Tài liệu Robot mechanisms and mechanical devices illustrated

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Robot Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Illustrated Paul E. Sandin McGraw-Hill New York | Chicago | San Francisco | Lisbon | London | Madrid Mexico City | Milan | New Delhi | San Juan | Seoul | Singapore | Sydney | Toronto Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-142928-X The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-141200-X All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. 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Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/007142928X For Vicky, Conor, and Alex This page intentionally left blank. For more information about this title, click here. Contents Introduction xi Acknowledgments Chapter 1 Motor and Motion Control Systems Introduction Merits of Electric Systems Motion Control Classification Closed-Loop System Trapezoidal Velocity Profile Closed-Loop Control Techniques Open-Loop Motion Control Systems Kinds of Controlled Motion Motion Interpolation Computer-Aided Emulation Mechanical Components Electronic System Components Motor Selection Motor Drivers (Amplifiers) Feedback Sensors Installation and Operation of the System Servomotors, Stepper Motors, and Actuators for Motion Control Permanent-Magnet DC Servomotors Brush-Type PM DC Servomotors Disk-Type PM DC Motors Cup- or Shell-Type PM DC Motors Position Sensing in Brushless Motors Brushless Motor Advantages Brushless DC Motor Disadvantages Characteristics of Brushless Rotary Servomotors Linear Servomotors xxxv 1 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 9 10 10 11 15 16 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 29 30 31 31 31 v Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for Terms of Use. vi Contents Commutation Installation of Linear Motors Advantages of Linear vs. Rotary Servomotors Coil Assembly Heat Dissipation Stepper Motors Permanent-Magnet (PM) Stepper Motors Variable Reluctance Stepper Motors Hybrid Stepper Motors Stepper Motor Applications DC and AC Motor Linear Actuators Stepper-Motor Based Linear Actuators Servosystem Feedback Sensors Rotary Encoders Incremental Encoders Absolute Encoders Linear Encoders Magnetic Encoders Resolvers Tachometers Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) Linear Velocity Transducers (LVTs) Angular Displacement Transducers (ATDs) Inductosyns Laser Interferometers Precision Multiturn Potentiometers Solenoids and Their Applications Solenoids: An Economical Choice for Linear or Rotary Motion Technical Considerations Open-Frame Solenoids C-Frame Solenoids Box-Frame Solenoids Tubular Solenoids Rotary Solenoids Rotary Actuators Actuator Count Debugging Reliability Cost Chapter 2 Belts Indirect Power Transfer Devices 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 38 40 41 42 43 43 44 46 47 48 49 51 53 55 55 57 57 59 60 60 62 63 63 63 64 64 66 67 67 68 68 69 72 Contents Flat Belts O-Ring Belts V-Belts Timing Belts Smoother Drive Without Gears Plastic-and-Cable Chain Chain Ladder Chain Roller Chain Rack and Pinion Chain Drive Timing or Silent Chain Friction Drives Cone Drive Needs No Gears Or Pulleys Gears Gear Terminology Gear Dynamics Terminology Gear Classification Worm Gears Worm Gear with Hydrostatic Engagement Controlled Differential Drives Twin-Motor Planetary Gears Provide Safety Plus Dual-Speed Harmonic-Drive Speed Reducers Advantages and Disadvantages Flexible Face-Gears Make Efficient High-Reduction Drives High-Speed Gearheads Improve Small Servo Performance Simplify the Mounting Cost-Effective Addition Chapter 3 Direct Power Transfer Devices Couplings Methods for Coupling Rotating Shafts Ten Universal Shaft Couplings Hooke’s Joints Constant-Velocity Couplings Coupling of Parallel Shafts Ten Different Splined Connections Cylindrical Splines Face Splines Torque Limiters Ten Torque-Limiters One Time Use Torque Limiting 73 73 73 75 76 77 79 80 80 82 82 83 84 85 87 88 88 90 90 93 95 96 99 100 102 102 104 107 109 110 114 114 115 117 118 118 120 121 121 125 vii viii Contents Chapter 4 Wheeled Vehicle Suspensions and Drivetrains Wheeled Mobility Systems Why Not Springs? Shifting the Center of Gravity Wheel Size Three-Wheeled Layouts Four-Wheeled Layouts All-Terrain Vehicle with Self-Righting and Pose Control Six-Wheeled Layouts Eight-Wheeled Layouts Chapter 5 Steering History Steering Basics The Next Step Up Chapter 7 130 130 131 134 136 141 144 150 155 Tracked Vehicle Suspensions and Drive Trains 161 Steering Tracked Vehicles Various Track Construction Methods Track Shapes Track Suspension Systems Track System Layouts One-Track Drive Train Two-Tracked Drive Trains Two-Tracked Drive Trains with Separate Steering Systems Four-Tracked Drive Trains Six-Tracked Drive Trains Chapter 6 127 167 168 171 174 178 178 179 180 181 184 187 190 193 Walkers 199 Leg Actuators Leg Geometries Walking Techniques Wave Walking Independent Leg Walking Frame Walking Roller-Walkers Flexible Legs 202 203 208 208 208 211 214 214 Contents Chapter 8 Pipe Crawlers and Other Special Cases Horizontal Crawlers Vertical Crawlers Traction Techniques for Vertical Pipe Crawlers Wheeled Vertical Pipe Crawlers Tracked Crawlers Other Pipe Crawlers External Pipe Vehicles Snakes Chapter 9 Comparing Locomotion Methods What Is Mobility? The Mobility System Size Efficiency The Environment Thermal Ground Cover Topography Obstacles Complexity Speed and Cost The Mobility Index Comparison Method The Practical Method Explain All This Using the Algebraic Method Chapter 10 Manipulator Geometries Positioning, Orienting, How Many Degrees of Freedom? E-Chain Slider Crank Arm Geometries Cartesian or Rectangular Cylindrical Polar or Spherical The Wrist Grippers Passive Parallel Jaw Using Cross Tie Passive Capture Joint with Three Degrees of Freedom 217 220 221 222 223 224 224 226 226 227 229 229 230 231 232 232 233 233 234 235 235 236 236 237 239 241 243 243 245 246 247 248 250 252 255 256 ix x Contents Industrial Robots Industrial Robot Advantages Trends in Industrial Robots Industrial Robot Characteristics Chapter 11 Proprioceptive and Environmental Sensing Mechanisms and Devices Industrial Limit Switches Layouts Combination Trip (Sense) and Hard Stop By-Pass Layouts Reversed Bump Bumper Geometries and Suspensions Simple Bumper Suspension Devices Three Link Planar Tension Spring Star Torsion Swing Arm Horizontal Loose Footed Leaf Spring Sliding Front Pivot Suspension Devices to Detect Motions in All Three Planes Conclusion Index 258 259 259 261 263 270 276 277 278 279 280 282 283 284 284 285 286 287 289 291 Introduction T his book is meant to be interesting, helpful, and educational to hobbyists, students, educators, and midlevel engineers studying or designing mobile robots that do real work. It is primarily focused on mechanisms and devices that relate to vehicles that move around by themselves and actually do things autonomously, i.e. a robot. Making a vehicle that can autonomously drive around, both indoors and out, seems, at first, like a simple thing. Build a chassis, add drive wheels, steering wheels, a power source (usually batteries), some control code that includes some navigation and obstacle avoidance routines or some other way to control it, throw some bump sensors on it, and presto! a robot. Unfortunately, soon after these first attempts, the designer will find the robot getting stuck on what seem to be innocuous objects or bumps, held captive under a chair or fallen tree trunk, incapable of doing anything useful, or with a manipulator that crushes every beer can it tries to pick up. Knowledge of the mechanics of sensors, manipulators, and the concept of mobility will help reduce these problems. This book provides that knowledge with the aid of hundreds of sketches showing drive layouts and manipulator geometries and their work envelope. It discusses what mobility really is and how to increase it without increasing the size of the robot, and how the shape of the robot can have a dramatic effect on its performance. Interspersed throughout the book are unusual mechanisms and devices, included to entice the reader to think outside the box. It is my sincere hope that this book will decrease the time it takes to produce a working robot, reduce the struggles and effort required to achieve that goal, and, therefore, increase the likelihood that your project will be a success. Building, designing, and working with practical mobile robots requires knowledge in three major engineering fields: mechanical, electrical, and software. Many books have been written on robots, some focusing on the complete robot system, others giving a cookbook approach allowing a novice to take segments of chapters and put together xi Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for Terms of Use. xii Introduction a unique robot. While there are books describing the electric circuits used in robots, and books that teach the software and control code for robots, there are few that are focused entirely on the mechanisms and mechanical devices used in mobile robots. This book intends to fill the gap in the literature of mobile robots by containing, in a single reference, complete graphically presented information on the mechanics of a mobile robot. It is written in laymen’s language and filled with sketches so novices and those not trained in mechanical engineering can acquire some understanding of this interesting field. It also includes clever schemes and mechanisms that mid-level mechanical engineers should find new and useful. Since mobile robots are being called on to perform more and more complex and practical tasks, and many are now carrying one or even two manipulators, this book has a section on manipulators and grippers for mobile robots. It shows why a manipulator used on a robot is different in several ways from a manipulator used in industry. Autonomous robots place special demands on their mobility system because of the unstructured and highly varied environment the robot might drive through, and the fact that even the best sensors are poor in comparison to a human’s ability to see, feel, and balance. This means the mobility system of a robot that relies on those sensors will have much less information about the environment and will encounter obstacles that it must deal with on its own. In many cases, the microprocessor controlling the robot will only be telling the mobility system “go over there” without regard to what lays directly in that path. This forces the mobility system to be able to handle anything that comes along. In contrast, a human driver has very acute sensors: eyes for seeing things and ranging distances, force sensors to sense acceleration, and balance to sense levelness. A human expects certain things of an automobile’s (car, truck, jeep, HumVee, etc.) mobility system (wheels, suspension, and steering) and uses those many and powerful sensors to guide that mobility system’s efforts to traverse difficult terrain. The robot’s mobility system must be passively very capable, the car’s mobility system must feel right to a human. For these reasons, mobility systems on mobile robots can be both simpler and more complex than those found in automobiles. For example, the Ackerman steering system in automobiles is not actually suited for high mobility. It feels right to a human, and it is well suited to higher speed travel, but a robot doesn’t care about feeling right, not yet, at least! The best mobility system for a robot to have is one that effectively accomplishes the required task, without regard to how well a human could use it. Introduction There are a few terms specific to mobile robots that must be defined to avoid confusion. First, the term robot itself has unfortunately come to have at least three different meanings. In this book, the word robot means an autonomous or semi-autonomous mobile land vehicle that may or may not have a manipulator or other device for affecting its environment. Colin Angle, CEO of iRobot Corp. defines a robot as a mobile thing with sensors that looks at those sensors and decides on its own what actions to take. In the manufacturing industry, however, the word robot means a reprogrammable stationary manipulator with few, if any sensors, commonly found in large industrial manufacturing plants. The third common meaning of robot is a teleoperated vehicle similar to but more sophisticated than a radio controlled toy car or truck. This form of robot usually has a microprocessor on it to aid in controlling the vehicle itself, perform some autonomous or automatic tasks, and aid in controlling the manipulator if one is onboard. This book mainly uses the first meaning of robot and focuses on things useful to making robots, but it also includes several references to mechanisms useful to both of the other types of robots. Robot and mobile robot are used interchangeably throughout the book. Autonomous, in this book, means acting completely independent of any human input. Therefore, autonomous robot means a self-controlled, selfpowered, mobile vehicle that makes its own decisions based on inputs from sensors. There are very few truly autonomous robots, and no known autonomous robots with manipulators on them whose manipulators are also autonomous. The more common form of mobile robot today is semiautonomous, where the robot has some sensors and acts partially on its own, but there is always a human in the control loop through a radio link or tether. Another name for this type of control structure is telerobotic, as opposed to a teleoperated robot, where there are no, or very few, sensors on the vehicle that it uses to make decisions. Specific vehicles in this book that do not use sensors to make decisions are labeled telerobotic or teleoperated to differentiate them from autonomous robots. It is important to note that the mechanisms and mechanical devices that are shown in this book can be applied, in their appropriate category, to almost any vehicle or manipulator whether autonomous or not. Another word, which gets a lot of use in the robot world, is mobility. Mobility is defined in this book as a drive system’s ability to deal with the effects of heat and ice, ground cover, slopes or staircases, and to negotiate obstacles. Chapter Nine focuses entirely on comparing drive systems’ mobility based on a wide range of common obstacles found in xiii xiv Introduction outdoor and indoor environments, some of which can be any size (like rocks), others that cannot (like stair cases). I intentionally left out the whole world of hydraulics. While hydraulic power can be the answer when very compact actuators or high power density motors are required, it is potentially more dangerous, and definitely messier, to work with than electrically powered devices. It is also much less efficient—a real problem for battery powered robots. There are many texts on hydraulic power and its uses. If hydraulics is being considered in a design, the reader is referred to Industrial Fluid Power (4 volumes) 3rd ed., published by Womack Education Publications. The designer has powerful tools to aid in the design process beyond the many tricks, mechanical devices, and techniques shown in this book. These tools include 3D design tools like SolidWorks and Pro-Engineer and also new ways to produce prototypes of the mechanisms themselves. This is commonly called Rapid Prototyping (RP). NEW PROCESSES EXPAND CHOICES FOR RAPID PROTOTYPING New concepts in rapid prototyping (RP) have made it possible to build many different kinds of 3D prototype models faster and cheaper than by traditional methods. The 3D models are fashioned automatically from such materials as plastic or paper, and they can be full size or scaleddown versions of larger objects. Rapid-prototyping techniques make use of computer programs derived from computer-aided design (CAD) drawings of the object. The completed models, like those made by machines and manual wood carving, make it easier for people to visualize a new or redesigned product. They can be passed around a conference table and will be especially valuable during discussions among product design team members, manufacturing managers, prospective suppliers, and customers. At least nine different RP techniques are now available commercially, and others are still in the development stage. Rapid prototyping models can be made by the owners of proprietary equipment, or the work can be contracted out to various RP centers, some of which are owned by the RP equipment manufacturers. The selection of the most appropriate RP method for any given modeling application usually depends on the urgency of the design project, the relative costs of each RP process, and Introduction the anticipated time and cost savings RP will offer over conventional model-making practice. New and improved RP methods are being introduced regularly, so the RP field is in a state of change, expanding the range of designer choices. Three-dimensional models can be made accurately enough by RP methods to evaluate the design process and eliminate interference fits or dimensioning errors before production tooling is ordered. If design flaws or omissions are discovered, changes can be made in the source CAD program and a replacement model can be produced quickly to verify that the corrections or improvements have been made. Finished models are useful in evaluations of the form, fit, and function of the product design and for organizing the necessary tooling, manufacturing, or even casting processes. Most of the RP technologies are additive; that is, the model is made automatically by building up contoured laminations sequentially from materials such as photopolymers, extruded or beaded plastic, and even paper until they reach the desired height. These processes can be used to form internal cavities, overhangs, and complex convoluted geometries as well as simple planar or curved shapes. By contrast, a subtractive RP process involves milling the model from a block of soft material, typically plastic or aluminum, on a computer-controlled milling machine with commands from a CAD-derived program. In the additive RP processes, photopolymer systems are based on successively depositing thin layers of a liquid resin, which are then solidified by exposure to a specific wavelengths of light. Thermoplastic systems are based on procedures for successively melting and fusing solid filaments or beads of wax or plastic in layers, which harden in the air to form the finished object. Some systems form layers by applying adhesives or binders to materials such as paper, plastic powder, or coated ceramic beads to bond them. The first commercial RP process introduced was stereolithography in 1987, followed by a succession of others. Most of the commercial RP processes are now available in Europe and Japan as well as the United States. They have become multinational businesses through branch offices, affiliates, and franchises. Each of the RP processes focuses on specific market segments, taking into account their requirements for model size, durability, fabrication speed, and finish in the light of anticipated economic benefits and cost. Some processes are not effective in making large models, and each process results in a model with a different finish. This introduces an economic tradeoff of higher price for smoother surfaces versus additional cost and labor of manual or machine finishing by sanding or polishing. xv xvi Introduction Rapid prototyping is now also seen as an integral part of the even larger but not well defined rapid tooling (RT) market. Concept modeling addresses the early stages of the design process, whereas RT concentrates on production tooling or mold making. Some concept modeling equipment, also called 3D or office printers, are self-contained desktop or benchtop manufacturing units small enough and inexpensive enough to permit prototype fabrication to be done in an office environment. These units include provision for the containment or venting of any smoke or noxious chemical vapors that will be released during the model’s fabrication. Computer-Aided Design Preparation The RP process begins when the object is drawn on the screen of a CAD workstation or personal computer to provide the digital data base. Then, in a post-design data processing step, computer software slices the object mathematically into a finite number of horizontal layers in generating an STL (Solid Transfer Language) file. The thickness of the “slices” can range from 0.0025 to 0.5 in. (0.06 to 13 mm) depending on the RP process selected. The STL file is then converted to a file that is compatible with the specific 3D “printer” or processor that will construct the model. The digitized data then guides a laser, X-Y table, optics, or other apparatus that actually builds the model in a process comparable to building a high-rise building one story at a time. Slice thickness might have to be modified in some RP processes during model building to compensate for material shrinkage. Prototyping Choices All of the commercial RP methods depend on computers, but four of them depend on laser beams to cut or fuse each lamination, or provide enough heat to sinter or melt certain kinds of materials. The four processes that make use of lasers are Directed-Light Fabrication (DLF), Laminated-Object Manufacturing (LOM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Stereolithography (SL); the five processes that do not require lasers are Ballistic Particle Manufacturing (BPM), Direct-Shell Production Casting (DSPC), Fused-Deposition Modeling (FDM), SolidGround Curing (SGC), and 3D Printing (3DP). Introduction xvii Stereolithography (SL) The stereolithographic (SL) process is performed on the equipment shown in Figure 1. The movable platform on which the 3D model is formed is initially immersed in a vat of liquid photopolymer resin to a level just below its surface so that a thin layer of the resin covers it. The SL equipment is located in a sealed chamber to prevent the escape of fumes from the resin vat. The resin changes from a liquid to a solid when exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-power, highly focused laser. The UV laser beam is focused on an X-Y mirror in a computer-controlled beam-shaping and scanning system so that it draws the outline of the lowest crosssection layer of the object being built on the film of photopolymer resin. After the first layer is completely traced, the laser is then directed to scan the traced areas of resin to solidify the model’s first cross section. The laser beam can harden the layer down to a depth of 0.0025 to 0.0300 in. (0.06 to 0.8 mm). The laser beam scans at speeds up to 350 in./s (890 cm/s). The photopolymer not scanned by the laser beam remains a liquid. In general, the thinner the resin film (slice thickness), the higher the resolution or more refined the finish of the completed model. When model surface finish is important, layer thicknesses are set for 0.0050 in. (0.13 mm) or less. The table is then submerged under computer control to the specified depth so that the next layer of liquid polymer flows over the first hardened layer. The tracing, hardening, and recoating steps are repeated, layer-by-layer, until the complete 3D model is built on the platform within the resin vat. Figure 1 Stereolithography (SL): A computer-controlled neon–helium ultraviolet light (UV)–emitting laser outlines each layer of a 3D model in a thin liquid film of UV-curable photopolymer on a platform submerged a vat of the resin. The laser then scans the outlined area to solidify the layer, or “slice.” The platform is then lowered into the liquid to a depth equal to layer thickness, and the process is repeated for each layer until the 3D model is complete. Photopolymer not exposed to UV remains liquid. The model is them removed for finishing. xviii Introduction Because the photopolymer used in the SL process tends to curl or sag as it cures, models with overhangs or unsupported horizontal sections must be reinforced with supporting structures: walls, gussets, or columns. Without support, parts of the model can sag or break off before the polymer has fully set. Provision for forming these supports is included in the digitized fabrication data. Each scan of the laser forms support layers where necessary while forming the layers of the model. When model fabrication is complete, it is raised from the polymer vat and resin is allowed to drain off; any excess can be removed manually from the model’s surfaces. The SL process leaves the model only partially polymerized, with only about half of its fully cured strength. The model is then finally cured by exposing it to intense UV light in the enclosed chamber of post-curing apparatus (PCA). The UV completes the hardening or curing of the liquid polymer by linking its molecules in chainlike formations. As a final step, any supports that were required are removed, and the model’s surfaces are sanded or polished. Polymers such as urethane acrylate resins can be milled, drilled, bored, and tapped, and their outer surfaces can be polished, painted, or coated with sprayedon metal. The liquid SL photopolymers are similar to the photosensitive UVcurable polymers used to form masks on semiconductor wafers for etching and plating features on integrated circuits. Resins can be formulated to solidify under either UV or visible light. The SL process was the first to gain commercial acceptance, and it still accounts for the largest base of installed RP systems. 3D Systems of Valencia, California, is a company that manufactures stereolithography equipment for its proprietary SLA process. It offers the ThermoJet Solid Object Printer. The SLA process can build a model within a volume measuring 10 × 7.5 × 8 in. (25 × 19 × 20 cm). It also offers the SLA 7000 system, which can form objects within a volume of 20 × 20 × 23.62 in. (51 × 51 × 60 cm). Aaroflex, Inc. of Fairfax, Virginia, manufactures the Aacura 22 solid-state SL system and operates AIM, an RP manufacturing service. Solid Ground Curing (SGC) Solid ground curing (SGC) (or the “solider process”) is a multistep inline process that is diagrammed in Figure 2. It begins when a photomask for the first layer of the 3D model is generated by the equipment shown at the far left. An electron gun writes a charge pattern of the photomask on a clear glass plate, and opaque toner is transferred electrostatically to the plate to form the photolithographic pattern in a xerographic process. Introduction Figure 2 Solid Ground Curing (SGC): First, a photomask is generated on a glass plate by a xerographic process. Liquid photopolymer is applied to the work platform to form a layer, and the platform is moved under the photomask and a strong UV source that defines and hardens the layer. The platform then moves to a station for excess polymer removal before wax is applied over the hardened layer to fill in margins and spaces. After the wax is cooled, excess polymer and wax are milled off to form the first “slice.” The first photomask is erased, and a second mask is formed on the same glass plate. Masking and layer formation are repeated with the platform being lowered and moved back and forth under the stations until the 3D model is complete. The wax is then removed by heating or immersion in a hot water bath to release the prototype. The photomask is then moved to the exposure station, where it is aligned over a work platform and under a collimated UV lamp. Model building begins when the work platform is moved to the right to a resin application station where a thin layer of photopolymer resin is applied to the top surface of the work platform and wiped to the desired thickness. The platform is then moved left to the exposure station, where the UV lamp is then turned on and a shutter is opened for a few seconds to expose the resin layer to the mask pattern. Because the UV light is so intense, the layer is fully cured and no secondary curing is needed. The platform is then moved back to the right to the wiper station, where all of resin that was not exposed to UV is removed and discarded. The platform then moves right again to the wax application station, where melted wax is applied and spread into the cavities left by the removal of the uncured resin. The wax is hardened at the next station by pressing it against a cooling plate. After that, the platform is moved right again to the milling station, where the resin and wax layer are milled to a precise thickness. The platform piece is then returned to the resin application station, where it is lowered a depth equal to the thickness of the next layer and more resin is applied. xix
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