the know-how skills. But the skill of relating—which includes rapport, acknowledgment, and empathy—is the feel-how skill. Building rapport is often connected to the opening of a call. But there are also other powerful ways and times to relate throughout the call. Many salespeople get into sales because they “like people.” As critically important as rapport is, it is only one part of relating to customers. Rapport is the “like people,” chitchat part of relating. Many salespeople who are good at rapport limit their ability to connect with customers to that part of relating. They don’t reap the benefits of using acknowledgment and empathy throughout the dialogue. In a training session, a group of salespeople were confronted with an objection exercise in which an irate senior-level customer said, “Your people are always spouting formulas as if we know what to do with them!” They were asked to respond with empathy. They said, “What is it you don’t understand?” and “I’ll go over the process again” and so on. No one initially came up with an empathy statement. It took a while to arrive at “We certainly don’t mean to do that. I’m sorry we have not been clear. What specifically …?” Acknowledgment and empathy are powerful skills. Although questions can be empathetic in tone, questions don’t replace empathy or acknowledgment. For example, if a customer mentions a problem, a good salesperson might ask, “How did you handle that?” A 9 Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. superb salesperson is likely to introduce the question with empathy to convey concern and, most important, encourage a more complete response—for example, “I’m sorry to hear that that happened,” followed by the question. Both acknowledgment and empathy are very important to an active dialogue. Empathy goes a step beyond acknowledgment in showing concern for the customer and, when used effectively, it can help form personal bonds. Empathy is not easy for some salespeople to express. They may feel empathy, but are not comfortable communicating it. Verbally expressing concern and caring can help you reduce customer defenses and make you more persuasive. Especially when a customer is emotional or the topic is sensitive, it is very helpful to respond first with an expression of genuine empathy, to make the customer more receptive to your response. Empathy needs to be genuine, because phony empathy is usually transparent to today’s savvy customers. Many salespeople are more comfortable using acknowledgment because it is more neutral. Using acknowledgment is also an effective way to connect with customers. Here’s how to broaden your relating skills: Acknowledge, acknowledge, acknowledge: Verbally indicate you heard what the customer has said. Empathize: Express genuine empathy when your customer is disturbed, excited, or emotional. Rapport: Develop your rapport skills by preparing how you will build rapport. Rapport is the first step in building a relationship. “Acknowledgment is the oxygen of sales.” 10 Start by asking questions ✓Position your questioning M any salespeople think that after their opening they are ready to TE AM FL Y start “selling.” While their goal may be to understand customer needs, too many go straight to talking product—true to a traditional feature-and-benefit formula. Even when salespeople move to asking questions, they can do so in a way that does not inspire customer buyin. By asking questions without any setup, they can limit the level of cooperation they get. Instead, as you wrap up your opening, bridge to customer needs by setting the expectation that you will be asking questions and check to get the customer’s agreement. The reason to do this is that when people are made a part of the decision, it is more likely they will participate actively and enthusiastically. If you preface the reason you’d like to ask questions with a customer benefit, you will increase the cooperation you get. For example, “I’ve looked at ... in preparation for our meeting .... To help me focus on your interests, may I ask ...?” It is also important to preface your preparation to show the effort you have made to make the meeting meaningful. Even with customers who say, “Tell me about X product” or “What do you have for me today?” don’t succumb to the temptation of product before needs. Say, “Yes. I’ve put together some material on .... So I can focus the discussion on what is important to you, may I ask a few questions? What ...? Can you tell me ...?” If it is later in the sales cycle and you have already identified needs, recap those needs 11 Copyright 2003 by Linda Richardson. Click Here for Terms of Use. and ask a question to identify additional needs or concerns and to learn if anything has changed so that you can incorporate that into the dialogue. Knowing when you are exiting your opening and creating a bridge to needs will help you move into a robust need dialogue. It will also help you avoid getting to product too soon. Here are a few ideas to help you create a bridge to needs as you exit your opening: Reference your homework: Build credibility by reinforcing that you are prepared but that you also would like to ask questions. Bridge to customer needs: Begin by sharing your reason for asking questions, to encourage the customer to participate in the dialogue. Focus on a customer benefit: Let the customer know how he or she will benefit by participating in the dialogue. “Pave the way for the need dialogue.” 12
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