Tài liệu Skkn một số thủ thuật giải câu trắc nghiệm có nghĩa bị động

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Tham gia: 02/08/2015

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I/ PhÇn më ®Çu: 1. Lý do chän ®Ò tµi: §èi víi tiÕng Anh ë khèi 10, 11 vµ 12 vµ ®Æc biÖt trong c¸c k× thi tèt nghiÖp THPT, thi §H cña bé GD & §T, c©u bÞ ®éng lµ mét phÇn kiÕn thøc hÕt søc quan träng. Vµ c©u bÞ ®éng ®îc lång vµo trong tÊt c¶ cÊu tróc ng÷ ph¸p kh¸c nh: chia th× (nghÜa chñ ®éng hoÆc bÞ ®éng), mÖnh ®Ò quan hÖ (nghÜa chñ ®éng hoÆc bÞ ®éng), c©u ®iÒu kiÖn (nghÜa chñ ®éng hoÆc bÞ ®éng), mÖnh ®Ò hoÆc côm tõ chØ môc ®Ých (nghÜa chñ ®éng hoÆc bÞ ®éng) Muèn lµm tèt ®îc c¸c bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ vÒ c¸c cÊu tróc ng÷ ph¸p trªn th× häc sinh cÇn ph¶i n¾m ®îc c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn c©u chñ ®éng. Qua thùc tÕ gi¶ng d¹y, T«i nhËn thÊy phÇn lín häc sinh cha nhËn ra ®îc khi nµo th× dïng c©u mang nghÜa chñ ®éng, khi nµo th× dïng c©u mang nghÜa bÞ ®éng. V× vËy t«i chän ®Ò tµi “Mét sè thñ thuËt gi¶i c©u tr¾c nghiÖm cã nghÜa bÞ ®éng” lµm ®Ò tµi nghiªn cøu trong s¸ng kiÕn kinh nghiÖm cña m×nh. 2. Môc ®Ých Khi viÕt s¸ng kiÕn kinh nghiÖm nµy, T«i chØ mong ®îc gãp thªm mét vµi ý kiÕn cña m×nh vÒ c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn qu©n ®Õn c©u chñ ®éng vµ c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh gióp häc sinh cã thÓ tham kh¶o thªm trong viÖc «n tËp chuÈn bÞ cho c¸c kú thi s¾p tíi. 3. §èi tîng nghiªn cøu: Trong ch¬ng tr×nh tiÕng Anh THPT, c©u bÞ ®éng ®îc ®a vµo gi¶ng d¹y ë khèi 10, 11 vµ 12. Trong ®Ò tµi cña m×nh, T«i chØ tËp trung vµo mét sè vÊn ®Ò lý thuyÕt cña c©u bÞ ®éng nh cÊu tróc, c¸ch sö dông, c¸ch chuyÓn tõ chñ ®éng sang bÞ ®éng, mét sè d¹ng ®Æc biÖt trong c©u bÞ ®éng vµ mét sè bµi tËp viÕt, bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm t¬ng øng ®Ó cñng cè cho phÇn kiÕn thøc ë trªn, nh»m gióp häc sinh hiÓu vµ n¾m ®îc nh÷ng kiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n vµ n©ng cao cña c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh ®Ó c¸c em cã thÓ lµm tèt c¸c d¹ng bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh. 4. Ph¹m vi nghiªn cøu: §Ò tµi ®îc nghiªn cøu, thö nghiÖm trong ph¹m vi líp 12A1 Trêng THPT Léc Hng 5. Phöông phaùp nghieân cöùu: 5.1 Nghieân cöùu taøi lieäu: Nghieân cöùu nhöõng taøi lieäu coù lieân quan ñeán ñeà taøi: - Saùch giaùo khoa, saùch baøi taäp vaø saùch giaùo vieân lôùp 10, 11 vaø 12. - Ñoïc caùc saùch ngöõ phaùp veà caâu chuû ñoäng - bò ñoäng. 5.2 Ñieàu tra: - Döï giôø: Thöôøng xuyeân döï giôø ñeå naém baét ñöôïc kieán thöùc cuûa hoïc sinh veà caâu bò ñoäng, veà töø vöïng, bieát ñöôïc caùch truyeàn ñaït cuûa ñoàng nghieäp, töø ñoù vaän duïng phöông phaùp vaøo giaûng daïy ñeå hoïc sinh nhaän ra caâu bò ñoäng deå daøng vaø laøm chính xaùc hôn. - Ñaøm thoaïi: Trang 1 + Trao ñoåi vôùi ñồng nghiệp ñeå coù kinh nghieäm vaø phöông phaùp daïy phuø hôïp vôùi töøng ñoái töôïng hoïc sinh. + Trao ñoåi vôùi caùc em hoïc sinh veà nhöõng khoù khaên maø hoïc sinh thöôøng gaëp trong khi laøm caâu bò ñoäng, töø ñoù coù caùch daïy toát hôn. - Thöïc nghieäm vaø kieåm tra: Trong quaù trình nghieân cöùu ñeà taøi, Toâi ñaõ tieán haønh thöïc nghieäm lôùp 12A 1 cuûa tröôøng nhö sau: Lôùp : 12A1 (2009 – 2010): thöïc nghieäm Lôùp : 12A1 (2008 – 2009): ñoái chöùng 5.3 Giaû thuyeát khoa hoïc: Neáu giaùo vieân höôùng daãn hoïc sinh caùch nhaän ra caâu bò ñoäng, phöông phaùp giaûi thì hoïc sinh lôùp 12A1 seõ laøm baøi vaø hieåu baøi toát hôn. 5.4. C¬ së nghiªn cøu: T«i nghiªn cøu ®Ò tµi nµy dùa trªn nh÷ng c¬ së sau: - Dùa vµo thùc tÕ gi¶ng d¹y. - Dùa vµo mét sè tµi liÖu tham kh¶o vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng. - Dùa vµo mét sè ý kiÕn cña ®ång nghiÖp. II/ PhÇn néi dung: 1. Cô sôû lyù luaän: Qua quá trình giảng dạy Tôi nhận thấy học sinh rất ngại khi học đến câu bị động vì nó liên quan đến rất nhiều vấn đề như: thì, ngôi thứ, số ít, số nhiều, động từ bất qui tắt, . . Hơn thế nữa trong những năm gần đây Bộ giáo dục tiến hành cho thi trắc nghiệm trong các kì kiểm tra, thi học kì cũng như thi tú tài, thi cao đẳng và đại học. Với đặc điểm như vậy, giáo viên cần giúp học sinh nhận ra câu bị động và hướng dẫn một số qui tắc để tìm ra đáp án đúng. 2. Cô sôû thöïc tieãn: 2.1 Thöïc traïng saùch giaùo khoa vaø cơ sở vật chất: - Saùch giaùo khoa: Trong các khối 10, 11 và 12 (Cơ bản) đều có nhắc đến câu bị động: + Lớp 10: Unit 5, Unit 10 + Lớp 11: Unit 3, Unit 16 + Lớp 12: Unit 4, Unit 11 - Cô sôû vaät chaát: Trang 2 + Thư viện có một số sách ngữ pháp và sách bài tập. 2.2 Thöïc traïng vieäc hoïc cuûa hoïc sinh: Nhiều học sinh chưa nhận ra được câu bị động, các động từ bất qui tắt. Chaát löôïng thöïc teá qua khaûo saùt chaát löôïng naêm 2008 -2009: Lôùp TSHS 12A1 44 Ñaït yeâu caàu Khoâng ñaït yeâu caàu TS % TS % 24 54.5 20 45.5 2.3 Söï caàn thieát cuûa ñeà taøi: Qua vieäc phaân tích thöïc traïng saùch giaùo khoa, saùch giaùo vieân, thöïc traïng giaûng daïy cuûa giaùo vieân, Toâi nhaän thaáy ñeà taøi caàn thieát ñoái vôùi giaùo vieân tröïc tieáp giaûng daïy nhaèm giôùi thieäu nhöõng kinh nghieäm vaø phöông phaùp phuø hôïp ñeå naâng cao hieäu quaû daïy caâu bò ñoäng cho hoïc sinh lôùp 10, 11, vaø ñaëc bieät laø cho hoïc sinh 12 chuaån bò thi tuù taøi. 3. Noäi dung vaán ñeà: 3.1 Vaán ñeà ñöôïc ñaët ra: Hieän nay caùch daïy môùi laø laøm sao phaùt huy ñöôïc tính tích cöïc cuûa hoïc sinh öùng duïng kieán thöùc ñaõ hoïc trong quaù trình hoïc taäp. Ñeå phaùt huy ñieàu ñoù, chuùng ta caàn phaûi maïnh daïn caûi tieán phöông phaùp vaø giuùp hoïc sinh hieåu ñöôïc vaán ñeà toát hôn, aùp duïng bieän phaùp giaûng daïy coù hieäu quaû hôn. Vì theá trong kieán thöùc veà caâu bò ñoäng, giaùo vieân caàn höôùng daãn cho hoïc sinh laøm theá naøo ñeå nhaän ra vaø coù phöông phaùp giaûi chuùng coù hieäu quaû nhaát. 3.2 Sô löôïc quaù trình thöïc hieän saùng kieán kinh nghieäm: Ñeå hoaøn thaønh ñeà taøi, chuùng toâi ñaõ tieán haønh caùc böôùc sau: - Choïn ñeà taøi. - Ñieàu tra thöïc traïng. - Nghieân cöùu ñeà taøi. - Xaây döïng ñeà cöông vaø laäp keá hoaïch. - Tieán haønh nghieân cöùu. - Thoáng keâ so saùnh. - Vieát ñeà taøi. 4. Noäi dung: Trang 3 B×nh thêng mçi c©u cã thÓ ®îc thÓ hiÖn ë thÓ chñ ®éng hay bÞ ®éng. Chóng ta dïng c©u chñ ®éng khi chñ ng÷ trong c©u lµ t¸c nh©n trùc tiÕp g©y ra hµnh ®éng trong c©u. Khi chñ ng÷ chÞu t¸c ®éng cña hµnh ®éng trong c©u, chóng ta dïng thÓ bÞ ®éng. ViÖc lùa chän sö dông c©u chñ ®éng hay bÞ ®éng phô thuéc vµo nhiÒu yÕu tè. Trong nhiÒu trêng hîp, chóng ta chØ sö dông duy nhÊt hoÆc d¹ng chñ ®éng hoÆc d¹ng bÞ ®éng. Do ®ã häc sinh cÇn ph¶i n¾m ®îc mét sè vÊn ®Ò sau: 4.1. C¸ch dïng c©u bÞ ®éng: - Khi kh«ng cÇn thiÕt ph¶i nh¾c ®Õn t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng (do t×nh huèng ®· qu¸ râ rµng hoÆc do kh«ng quan träng). Eg: The road has been repaired. - Khi chóng ta kh«ng biÕt hoÆc quªn ngêi thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng. Eg: The money was stolen. - Khi chóng ta quan t©m ®Õn b¶n th©n hµnh ®éng h¬n lµ ngêi thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng. Eg: This book was published in Vietnam. - Khi chñ ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng lµ chñ ng÷ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh nh : people, they, someone, etc. Eg: People say that he will win.  It’s said that he will win. - Khi ngêi nãi kh«ng muèn nh¾c ®Õn chñ thÓ g©y ra hµnh ®éng Eg: Smoking is not allowed here. 4.2. CÊu tróc: VÒ cÊu tróc c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh , t«i sÏ chia thµnh hai lo¹i sau : Lo¹i 1: BÞ ®éng ®èi víi c¸c th× kh«ng tiÕp diÔn. D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau: BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Lo¹i 2 : BÞ ®éng víi c¸c th× tiÕp diÔn. D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau: BE + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE Lo¹i 1 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn vµ lo¹i 2 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn. Nhng trong phÇn nµy t«i chØ giíi thiÖu nh÷ng th× häc sinh ®· häc trong ch¬ng tr×nh, phôc vô cho thi tèt nghiÖp THPT bao gåm bèn th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn lµ: th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n, th× qu¸ khø ®¬n, th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh, th× t¬ng lai ®¬n, bÞ ®éng víi ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu vµ hai th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn lµ : HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn vµ qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn. 4.2.a Lo¹i 1 : BÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn. a)Th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n: S + am / is/ are + Past Participle Eg: Active: They raise cows in Ba Vi. Trang 4 Passive: Cows are raised in Ba Vi. b)Th× qu¸ khø ®¬n: S + was / were + Past Participle Eg: Active : Jame Watt invented the steam engine in 1784. Passive : The steam engine was invented by Jame Watt in 1784. c)Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh: S + have/ has been + Past Participle Eg: Active: They have just finished the project. Passive: The project has just been finished. d)Th× t¬ng lai ®¬n: S + will be + Past Participle Eg: Active:They will build a new school in this area next month. Passive: A new school will be built in this area next month. e. §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu. S + Modal Verb + be + Past Participle. Eg: Eg: Active : Passive : You can see him now. He can be seen (by you) now. Active : Passive : He should type his term paper. His term paper should be typed. 4.2.b Lo¹i 2: BÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn. a) Th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn: S + am / is / are +being + Past Participle Eg: Active: Ann is writing a letter. Passive: A letter is being written by Ann b) Th× qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn: S + was / were + being + Past Participle Eg: Active: She was cleaning the room at 7 a.m yesterday. Passive: The room was being cleaned at 7 a.m yesterday. 4.3. C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng: Trang 5 Muèn chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng ta cÇn n¾m ch¾c c¸c bíc chuyÓn sau ®©y: - X¸c ®Þnh t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng, chuyÓn nã thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. - X¸c ®Þnh th× cña ®éng tõ trong c©u chñ ®éng, chia “to be” t¬ng øng víi th× tiÕng Anh ®ã vµ víi chñ ng÷ míi cña c©u bÞ ®éng. - Chia ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u chñ ®éng ë d¹ng past participle trong c©u bÞ ®éng. - By+ t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ( khi muèn nhÊn m¹nh t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng) S S Eg: They S ð + + V + O V (participle) + O will finish V this work tomorrow. O This work will befinished (by them) tomorrow. Trong phÇn nµy cÇn lu ý häc sinh mét sè vÊn ®Ò sau: - C¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ c¸ch thøc thêng ®îc ®Æt tríc ®éng tõ ph©n tõ hai trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Eg: He wrote the book wonderfully.  The book was wonderfully written. - By + t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ®øng sau tr¹ng ng÷ chØ n¬i chèn vµ ®øng tríc tr¹ng ng÷ chØ thêi gian. Eg1: A passer- by took him home. ð He was taken home by a passer- by. Eg2: We will receive the gifts on Monday. ð The gifts will be received by us on Monday. Tuy nhiªn kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø c©u nµo còng cã thÓ chuyÓn tõ chñ ®éng sang bÞ ®éng hoÆc ngîc l¹i. §iÒu kiÖn ®Ó chuyÓn mét c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng lµ c©u ®ã ph¶i cã mét transitive verb ( ®éng tõ ngo¹i híng). C©u cã intransitive verb ( ®éng tõ néi híng) th× kh«ng thÓ chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng. §éng tõ ngo¹i híng lµ ®éng tõ cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp trong khi ®éng tõ néi híng th× kh«ng cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp. Eg: 1) She is making a cake. ð A cake is being made by her. Transitive verb 2) They run along the beach every morning. Intransitive verb 4.4 Practice 1: VËn dông nh÷ng kiÕn thøc ë trªn , h·y luyÖn tËp b»ng c¸ch lµm c¸c bµi tËp sau: Exercise 1: ChuyÓn nh÷ng c©u sau sang bÞ ®éng: 1.My father waters this flower every morning.  This flower is watered by my father every morning. 2. John invited Fiona to his birthday party last night.  Fiona was invited to John’s birthday by him last night. 3. No one can move the heavy rock in his garden.  The heavy rock can’t be moved in his garden. Trang 6 4. Her mother is preparing the dinner in the kitchen.  The dinner is being prepared in the kitchen by her mother. 5.We should clean our teeth twice a day.  Our teeth should be clean twice a day. 6. Did Mary buy this beautiful dress?  Was this beautiful dress bought by Mary? 7.Some people will interview the new president on TV.  The new president will be interviewed on TV. 8.We can’t finish our work on time.  Our work can’t be finished on time. 9.Her husband never takes her to the cinema.  She is never taken to the cinema by her husband. 10. He was doing his homework at 9 p.m yesterday.  His homework was being done by him at 9 p.m yesterday. Tuy nhiªn , hiÖn nay theo quyÕt ®Þnh cña Bé gi¸o dôc vµ ®µo t¹o th× m«n Ngo¹i ng÷ ®îc thi díi h×nh thøc tr¾c nghiÖm kh¸ch quan trong c¸c bµi thi häc kú còng nh tèt nghiÖp THPT hay thi C§, §H. Do ®ã, muèn lµm tèt ®îc c¸c bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng th× häc sinh ph¶i n¾m ch¾c cÊu tróc c©u bÞ ®éng, lµm ®îc c¸c bµi tËp viÕt vÒ chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng th× sÏ dÔ dµng lµm ®îc c¸c bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm. Sau ®©y lµ mét sè bµi tËp díi h×nh thøc tr¾c nghiÖm, sÏ gióp häc sinh cñng cè kiÕn thøc vµ lµm bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng tèt h¬n. Exercise 2: Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau: 1. My wedding ring . . . . . . . . of yellow and white gold. a. is made b. is making c. made 2. If your brother . . . . . . . ., he would come. a. invited b. were invited c. were inviting 3. Mr. Wilson is . . . . . . . . as Wilie to his friend. a. knowed b. knew c. known 4. References . . . . . . . . in the examination room. a. not are used b. is not used c. didn’t used 5. Laura . . . . . . . . in Boston. a. are born b. were born c. was born 6. My nother is going . . . . . . . . this house. a. sold b. to be sold c. to sold 7.There’s somebody hehind us . I think we are . . . . . . . .. a. being followed b. are followed c. follow 8. Have you . . . . . . . . by a dog? a. bite b. ever been bit c. ever been bitten 9.The room is being . . . . . . . . at the moment. a. was cleaned b. cleaned c. cleaning 10. The road to our village . . . . . . . . widened next year. a. is b. will c. can d. maked d. invite d. is known d. are not used d. born d. to sell d. following d. bit d. clean d. will be Exercise 3: Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d. 1.Somebody cleans that room everyday. a. The room every day is cleaned. b. The room is everyday cleaned. c. The room is cleaned every day. d. The room is cleaned by somebody everyday. 2. They cancelled all flights because of fog. a. All flights because of fog were cancelled. b. All flights were cancelled because of fog. c. All flights were cancelled by them because of fog. d. All flights were because of fog cancelled. Trang 7 3.They are building a new highway around the city. a. A new highway is being built around the city. b. A new highway is being built around the city by them. c. A new highway around the city is being built. d. Around the city a new highway is being built. 4.They have built a new hospital near the airport. a. A new hospital has been built near the airport by them. b. A new hospital near the airport have been built. c. A new hospital has been built near the airport . d. Near the airport a new hospital has been built by them. 5. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview. a. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview. b. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview by them. c. A lot of questions will be asked you at the interview. d. A lot of questions will be asked at the interview. 6. People don’t use this road very often. a. This road is not used very often. b. Not very often this road is not used. c. This road very often is not used. d. This road not very often is used. 7. Somebody accused me of stealing money. a. I was accused by somebody of stealing money. b. I was accused of stealing money. c. I was accused of stealing money by somebody. d. I was accused stealing money. 8. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. a. The computer is being used at the moment. b. The computer at the moment is being used. c. The computer is being used by somebody at the moment. d. The computer is used at the moment. 9. The bill includes service. a. Service is included by the bill. b. Service included in the bill. c. Service is included in the bill. d. Service is in the bill. 10. They have changed the date of the meeting. a. The date of the meeting has been changed. b. The date of the meeting has been changed by them. c. The meeting has been changed the date. d. The date of the meeting has changed. 4.5 c¸c d¹ng ®Æc biÖt cña c©u bÞ ®éng: ViÖc chuyÓn ®æi tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng hoµn toµn tuú thuéc vµo cÊu tróc c©u do ®ã c¸ch tèt nhÊt ®Ó n¾m v÷ng c¸ch chuyÓn ®æi lµ xem xÐt nã díi cÊp ®é c¸c mÉu c©u ®· biÕt. a. MÉu c©u : S + V + O (C, A) Trong mÉu c©u nµy t©n ng÷ cã thÓ lµ mét danh tõ, côm tõ hoÆc ®¹i tõ. H·y xÐt mét sè vÝ dô sau: S + V + O Eg: Active: Her mother is cleaning the kitchen. Passive: The kitchen is being cleaned by her mother. S +V + O + C Eg: They called him Mr. Angry. ð He was called Mr. Angry. Trang 8 S + V + O + A Eg: He put the table in the corner. ð The table was put in the corner. b. MÉu c©u : S +V + O + O §èi víi c©u cã hai t©n ng÷, chóng ta cã thÓ dïng mét trong hai t©n ng÷ chuyÓn thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Tuy nhiªn, t©n ng÷ chØ ngêi thêng hay ®îc sö dông nhiÒu h¬n. Eg: We gave him a nice present on his birthday. Oi Od - C¸ch chuyÓn thø nhÊt: He was given a nice present on his birthday. - C¸ch chuyÓn thø hai : CÇn thªm mét giíi tõ. A nice present was given to him on his birthday. Cã hai giíi tõ cã thÓ ®îc dïng trong trêng hîp nµy lµ : to, for. - Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘to’: give, bring, send, show, write, post, pass, etc. - Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘for’ : buy, make, cook, keep, find, get, save, order, etc. Eg1 : She didn’t show me this special camera. ð This camera wasn’t shown to me. Eg 2: She is making him a cup of tea. ð A cup of tea is being made for him. 4.6. C©u bÞ ®éng víi c¸c ®éng tõ têng thuËt: C¸c ®éng tõ têng thuËt thêng ®îc dïng ®Ó têng thuËt l¹i c¸c c©u nãi, ý nghÜ, c©u hái, yªu cÇu, lêi xin lçi . . . Mét sè ®éng tõ têng thuËt thêng gÆp lµ: say, think, know, believe, ask, tell, promise . . . Cã hai cÊu tróc liªn quan ®Õn ®éng tõ têng thuËt: a. MÉu c©u : Active: Passive : S +V + Oi + that clause. S (Oi) + be past participle + that clause. Eg: He told me that you had a new bike. ð I was told that you had a new bike. b. MÉu c©u S +V + that + clause. MÉu c©u nµy cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn sang d¹ng bÞ ®éng: - C¸ch 1 : dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ “it” Eg: People think that I am the best student in my class.  It is thought that I am the best student in my class. - C¸ch 2 : dïng chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò that vµ sö dông d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ. ë vÝ dô trªn, cã c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai lµ: Eg: I am thought to be the best student in my class. ë c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai , cã thÓ dïng 3 d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ: Trang 9 1) To- inf: khi hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë mÖnh ®Ò that diÔn ra cïng th× hoÆc diÔn ra sau hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt. 2) nguyªn mÉu tiÕp diÔn: to be Ving, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that ë th× tiÕp diÔn , cßn hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt ë th× ®¬n gi¶n, cïng bËc. 3) nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh: to have V3/ED, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that x¶y ra tríc hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò têng thuËt. Eg1: People say that he is a rich man. ð He is said to be a rich man. Eg2: They think that she is living there. ð She is thought to be living there. Eg3: They said that Tom had left home before the weekend. ð Tom was said to have left home before the weekend. 4.7 C©u mÖnh lÖnh: Khi chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng ta sö dông cÊu tróc sau: Active: Passive: V Let + O + Adjunct + O + be past participle + Adjunct. Eg: Take off your hat! ð Let your hat be taken off! Ngoµi c¸ch trªn, cßn mét c¸ch kh¸c ®Ó chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng nhng Ýt dïng h¬n. §ã lµ: S + am/ is/ are + to be + past participle HoÆc S should be + past participle Eg: Active: Look after the children please! Passive: The children should be looked after! HoÆc : The children are to be looked after! 4.8. Caâu hoûi WH- . §èi víi nh÷ng c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái, chóng ta cã thÓ chia lµm hai lo¹i: Lo¹i 1: Tõ ®Ó hái cã chøc n¨ng lµ t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng. Víi d¹ng c©u hái nµy viÖc chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng rÊt ®¬n gi¶n v× tõ ®Ó hái ®ã sÏ cã chøc n¨ng lµ chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Eg: Active: How many languages do they speak in Canada? Passive: How many languages are spoken in Canada? Lo¹i 2: Tõ ®Ó hái cã chøc n¨ng lµ chñ ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng khi chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng, nã sÏ cã vai trß lµ t©n ng÷ trong c©u. Khi ®ã, ta sÏ cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn. HoÆc chuyÓn By lªn ®Çu c©u( tõ ®Ó hái sÏ ë d¹ng t©n ng÷) hoÆc ®Ó By ë cuèi c©u. Eg: Who wrote this novel ? Trang 10 ð Who was this novel written by? HoÆc: ð By whom was this novel written? 4.9. CÊu tróc : S + V+ O + Ving Cã hai trêng hîp x¶y ra: a. T©n ng÷ cña Ving cïng chØ mét ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷ cña c©u: Eg: He kept me waiting. -> I was kept waiting ( by him). b. T©n ng÷ cña Ving kh«ng chØ mét ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷ cña c©u: Eg : He hates people looking at him. ð He hates being looked at ( by people). 4.10. CÊu tróc : S a. S + V + O ( to) + V + V + O + to + V - Khi t©n ng÷ kh«ng cïng ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷. Eg : We asked him to do it. ð He was asked to do it. - Khi t©n ng÷ cïng ®èi tîng víi chñ ng÷. Eg : She would love someone to take her out to dinner. ð She would love to be taken out to dinner. b. S - + V + O + V( without to) Khi chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng chóng ta dïng To-infinitive trõ ®éng tõ “let”. Eg : We heard him sing this song. ð He was heard to sing this song. Nhng : They let us go home. ð We were let go home. HoÆc : We were allowed to go home. 4.11. CÊu tróc Have / get something done. ( d¹ng nhê b¶o ). a. Víi have. Active : S + have + Object ( person) + bare infinitive + Object. Passive : S + have + Object ( thing) + Past Participle (+ by + Object ( person)) Eg : I has him repair my bicycle yesterday. ð I had my bicycle repaired yesterday. Trang 11 b. Víi get. Active: S + get + O (person) + to infinitive + O ( thing) Passive : S + get + O (thing) + Past participle (+by + O(person)) Eg: I get her to make some coffee. ð I get some coffee made. 4.12 PRACTICE 2: Dùa vµo nh÷ng kiÕn thøc ë trªn yªu cÇu häc sinh lµm c¸c bµi tËp sau ®©y: Exercise 1 : ChuyÓn nh÷ng c©u sau sang bÞ ®éng: 1. Do they teach English here?  Is English taught here? 2. Did the teacher give some exercises?  Were some exercises given by the teacher? 3. When will you do the work?  When will the work be done? 4. What books are people reading this year?  What books are being read this year? 5. People saw him steal your car.  He was seen to steal your car. 6. They made him work all day.  He was made to work all day. 7. Open your book!  Let your book be opened! 8. Don’t do that silly thing again !  Don’t let that silly thing be done again! 9. She advised me to sell that house.  I was advised to sell that house. 10. Why didn’t they help him?  Why wasn’t he helped? Exercise 2. Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau: 1. The old lady was . . . . . . . . exhausted after the long walk. a. very b. aboslutely c. pretty d. fairly. 2. The old man is said . . . . . . . . all his money to an old people’s home when he died. a. to leave b. to leaving c. have left d. to have left. 3. Nobody was injured in the accident , . . . . . . . .? a. was there b. was he c. were they d. weren’t they. 4. Renoir’s paintings . . . . . . . . masterpieces all over the world. a. had considered b. are considered c. are considering d. consider. 5. He was advised . . . . . . . . singing lessons. a. take b. taken c. taking d. to take. 6. You’d better get someone . . . . . . . . your living room. a. redecorate b. redecorated c. to redecorate d. redecorating. 7. When . . . . . . . .? In 1928. a. penicillin was discovered b. did pencillin discoved. c. was penicillin disscoverd d. did pencillin discover. 8. I don’t remember . . . . . . . . of the decision to change the company policy on vacations. a. telling b. being told c. to tell d. to be told. 9. The children . . . . . . . . to the zoo. a. were enjoyed taken b. enjoyed being taken c. were enjoyed taking d. enjoyed taking. 10. A new bike was bought . . . . . . . . him on his birthday. a. to b. for c. with d. on. 11. His car needs . . . . . . . .. a. be fixed b. fixing c. to be fixing d. fixed. 12. Her watch needs . . . . . . . .. Trang 12 a. reparing b. to be repaired c. repaired 13. He was said . . . . . . . ..this building. a. designing b. to have designed c. to designs 14. Ted . . . . . . . . by a bee while he was sitting in the garden. a. got sting b. got stung c. get stung 15. Let the children . . . . . . . . taken to the cinema. a. to b. be c. to be d. a&b. d. designed d. gets stung d. being. Exercise 3 : Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d. 1. It has been said that UFO sightings are increasing. a. People say that UFO sightings are increasing. b. people have said that UFO sightings are increasing. c. That UFO sightings are increasing is true. d. UFO has been said to be inreasing. 2. He is getting them mend the windows. a. He’s having the windows to mend. b. He’s having to mend the windows. c. He’s having to be mended the windows. d. He is having the windows mended. 3. They made her hand over her passport. a. She was made to hand over her passport. b. She was made hand over her passport. c. She was handed over to make her passport. d. She was handed over for her passport to make. 4. Don’t let the others see you. a. Don’t let you to be seen. b. Don’t let yourself be seen. c. You aren’t to be seen by the others. d. Both a &c allowed. 5. They say that many people are homeless after the tsunami. a. They say many people to have been homeless after the tsunami. b. They say many people to bbe homeless after the tsunami. c. Many people are said to have been homeless after the tsunami. d. Many people are said to be homeless after the tsunami. 6. They know that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law. a. The Prime minister is known to have been in favour of the new law. b. They know the Prime Minister to be in favour of the new law. c. The Prime Minister is known to be in favour of the new law. d. They know the Prime Minister to have been in favour of the new law. 7. They expect that the government will lose the election. a. The government is expected to have lost the election. b. The government is expected to lose the election. c. They expect the government to lose the election. d. They expect the government have lost election. Trang 13 8. I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation. a. I didn’t realize that our conversation was recorded. b. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded. c. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded by someone. d. Our conversation wasn’t realized to be recorded. 9. They never made us do anything we didn’t want to do. a. We are never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. b. We were never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. c. We have never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. d. We had never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. 10. Brian told me that somebody had attacked him in the street. a. I was told by Brian that soebody had attacked him in the street. b. I was told by Brian that he had been attacked in the street. c. Brian told me to have been attacked in the street. d. Brian told me that he had been attacked in the street. 4.13 Keát quaû cuï theå: Qua thöïc hieän saùng kieán kinh nghieäm, Toâi nhaän thaáy caùc em coù nhieàu tieán boä qua nhöõng tieát baøi taäp veà caâu bò ñoäng, lôùp ñöôïc daïy thöû nghieäm 12A 1 (2009 – 2010). Ñoái töôïng hoïc sinh 12A1 (2008-2009) coù trình ñoä ngang nhau (ñoái chöùng) vôùi 12A1(2009-2010). Coøn ôû lôùp thöû nghieäm, caùc em nhaän bieát khaù toát veà caâu bò ñoäng. Vôùi nhöõng bieän phaùp ñaõ aùp duïng, sau khi thöû nghieäm vaø ñoái chöùng ñeà taøi ôû lôùp, Toâi thu ñöôïc keát quaû sau: Lôùp TSHS 12A1(2008 -2009) 44 Lôùp TSHS 12A1(2009 -2010) 43 Ñaït yeâu caàu Khoâng ñaït yeâu caàu TS % TS % 24 54.5 20 45.5 Ñaït yeâu caàu Khoâng ñaït yeâu caàu TS % TS % 32 74.4 11 25.6 Trang 14 Ghi chuù Ñoái chöùng Ghi chuù Thöû nghieäm Vôùi keát quaû treân, Toâi thaáy hoïc sinh coù tieán boä qua kieåm tra. Nhieàu em naém ñöôïc caùch baøi taäp lieân quan veà caâu bò ñoäng, taïo ñieàu kieän cho Toâi coù nhieàu kinh nghieäm hôn ñeå tieáp tuïc aùp duïng keát quaû ñaït ñöôïc cho nhöõng naêm hoïc sau. III/ PhÇn kÕt luËn: Trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y tiÕng Anh khèi 10, 11 vµ 12, t«i ®· giíi thiÖu cho c¸c em häc sinh nh÷ng kiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh. §èi víi tõng ®èi t îng häc sinh kh¸c nhau, th× yªu cÇu vÒ kiÕn thøc còng kh¸c nhau. §èi víi nh÷ng ®èi t îng häc sinh yÕu, hoÆc chØ phôc vô thi häc kú hoÆc thi tèt nghiÖp THPT th× t«i chØ giíi thiÖu nh÷ng phÇn c¬ b¶n nh c¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng, c©u bÞ ®éng ë mét sè th× tiÕng Anh häc trong ch¬ng tr×nh, vµ víi c¸c ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu, WH- question, cÊu tróc SVOO. Cßn ®èi víi ®èi tîng häc sinh kh¸, giái, häc sinh häc khèi D th× t«i ®· giíi thiÖu thªm phÇn mét sè d¹ng ®Æc biÖt trong c©u bÞ ®éng. 1. Baøi hoïc kinh nghieäm: Trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y, t«i nhËn thÊy häc sinh phÇn lín ®Òu n¾m ®îc c¸c kiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n vµ ¸p dông lµm ®îc c¸c d¹ng bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm phôc vô cho k× thi tèt nghiÖp THPT. Tuy nhiªn, ®èi víi ®èi tîng häc sinh yÕu, th× c¸c em vÉn cßn gÆp mét sè khã kh¨n v× ®©y lµ phÇn kiÕn thøc liªn quan chÆt chÏ víi c¸c phÇn kiÕn thøc kh¸c ®Æc biÖt lµ c¸c th× trong tiÕng Anh.V× vËy, khi d¹y phÇn kiÕn thøc nµy, t«i ®· yªu cÇu häc sinh nh¾c l¹i kiÕn thøc ®· häc trong phÇn c¸c th× tiÕng Anh vµ c¸c kiÕn thøc cã liªn quan kh¸c. 2. Höôùng phoå bieán aùp duïng ñeà taøi: Ñeà taøi ñaõ ñöôïc thöïc hieän coù hieäu quaû ôû lôùp 12A 1 vaø sẽ ñöôïc phoå bieán trong toå chuyeân moân khoái 10, 11, vaø 12 tröôøng THPT Loäc Höng. 3. Höôùng nghieân cöùu tieáp cuûa ñeà taøi: Höôùng daãn hoïc sinh khoái 10, 11, vaø 12 tröôøng THPT Loäc Höng coù kyõ naêng toát trong luùc giaûi baøi taäp traéc nghieäm. 4. §Ò xuÊt: Lµ mét gi¸o viªn trÎ, gi¶ng d¹y cha l©u, kinh nghiÖm cha nhiÒu nªn t«i biÕt vÊn ®Ò m×nh ®a ra cßn nhiÒu h¹n chÕ. V× vËy, t«i rÊt mong nhËn ®îc sù tham gia x©y dùng cña c¸c ThÇy C«, ®ång nghiÖp ®Ó vÊn ®Ò t«i ®a ra ®îc hoµn thiÖn h¬n, cã hiÖu qu¶ h¬n trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y. Xin ch©n thµnh c¶m ¬n! Léc Hng, ngµy 16 th¸ng 03 n¨m 2010 Ngêi viÕt Voõ Thanh Trí Ý kiến phê duyệt đề tài của Lãnh đạo trường THPT Lộc Hưng. 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MUÏC LUÏC  œ Trang I- MÔÛ ÑAÀU.........................................................................................1 1- Lyù do choïn ñeà taøi...................................................................1 2- Muïc ñích.................................................................................1 3- Ñoái töôïng nghieân cöùu ............................................................1 4- Phaïm vi nghieân cöùu ...............................................................1 5- Phöông phaùp nghieân cöùu .......................................................1 5.1 Nghieân cöùu taøi lieäu................................................................1 5.2 Ñieàu tra..................................................................................1 5.3 Giaû thuyeát khoa hoïc...............................................................2 5. 4 Cô sôû nghieân cöùu..................................................................2 II- NOÄI DUNG ...................................................................................2 1- Cô sôû lyù luaän .........................................................................2 Trang 16 2- Cô sôû thöïc tieãn ......................................................................2 2.1 Thöïc traïng saùch giaùo khoa vaø saùch giaùo vieân lôùp 11.............2 2.2 Thöïc traïng vieäc hoïc cuûa hoïc sinh..........................................3 2.3 Söï caàn thieát cuûa ñeà taøi...........................................................3 3- Noäi dung vaán ñeà ....................................................................3 3.1- Vaán ñeà ñöôïc ñaët ra .........................................................3 3.2- Sô löôïc quaù trình thöïc hieän saùng kieán kinh nghieäm........3 4- Noäi dung.................................................................................4 4.1 Caùch duøng caâu bò ñoäng.....................................................4 4.2 Caáu truùc............................................................................4 4.2.a Loïai 1 – Bò ñoäng khoâng tieáp dieãn...........................5 4.2.b Loïai 2 – Bò ñoäng tieáp dieãn......................................6 4.3 Caùch chuyeån töø caâu chuû ñoäng sang bò ñoäng.....................6 4.4 Practice 1..........................................................................7 4.5 Caùc daïng ñaëc bieät cuûa caâu bò ñoäng...................................9 4.6 Caâu bò ñoäng vôùi caùc ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät........................10 4.7 Caâu meänh leänh...............................................................11 4.8 Caâu hoûi WH-..................................................................12 4.9 Caáu truùc S + V + O + VING..............................................12 4.10 Caáu truùc S + V + O + (TO) + V....................................13 4.11 Caáu truùc Have / Get......................................................13 4.12 Practice 2......................................................................14 4.13 Keát quaû cuï theå..............................................................16 III- KEÁT LUAÄN ..............................................................................17 1- Baøi hoïc kinh nghieäm ...........................................................17 2- Höôùng phoå bieán aùp duïng cuûa ñeà taøi............................17 3- Höôùng nghieân cöùu tieáp cuûa ñeà taøi.........................................18 4- Ñeà xuaát.............................................................................18 Trang 17
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