Tài liệu Skkn tiếng an h11 teaching grade 11 students’ speaking skills by using communicative tasks.

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TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING INTRODUCTION Vinh Cuu, which is one of the largest districts in Dong Nai Province, has attracted a lot of foreign companies and factories. Many foreigners work in the companies and factories need to use English to interact with their customers, their workers and partners. In order to communicate to foreigners, to find good jobs, many young people and students have to be good at speaking English . Of course, more and more people want to use it as a means of communication at work, in business and tourism. As a teacher, I am aware that English has been one of the compulsory subjects in secondary schools and high schools in Vietnam. In the first term of the school year 2015, all grade 10 students in Dong Nai Province had to take communicative English tests with the four language skills: Listening, speaking, reading and writing. Therefore, English teachers have the responsibility for training and helping their students to become good communicative English users. In teaching the four language skills, we think that speaking is the most important skill, but the teaching of speaking in my school has not been effective in terms of communication. STUDENTS’ LEARNING PROBLEMS Many students in Tri An School are not good at oral communication in English for a number of reasons: First, they have very few learning speaking strategies because they are usually provided with grammar and language structures which their teachers think that these structures are important for the first and second term examinations. Second, they are very shy when they speak out in front of the class because they are not usually trained to use English communicatively. Finally, many tasks in the textbooks : English 10, English 11 and English 12 are not suitable for students’ learning needs. As a teacher of English, I think that teaching English for “spoken communication” is essential. However, my personal experience of its methods is 1 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING still limited due to many following reasons: The students have very few chances for communication due to the large number of students, time limitations, grammar translation method. Most of the teachers don’t get familiar with natural responses to communicative situations except for questions and answer activities between teacher and students. Therefore, the students are not confident enough to express themselves in English. As a teacher, I know that there are a lot of methods that can be applied in the class. However, in this research I focus on grade 11 students’ speaking skill because speaking is a productive skill. It involves using speech to express meanings to others. Interaction is two-way communication that involves using language and body language to keep our listeners involving in what we are saying and to check that they understand our meanings. LITERATURE REVIEW We all know the importance of speaking, teaching speaking to the ultimate goal of our English language teaching. Speaking is one of the crucial productive skills and people can evaluate our English competence by listening to our speaking first. Nunan (1991) wrote, "Success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the (target) language." Therefore, if students do not learn how to speak or do not get any opportunity to speak in the language classroom, they may then get frustrated and lose interest in learning the language. Our responsibility is to improve students’ four language skills: Listening, speaking, reading and writing. I think speaking is the most important skill for my students because the purpose of our English course is really to enable our students to communicate effectively. In fact, if the appropriate communicative tasks or activities are taught in the right way, speaking in class can be a lot of fun. The achievement in learning speaking will increase students’ motivation. 2 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING In recent research, it is true that in a language class, it is necessary for the teacher to create a positive classroom atmosphere so that he or she can encourage the students to communicate with each other. By doing this, the students can express their ideas, feelings and opinions without feeling afraid of making mistakes. Besides, the students can conduct communicative tasks in an effective way. Many researchers emphasize the importance of teaching conversations or role play to English language teaching. Jack C. Richards emphasizes that communicative practice refers to activities where practice in using language within a real communicative context is the focus, where real information is exchanged, and where the language used is not totally predictable. In agreement with Richards, Willis (1996) states that creating a low stress atmosphere and using the language for real purposes are ways to get meaningful communication and through interaction and students have the opportunity to acquire discourse skills. Willis also points out that the essential conditions for effective language learning, such as exposure, use, and motivation. In agreement with Willis, Nunan (1991) says that task-based learning views the learning process as a set of communicative tasks that are directly linked to the curricular goals they serve. He also stresses the crucial role of communicative tasks in task-based teaching and learning. He says that task-based teaching involves an approach where communicative tasks are particularly important because students need to be involved in interactions in the classrooms and real life. As a result, this view changes the approach of designing tasks to be developed in the classroom. 3 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING TASK MODIFICATION Roger Nunn suggests that teachers must take into account the following criteria when they design tasks and exercises for English learners or students. Let’s consider the areas: Simulating "Real" Conversation Classroom tasks are simulations and can only approximate real-life communication, but real-life skills, such as adjusting to an interlocutor's contribution can be built in. Tasks designed to practise interactive ability should be an appropriate task for students. They must be able to imagine themselves in the situation. Exchanging An interactive task should require students to exchange information, opinions, attitudes, but not for its own sake. There should be a real purpose; each participant should need to find something out from the others in order to complete the task. Comprehensible Input The task should require the participants to make sure they fully understand what the others tell them and to make themselves fully understood to the others. In this way, students will need to adjust to each other's contributions. Improvising The task should require both predictable and unpredictable communication. Real conversation always involves unpredictability so an ability to improvise needs to be practised. For example, an attempt to come to an agreement is unpredictable. There is no requirement to actually reach an agreement, so the participants may develop the conversation freely. On the other hand, they must exchange the information for an agreement to be possible and cannot easily avoid asking questions. 4 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING Mixed- Ability For mixed-ability courses, tasks should favour the production of contributions of all kinds. They should allow both weak and strong participants to extend themselves to their full ability. For strong participants, making themselves understood to students with less linguistic ability is a useful skill. Opportunity and time must be available for candidates. (Roger Nunn - Kochi University, Japan) In order to make the tasks more effective and relevant and appropriate for our students, I often redesign the tasks to meet the students’ learning goals. Let’s have a look at the following task design. Part one: English 11- Unit 1: Friendship (Page 16) Task 3 (Task from the textbook) Role - play: Talk about a famous friend. Journalist Interviewee You are interviewing the interviewee You have a friend whom you admire about a friend of his or hers who has greatly. She/ He has just won the just won the first international prize first in Mathematics. international Mathematics. You prize are in being interviewed by a journalist about him or her. Before you start, agree upon the basic profile of the friend. Use the following suggestions to ask and answer questions: • his/ her name • date of birth • his/ her physiccal characteristics • his/ her hobbies 5 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING • his/ her personalities • why he/ she is interested in Math • how much time he/ she spends on Maths every day • what makes him/ her a good friend • what made him/ her successful • what he/ she does in his/ her free time Useful language: His or her personalities: Friendly, humorous, quick-witted, good-natured, helpful, honest, pleasant, caring How he or she won the prize: Studious, intelligent, keenly interested in Mathematics, eager to learn, patient, calm Newly- designed Task 1. Role- playing: Instruction: Work in pairs to play roles in the dialogue. Change the roles when you have finished. Journalist: Hello. Our guest today is Phuong, a student who has won a gold medal in Physics. We can see you’re very excellent. So Phuong, do you admire anybody? Phuong: Yes, of course. That is my best friend. I so much admire him because he is very intelligent and he has just won the first international prize in Maths. Journalist: What’s his name? Phuong: His name is Long. Journalist: What is his date of birth? Phuong: Uh, it’s on 23rd September 1998. 6 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING Journalist: I want to know details of himself. What are his physical characteristics? Phuong: Well, he’s tall and thin. Sometimes I see him as a scientist in his short-sighted glasses. Journalist: Oh, maybe he is very handsome. How about his personalities? Phuong: You know? I admire Long because of not only his excellence but also his good personality. In spite of being a good student, he is very modest and he always helps friends in learning. He also has sense of humour that makes people laugh a lot. Journalist: Long is such a perfect student. Why is he interested in Maths? Phuong: Well, he said he loved Maths when he was a little boy. He likes counting, figures. Journalist: Does he spend all his time studying Maths? Phuong: He spends much time studying it but not all of it. He always has a suitable schedule between studying and playing. Journalist: What does he do in his free time? Phuong: He plays sports with his friends. Sometimes he plays rubikcube. Journalist: After your share, I know how he has such a great success. That’s all interesting. Thanks for your share. I hope to see you and Long someday. Goodbye. Phuong: Bye. See you soon. Rationale: After the weaker students have already practised playing roles in the dialogue, they can make questions with cues based on the dialogue. The students work in pairs to make their own dialogue, using their own ideas. This task is considered “a communicative task” because the students can exchange real information. They use their own ideas to interact with each other. We should help students practice playing roles with a model first, then they can make their own dialogue. They are provided with opportunities to decide on things in the dialogue and this is considered as simulation. 7 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING 2. Making questions: Instruction: Work in pairs to make correct questions, using the word provided. Then, ask your partner to answer the questions to make your own dialogue. Name What Date of birth What Physical characteristics What Personalities How about Interest in Maths Why Time he/ she spends on Maths Does he………………? Hobbies What Suggested Questions Name What’s his/ her name? Date of birth What is his date of birth? What are his/ her physical Physical characteristics characteristics? Personalities How about his/ her personalities? Interest in Maths Why is he/ she interested in Maths? Does he/ she spend all his/ her time Time he/ she spends on Maths studying Maths? What does he/ she do in his/ her free Hobbies time? 8 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING Part two: English 11 - Unit 3: A Party (Page 36) Task 2 (Task from the textbook) Work in pairs. Tell your partner about the party. Newly-designed Task 1. Role- playing: Instruction: Work in pairs to play roles in the dialogue. Change the roles when you have finished. Ngoc: Hi! Hang. Hang: Hello, Ngoc. Ngoc: Well, you look nice today. Hang: Thank you. You are, too. Ngoc: Where did you go last night? Hang: Oh, I went to my friend’s birthday party. Ngoc: Who did you go with? Hang: Well, I went with some of my friends. Ngoc: How did you go there? Hang: Year, we went there by motorbikes. Ngoc: What did you give her? Hang: Oh, we bought a very beautiful dress for her. We hope she will like it. Ngoc: That sounds interesting. Were there a lot of people there? Did you know most of them there? Hang: Uh, there were a lot of people. Some of them were my friends and the others were her relatives that I didn’t know. Ngoc: What did you do at the party? Hang: Well, firstly we sang the song “Happy Birthday!” together and then we ate candies, birthday cakes and played some games. 9 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING Ngoc: How interesting it was! What time did it finish? Hang: Oh, at nine o’clock. I am really interested in talking with you but I have some things to do. Goodbye for now! Ngoc: Bye. See you later. Hang: Thank you. 2. Making questions: Instruction: Work in pairs to make correct questions, using the word provided. Then, ask your partner to answer the questions to make your own dialogue. Birthday party Where With some of friends Who By motorbikes How A very beautiful dress What A lot of people Sing songs and eat candies, birthday cakes At nine o’clock Were there…… What What time Rationale: Helping students to make questions is a very important strategy in teaching oral discourse because in real life sometimes we ask and sometimes we make responses. We do this in order to help students increase their ability to make questions in real life. 10 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING Suggested Questions Birthday party Where did you go last night? With some of friends Who did you go with? By motorbikes How did you go there? A very beautiful dress What did you give her? A lot of people Sing songs and eat candies, birthday cakes At nine o’clock Were there a lot of people there? What did you do at the party? What time did it finish? Part three: English 11- Unit 9: The Post Office (Page 104) Task 3 (Task from the textbook) Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you is a clerk at the post office and the other is a customer, make a dialogue for each of the following situations. 1. You want to subscribe to the Lao dong Daily for a year and have the newspaper delivered to your home every morning before 6.30. Your address is 67 Ngoc Ha Street, Hanoi. 2. Your best friend’s birthday is on 16th May. You want to use the Flower Telegram Service provided by the post office to send her a greetings card and a bunch of red roses on her birthday. Newly- designed Task 1. Role- playing: Instruction: Work in pairs to play roles in the dialogue. Change the roles when you have finished. 11 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING Clerk: Good morning. Welcome to Thanh Ba post office. Can I help you? Thuy: Good morning. Well, I want to subscribe to the newspaper? Clerk: Which newspapers do you want to subscribe to? Thuy: Well, I want to subscribe to the Lao Dong Daily. Clerk: How long have you used this service? Thuy: For a year, please. Can you start tomorrow? Clerk: Certainly. What’s your address? Thuy: Well, my address is 67 Ngoc Ha Street, Hanoi. Clerk: Ok. My staff will deliver the newspaper to your house at 7.00 a.m. Thuy: Could you deliver the newspaper before 6.30? Because I have to go to school at 7.00 a.m. Clerk: Yes, of course. We will deliver it bebore 6.30. Thuy: How much is the fee? Clerk: Well, do you pay for per month or for a whole year? Thuy: Uh, just per month. Clerk: Yes, it’s 30.000 VND per month. Can you fill in this form? Thuy: Yes. Here you are. Thank you. Clerk: You’re welcome. It’s my pleasure. Thuy: Oh, it’s too late. I have to go home. See you later. Clerk: Bye. See you next time. Rationale: After the weaker students have already practised playing roles in the dialogue, they can make questions with cues based on the dialogue. The students work in pairs to make their own dialogue, using their own ideas. It is very essential to help students make questions in teaching oral discourse. We do this in order to help students develop their ability to make questions in real life. 12 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING 2. Making questions: Instruction: Work in pairs to make correct questions, using the word provided. Then, ask your partner to answer the questions to make your own dialogue. Greetings The Lao Dong Daily For a year Can………? Which How long 67 Ngoc Ha Street, Hanoi. What Before 6.30 Could 30.000 VND per month How much Suggested Questions Greetings The Lao Dong Daily Hi! Can I help you? Which newspapers do you want to subscribe to? For a year How long have you used this service? 67 Ngoc Ha Street, Hanoi. What’s your address? Before 6.30 Could you deliver the newspaper before 6.30? 30.000 VND per month How much is the fee? 13 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING REFERENTIAL QUESTIONS Besides using dialogues, I often make referential questions when I teach the four language skills: Listening, speaking, reading and writing because using more referential questions in the classroom will provide students with opportunities for real communication. I also encourage my students to make referential questions so that they can exchange real information in the class. As Nunan (1994) says: Referential questions are questions we ask someone because we don't know the answer. In a language classroom, this can mean questions that the teacher asks students and students ask each other. He also explains that referential questions can be compared to display questions, for which the answer is already clear and the teachers ask just to see if the students know the answer, or for language manipulation. We should consider the following example : English 11- Unit 10: Nature In Danger - Reading - After you read (Page 117) Find out why some animals have become extinct. We should consider this question “People kill animals for fur, skin and food. People keep animals as pets. People hunt or capture animals for recreation or entertainment.Which is the most important cause, in your opinion? Why?” (Referential question). The students will have opportunities to express their opinions, exchange real information with each other by deciding on the most important cause. This means that I am successful in helping them to produce real communication. 14 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING CONCLUSION It is the second time I have written this research paper, I expect that the research will bring good results to me and other teachers in Tri An High School. I strongly hope that communicative tasks in teaching speaking skills are not only useful for students but also for teachers and my school. Teaching speaking in a communicative way can be applied in all classes. As for students and teacher’s perspectives to teaching and learning grammar, this approach to teaching speaking will change their thinking that the teachers only make use of all exercises in the textbook without any improvements, but it is the teacher’s job to design communicative tasks or activities in order to help students to achieve their communication goals of learning and teaching. Finally, I would be very thankful for any comments and suggestions regarding possible improvements. MẠCH THI THU NGA 15 TEACHING GRADE 11 STUDENTS’ SPEAKING COMMUNICATIVE TASKS. SKILLS BY USING REFERENCES Brand, S.T. and Donato, J. M, (2001). Storytelling in Emergent Literacy: Fostering Multiple Intelligences, Thomas Learning, USA. Brown, H Dough. (1994). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice Hall Regents. Harmer, J.(2001) The Practice of English Language Teaching, Pearson Education Ltd A Training Course for TEFl, Oxford Hubbard and Jones, P&H.(1983). University Press. Keppel, G. (1991).Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (3 rd ed ) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Larsen-Freeman, Diane. (1986).Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Oxford University Press. Littlewood , W. T. (1992). Teaching Oral Communication, Blackwell Publishers, UK Roger Nunn - Kochi University (Japan) Ur, P. (1996) A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and theory, Cambridge University Press. Willis, D. and J. Willis (2007)Doing Task-based Teaching, Oxford University Press. Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. London: Longman. 16
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