ministry of education &training
ministry of justice
ha noi university
LY VAN QUYEN
THE PREVENTION OF FEMALE CRIME
Speciality : Criminoloy and crime prevention
: 62 38 01 05
ABTRACT OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION OF JURISPRUDENCE
Ha noi - 2014
The dissertation is completed at Hanoi Law University
Supervisors: 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Le Thi Son
2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Duong Tuyet Mien
Reviewer 1: Prof. Dr. Vo Khanh Vinh
THE AUTHOR'S PUBLISHED WORKS RELEVANT TO
1. Ly Van Quyen (2005), “The role of the courts in preventing crime”,
Journal of Jurisprudence (No6), p 38-43.
Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Van Huyen
2. Ly Van Quyen (2011), “The current situation by female crime in
Vietnam today”, Journal of Jurisprudence (No3), p 47-53.
3. Ly Van Quyen (2013), “The causations of female crime in Vietnam”,
Reviewer 3: Dr. Tran Manh Dat
The thesis is protected at the Council level thesis dot
School, meeting at Hanoi Law University.
Thesis can be found at the National Library
and the Library of Hanoi Law University
Journal of Jurisprudence (No8), p 35-44.
gambling offenses, theft of property; organized crime gambling or silver
fixtures; crime fraudulent appropriation of property, prostitution
offenses, intentionally causing injury, robbery, property crime, guilty of
violating the provisions on conditions of road transport, crime gyssy,
abusing trust to appropriate property, murder, extortion, storing,
transporting and circulating counterfeit money, counterfeit checks
counterfeit bonds and trafficking in women.
1. Rationale of the research paper
Female in Vietnam is a fundamental forces, resources important
factor contributing to the overall development of society. Over thousands
of years for the construction of territorial integrity and combat natural
disasters, the Vietnam Femalealways promoted the virtues of precious
bearing deep as traditional virtues scraped, subject difficult, because her
husband sacrificed know and respect family life, marriage seriously.
In Vietnam, femaleaccounted for 51% of the labor force in that rural
femalestill play a major role in agricultural production activities; besides,
femalehave played a major role in housework and raising children, caring
for their parents in old age. As the society develops, the more femalethe
opportunity to study, work, improve their position in the family and
society, to be more devoted to society.
However, besides the advantages mentioned above, in recent years,
the crime was done by female tends to rise, revealing characteristics of
both serious situation and developments. The issue of female offenders in
Vietnam was quite clearly reflects the social characteristics of Vietnam in
recent years as well as reflecting the distinctive emotional physiology of
the female sex offenders female. According to statistics from the
Supreme People's Court, on a national scale in 1995 there were 4.151
female offenders instance criminal trial in 2002, the number was 5.603
increased to 135% compared with 1995; 2003 on a national scale there
are 6.543 female offenders instance criminal trial in 2007, the number
was 7.231, increased to 111%, in 2012 the number was 6.895 people
105% increase over 2003. On average, each year there are approximately
6.570 offenders who suffer instance criminal trial. The crimes done by
femaleincreasingly diverse and occur in all localities but focus mainly in
Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi. The crimes done by female have higher
levels of both is the possession, transportation, sale of illegal drugs;
Facing crime done by femaleincreasingly complex, more from 2003
to now no study of the works on this issue on a national scale, so that a
comprehensive study issues female offenders in Vietnam criminological
perspective is needed to find solutions to curb the increase in crime and
reduce crime in general as well as performed by femalein particular.
Therefore, the author chose and research topics: "Prevention of crimes
carried out by female in Vietnam" doctoral thesis.
2. Research purposes
The purpose of the thesis research is to provide a system of crime
prevention measures implemented by female to curb the increasing crime
and decreasing female offenders in Vietnam in the coming years.
3. Subjects and scope of research
Subjects of the study was to consider the issues and clarify the
process of researching the subject, including sex crimes carried out by
women, its causes of crime carried out by female and prevention
measures crime prevention done by women.
Regarding the scope of research, dissertation research from the
perspective of criminology: Crime done by female in Vietnam for 10
years from 2003 to 2012.
4. The meaning science and practice of topics
In terms of the argument, most of the issues presented, the thesis
analyzes the new problems are first studied systematically. The successful
research problems that can be regarded as a remarkable contribution to
criminology in Vietnam.
identify the causes of crime by female performed in Vietnam for the
period 2003 - 2012, proposed measures to prevent crimes carried out by
female in Vietnam.
Regarding practice, research, evaluate criminological characteristics
of the crime situation because female performed on stage nationwide
2003 - 2012 and identify the causes of crime by female carried out in our
country in this period have practical significance for practical crime prevention
done by women. Especially in the development of crime prevention
measures implemented by female on the basis of determining the existence,
operation limitations of the judicial authorities in the fight against crime
done by female and in education, rehabilitation of female offenders.
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ISSUES
1. Overview of researched stituation related to topics
Through understanding the evaluation of the results of previous
studies in foreign directly related to the scope of research topics, to see
the research works in ways different angles as: Biology, psychology,
sociology and interdisciplinary. These structures have come up with
many different points of view, even contradictory. Hence, the issue of
crime carried out by female in Vietnam has gained considerable attention
from the scientific and legal research, but this issue has not been studied
focused, comprehensive and system. Based on the results of this study
can not assess the crime situation done by female in Vietnam during the
last 10 years, to create the necessary basis for determining the cause of
this type of crime as well as measures taken to improve the effectiveness
of crime prevention in Vietnam in the coming time. It also is the
generalized problem has not been studied in previous works.
2. Objectives and research scope
* Research Objectives
The research objective of the thesis was to evaluate the situation of
crimes carried out by female in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012;
* Research Scope
To achieve this goal, thesis research should focus on the following:
First, the analysis and evaluation of crime carried out by female in
Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012.
Second, identify and analyze the factors that cause crime because
female performed in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012.
Third, on the basis of the two above-mentioned contents, making
predictions about the status and changes of crime carried out by female in
Vietnam in the coming years and to propose measures to prevent crimes
by female world done to eliminate or limit the factors that cause crime
done by women, contribute to reducing crime in society.
3. Research Methods
Research Methods overview of this topic is empirical research
method issues relating to crimes carried out by women. Consistent with
the study subjects are identified, the different types of research in terms
of function is made in the thesis. It is of crime by female performed in
Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012; studies of forecasts to forecast crime
a descriptive study to clarify the situation of crimes carried out by female
in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012; explain research to determine the
causes done by female in Vietnam in the coming time and research
solutions for the construction of crime prevention measures implemented
by female in Vietnam. To achieve the type of research, the specific
research methods were appropriate selection and use. Typically, the
specific methods of the study group method of data collection, data
processing method and hypothesis testing methods. In addition, a number
of other methods are also used in combination with the above methods in
solving the content of the research topic, which is the method of analysis,
synthesis and comparison.
drug addiction, prostitution, gambling, combating against gender
inequality; enhancing the management of women who are at the high risk
of committing crimes (drug addicts and people with criminal records);
and improving the effectiveness of rehabilitation and community
reintegration for female offenders.
4. Summary of new research findings
The thesis is a systematic and comprehensive research on the
prevention of crimes committed by women in present Vietnam.
The thesis has analysed the state of crimes committed by women in
Vietnam from 2003 to 2012, drawing its main features as follows: Women
offenders accounted for 7,3% of the offenders; the crimes committed by
women of the high rate were illegal transportation, possession and purchase
of drugs or seizure of drugs (23,99%), gambling (20,71%) and theft
(12,82%). The crimes committed by women which had highly increased
during this period were: procuring prostitutes, gambling, organising
gambling or running gambling-dens and breaching regulations on
operating road vehicles; and the number of the female juvenile offenders
of 2012 was twice as that of 2003 and comparing to the male juvenile
offenders, the female juvenile offenders tended to increase at a higher rate.
Also, the thesis has reasoned the causes of crimes committed by
women. Those are the negative impacts of the socio-economic
development, the negative impacts in the educational environment of the
family, the school and the society, the limitations in managing women
who are at the high risk of committing crimes and the shortcomings of
the procedure - conducting bodies in combating against criminals and in
rehabilitating female offenders.
On the basis of the studies to clarify the state of crimes committed
by women and the causes of crimes committed by women and to forecast
the state of crimes committed by women by 2020, the thesis has launched
the measures for preventing crimes committed by women in the coming
years. Amongst those measures are: creating more jobs for female
workers by promoting the economic development; limiting social evils
Thus, for preventing crimes committed by women, excluding or
limiting social life related causes of committing crimes is of importance.
The purpose of the prevention of crimes committed by women is to bring
the women as well as the society and ourselves a brighter future.
CONTENTS OF THE THESIS
CRIME STITUATION PERFORMANCED BY FEMALE
STAGE 2003 - 2012 IN VIETNAM
Crime situation is an important research content of the theme of
crime prevention, because to explain the causes of crime and come up
with measures to prevent crime, we must first be based on research shed
light on the crime situation. Research situation of crime done by femaleis
necessary to clarify the status and evolution of crime carried out by
female in the unit space and time certain units.
1.1. Status of the crimes committed by female in Vietnam for the
period 2003 - 2012
Research the status of offenses not only to study the characteristics
"quantitative" research, but also features "qualitative" of the state of
crime. Assessment of the status of offenses done by female not only
assess the status of the level, but also assess the reality of the nature of
the crime done by women.
1.1.1. The reality of the level of crime carried out by female in
Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012
The authors studied the status of crimes carried out by female in Vietnam
in the period 2003 - 2012 in terms of the degree is expressed as follows:
Firstly, in our country for 10 years from 2003 to 2012, was accused
to trial 65.704 women. On average, each year about 6.570 femaleare
accused of first instance criminal trial. And also in this phase, trem
nationwide level courts have convicted a total of 906.827 first instance in
which defendants accused femaleoccupy 65.704 and the rate of 841.123
male defendants 92,7% proportion, 7,3% of the total number of
defendants, the level of crime done by femaleis lower than the level of
crime carried out by men in our country in this period.
Secondly, the average crime index of female offenders in the period
In order to assess the status of the comprehensive nature of the crime
done by women, the author must choose the characteristics of this type of
crime is the criterion determining the structure of this crime. The
structure is defined according to different criteria will reflect a certain
level of reality of the nature of this crime, and will provide the basis to
determine the cause of crime is presented in the next chapter thesis. By
studying the structural parameters of the crimes carried out by female in
Vietnam in the period 2003 - 2012 can be drawn about the nature and
characteristics of the crimes committed by females shall be as follows:
Firstly, there are three groups of crimes committed by femalewho
perform are always high proportion of offenses against public safety,
public order (38,42%), drug offenses (24,37%) and offenses against
Secondly, the crimes carried out by femaleare a high percentage is
the possession, transportation, sale or seizure of illegal drugs accounted
2003 - 2012 is 15. This means that for every 100,000 people, there are 15
girls and femalewho perform criminal acts. Also during this period the
index average male offenders is 201. Compare female offenders with
male offenders index suggests the male offender is more than 12 times
the index female offenders. Current status of femaleless than men guilty
of crime has existed until the present time. Explain femaleoffenders less
than male offenders may be because female have to undertake productive
labor, work as men, but the main responsibility of female still do the
housework. And the daily work at home so they retain little chance of crime.
cities, Ho Chi Minh City (13,60%), Hanoi (10,62%), followed by a
number of local methods such as Tay Ninh (4,19%), Dong Nai (3,3%),
Nghe An (2,74%), Son La (2,45%), Kien Giang (2,35%), Quang Ninh
(2,26%), Hai Phong (2,18%).
Thirdly, hidden female offenders accounted for less than 48.8% of
Fourthly, crime done by female nature and extent of common danger
1.1.2. The reality of the nature of the crimes committed by female
in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012
Baseline study of the nature of the crime is done by female aware of
the qualitative characteristics of the contents inside of curent stituation.
for 23,99%, accounting for 20,71% of gambling crimes and crimes theft
accounted for 12,82%.
Thirdly, crime done by female occur in key areas such as major
is less serious offenses and serious offenses accounted for 63,18%.
Fifthly, crimes done by female accomplices form a high proportion
is 48,46%, in which organized crime accounts for 8,3% rate.
Sixthly, penalties apply to offenders are mainly female imprisonment
duration (62,19%) and the imprisonment but suspended sentence (30,74%).
Seventhly, motives and purposes of criminal offenders most female
want to make money come from to meet the economic needs of the
family or make a lot of money to get rich or make money to satisfy the
needs of addicts drug (74,2%).
1.2.1. Changes of the amount of crime carried out by female in
Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012
Eightly, the age of female offenders accounted for the highest
percentage is from 18 to 45 years old (84,18%).
Nightly, female offenders in our country are mostly unemployed
(33,9%) and agriculture (22,29%).
Tenthly, education level of female offenders are mostly illiterate,
primary and lower secondary level (73,34%).
Eleventhly, the majority of female offenders in cases of first-time
Twelvethly, the circumstances of the crime family are mostly married
female (91,70%) and children (98,22%). The level of family living female
offenders are mostly middle and low living standards (96,47%).
Thirteenthly, the most common consequences due to the crimes
committed by female is done to cause physical damage (39,63%) and
other losses such as physical or mental damage caused other changes
Fourteenthly, the crime done by female victims is largely accounted
for 97,29% and individual victims are not known from previous 72%.
1.2. Changes of crimes committed by female in Vietnam for the
period 2003 - 2012
Analysis of the changes of the crimes committed by female made to
determine the rules allow athletes of crime over time in a given unit of
time and space research unit. On the basis of proper awareness campaign
criminal laws by female done in a certain period of time, allowing athletes
forecast trend of crimes committed by female done in the next year.
Studying the changes in the amount of crime carried out by female
in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012 can draw some of the following
Firstly, the amount of the number of female offenders less volatile,
the overall trend is a slight increase compared to 2003 the number of
years have increased the degree (5 years) more than the year have
reduced the degree (4 years). The degree of increase in the average
number of female offenders is 0,53%.
Secondly, the changes of the number of female offenders in this
period the level of the average annual increase (0,53%) lower than the
evolution of the number of female offenders in the previous period from
1995 to 2002, the average annual growth rate is 3,04%.
Thirdly, the changes of the number of female offenders compared to
the number of male offenders each year in this period is different, while
the general trend of the number of female offenders is rising slightly,
many years have reduced the level of compared to 2003, the general
trend of the number of men and male offenders is rising gradually clear,
all five are level rise, the average annual growth of 5,9%, male offenders
increased about 11 times compared to the growth of female offenders.
Fourthly, the evolution of crime in general, and the number of
female offenders in particular reducing annual increases vary due to
many factors, but there are two basic elements impact. That is the impact
of the world economic crisis makes our economy slows, many businesses
use as many female workers of textile industry, leather processing... stops
working or reduce the scale of production, the rate of female
unemployment is high at the most critical issues of society makes the
evolution of the number of female offenders increased during the years
2007, 2008, 2009, crime decreased in female 2010 and 2011 may be due
to the Law amending and supplementing some articles of the Penal Code
takes effect on the date 19/6/2009, 1/1/2010 did not handle criminal acts
for which female done more.
movement include: offenses against life, health, dignity and honor of the
people (Chapter XII) and drug offenses (Chapter XVIII) can reduce the
average level per year respectively 8,53% and 4,24%.
1.2.2. The Changes of the nature of the crimes committed by
female in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012
Based on research, the assessment of changes of crimes committed
by femaleperform in Vietnam for the period 2003 - 2012 according to
crime groups, according to the charges and according to the juvenile
delinquency female subjects showed the following characteristics:
* The changes of crimes committed by female following 14 crime
groups are defined in the chapters of the Penal Code. In this offense,
there are 14 groups of 2 groups (Chapter XXIII Chapter XXIV) no
female offenders were tried and group 4 (Chapter XI, Chapter XIII,
Chapter XV and Chapter XXII) have some female offenders be tried
little below the average of 10 people in one year. With the number of
female offenders less so not reliable enough to evaluate the evolution of
crime. Therefore, the thesis evaluates only the evolution of the 8
remaining gang crime in 8 groups, there are 6 groups according to the
advocacy group tended to increase and 2 downward movement.
Specifically: 6 crimes advocacy groups increasing trend, in which 3
groups increased crime is the crime of positions (Chapter XXI)
environmental crimes (Chapter XVII) and the offense of violating safety
public, public order (Chapter XIX) had average annual growth rates
respectively 20,4%, 14,87%, 7,99%. Next are 3 categories of lower
growth include: trespassing order administration (Chapter XX), the
offense of violating the order of economic management (Chapter XVI)
and offenses against property (Chapter XIV) had average annual growth
rates respectively 3,5%, 1,29% and 0,23%. Two gangs downward
* 15 The changes of crimes carried out by female in Vietnam for the
period 2003 - 2012 showed that 9 crimes have happened in the uptrend
and 6 crimes have happened in a downward trend. In 9 crimes have
happened in the trend has 4 crimes have increased levels high (above
5%) include: gyssy crime (Article 255); gambling offenses (Article 248);
charges of violation controls on road transport (Article 202) and
organized crime gambling or places for gambling (Article 249), have
average annual growth rates respectively 21,43%, 18,47%, 9,6% and
6,38%. And in 6 crimes have happened in a downward trend, there are
three offenses including reduced levels deep: Intentionally cause injury
or harm to the health of others (Article 104), murder (Article 93); crime
of snap up property (Article 136) has reduced the average annual level
10,74%, 10,78%, 15,25%.
* The changes of the number of female juvenile delinquency in our
country period 2003 - 2012 there is a rapidly increasing trend, the
average annual growth rate of 8%. Compared with the changes of the
number male juvenile delinquency, the average annual growth rate is
5,46%, the female juvenile delinquency tend to increase with higher
levels (2,54%), which is a worrying problem. The changes of increased
number juvenile delinquency in our country in the past year may be due
to the following factors: high dropout girls than boys outside economic
factors also do not at least family in rural areas economic importance to
female thought men should not invest daughter to school that invested
only son. Increasing divorce situation that most children are daughters
lost prop emotional, often fall prey to negative psychological reactions
and negative as opposition, disruptive, wander away from home, engage
in social evil or sin. Due to lack of parental responsibility or parenting
open and process integration leading to a direct impact on female sex
methods lead to damaged daughter, forming lifestyle battens, the
measurement lazy or stubborn older child, stubborn. The tension, conflict
tends to rise in society, conflicts between people and people, victims of
domestic violence are still common and the victims were mostly
femaleand girls. The increase of the negative phenomena in society
(drugs, prostitution and gambling). The social monitoring for female
decreased. And negative effects from violent video games, black Webs
and unhealthy movies, photos, books.
Firstly, unemployment, under-employment or employment instability
or low income have impact, affecting female offenders.
Secondly, the negative impact from the left side of the process of
urbanization and industrialization for female offenders.
Thirdly, the negative impact of social evils opening period given to
the influence of female offenders.
2.2. The cultural and educational causes
CAUSES OF CRIME FEMALE DONE IN VIETNAM
The downside of working with cultural and environmental education as:
Firstly, the negative effects of family educational environment can
affect femaleoffenders as follows:
As well as general crime, crime is done by female social phenomenon.
Therefore, crime is done by female social phenomena bring content,
social nature, origin, causes in society. Approach and research from the
social causes of crime is increasingly popular trend and connotations.
According to this approach, it is necessary to study the offender's sense
of social products and social environment in which crime occurred as the
basis for determining the causes of crime.
- A number of incomplete families makes it difficult to monitor,
manage and daughters.
Research the causes of crime carried out by female need to identify
factors negatively impact the environment, the impact of this factor may
have been receiving female offenders become skewed attributes in
personality and circumstances, negative life situations may give rise to
crime in women. The causes of crime carried out by women, can be
divided into four basic groups:
Secondly, negative side effects from education in the family, another
reason not to mention it is a negative impact from education in schools as:
2.1. Economic - social causes
These risks and negative impacts from the left side of the transition
to a market economy, the process of economic development - social,
- Some families, irresponsible parents in the upbringing of his daughter.
- A number of families, parents with no educational methods suitable girl.
- Some family, daughter entice parents to participate in illegal
activities and crime.
- The lack of schools and classes not only in rural areas, regions and
remote that even in the big cities, the children are not in school, the
education of teachers was difficult.
- Educational programs fail to fulfill the comprehensive educational
perspective, coupled with action learning.
- Status illiterate students, dropouts increased by grade are very
concerned that the main cause of the school.
- The training has not been interest from schools as well as society.
Thirdly, the negative impact from limited education, legal advocacy
and cultural development in the social environment can give rise to
criminal women. Specifically, the following limitations:
- Restrictions on education, communication, common law to raise
awareness of the law for people of all objects.
- Do not be educated on gender equality to family violence, abuse or
contempt for femaleshould remain fairly common in society.
- Do not be educated on gender equality to family violence, abuse or
contempt for femaleshould remain fairly common in society.
2.3. Causes in State management of security and order, and
The favorable conditions for female offenders include the following
Firstly, the limitations and shortcomings in the management of
people and households (especially in big cities) in the context of the
process of urbanization, industrialization.
Secondly, the limitations and shortcomings in the management of subjects
with high risk offenders (drug addicts and people with a criminal record).
Thirdly, shortcomings in patrolling, guarding and protection of
Fourthly, deficiencies in the management of the business establishment
conditions, cultural services such as hotels, motels, restaurants, Karaoke, Internet.
2.4. Causes of crime prevention activities and education,
rehabilitation female inmates
The limitations and shortcomings of the agency conducting the
proceedings in this work are:
Firstly, limitations in the investigation, prosecution and criminal justice.
Secondly, the level of staff of the judicial authority was not required
to meet with the fight against crime in the new situation.
Thirdly, the shortcomings of the judicial authority only interested in
the detection, investigation, prosecution and trial of criminal cases that
have not paid adequate attention to crime prevention, particularly
prevention crime done by women.
Fourthly, enforcement of criminal rehabilitation work and management
of female subjects was not possible crime.
FORECAST AND THE CRIME PREVENTION MEASURES
CRIME PERFORMANCED BY FEMALE IN VIETNAM
3.1. Forecast of crimes carried out by women
Based on the assessment of changes of crimes carried out by female
in Vietnam in the period 2003 - 2012 and the change in social life in the
fields of economic and socio - cultural - educational, organization
organizations - management and situation fight, fight crime crime has
affected femaleto be able to predict the trends, changes of crimes carried
out by femalein Vietnam since 2020 as follows:
1. Crimes done by femalein general still tend to increase with
increase in the average level equal to or more than the previous period.
2. Group sex crimes by femalefollow the chapters of the Penal Code
offenses in the next year is the same as in the previous period, in which
four gangs higher than the proportion in order from first to four as
follows: Group trespassing public safety, public order, criminal drug
groups, group offenses against property, trespassing group life, health,
dignity and honor of the people. Regarding the changes of the crimes
4. The changes of female juvenile delinquency athletes upward trend
equal to or higher than the average growth in the previous period (8%).
committed by femalefollow the chapters of the Penal Code offenses
continued movement upward trend equal to or higher than the average
annual growth rate of the previous period. In particular criminal group of
positions have the highest growth rate. By the following reasons: In the
interest of the Party and the State in caring for the career advancement of
women, the equality of female with men and engage more actively in
economic activities, social Social, political. But at the same time creating
opportunities for them to carry out the crime and economic positions. As
criminal groups tend to reduce trespassing group life, health, dignity and
honor of the people and groups about drug crime. The group this crime
has reduced but not sustainable, because the contradictions in society,
especially the internal contradictions in people, personality conflict,
family conflict, unemployment in the underemployment in urban and
rural illiteracy status, are not trained, not reduce drug addicts, relapse rate
is high and the country by geographical area, we are close to the "golden
triangle" where the drug produced very favorable for the sale and
transportation of drugs into the inland. The remaining group of other
crimes have complicated the annual increase or decrease but basically no
3. In the structure of the crimes committed by female mostly
perform the following crime: Crime transportation, storage and sale of
illegal drugs, prostitution offenses, prostitution brokers, guilty of
gambling, organized gambling, theft of property, fraud, asset seizure,
trafficking in persons and intentionally causing injury or damaging the
health of others. Because, unemployed femaleworkers in urban and rural
unemployment, social problems have not decreased: the number of drug
addicts has not reduced relapse rate is high, the demand for drugs is very
large lead to the sale and transportation of narcotics increasing.
5. Female participation increased accomplices especially organized
crime groups perform drug offenses, gambling and prostitution.
6. Geographical occur crime, committed the offense of femalemainly
in Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi and some provinces likes Tay Ninh, Dong
Nai, Nghe An, Son La, Kien Giang, Quang Ninh, Hai Phong.
Crime forecast done by female since 2020 as the basis for the
introduction of measures to prevent crimes done by femalein the future.
3.2. The crime prevention measures
Preventing crime done by female as part of crime prevention system
in society. Preventing crime done by female include measures according
to the content of the action in accordance with the causes of crime carried
out by women, can be classified into the following measures:
3.2.1. The economic - social Measures
This is the basic measure because it eliminates leading source of
crime carried out by women, on the other hand performed well this
measure is also the basis to solve the problems of society. Specifically,
the need to take the following measures:
1. Investment in economic development to facilitate solving more
and more jobs for workers, especially femaleworkers.
2. The solutions for sustainable poverty reduction especially for
large families have disadvantaged economically.
3. Overcoming the negative impact of process of industrialization,
4. The limited solutions of social evils. This is a peculiar solution to
prevent female offenders. Because of the structure of crime carried out
by femalein our country in recent years concerning crimes and social
evils still more than all other crimes combined. The social evils like drug
abuse, prostitution and other currency other social evils are the negative
factors that affect directly to done by femalein the past year. Therefore,
the implementation of measures to help female subjects engaged in social
vices such as job training and employment for these subjects (female
addicts, prostitutes) also contributed to prevent crime, reduce crime done
The above measures if they are good implementation will eliminate
the effects of negative factors in the three educational environment:
family, school and society, contributing to the cause of limited stop crime
crime against the women.
3.2.2. The cultural - educational Measures
To overcome the weaknesses and limitations of educational
activities aimed at crime prevention done by femaleshould perform well
the following measures:
Firsthly, to overcome weaknesses in the educational activities of
Secondly, to overcome weaknesses in educational activities at the school.
Thirdly, to overcome the negative factors of the social environment
adversely affecting the formation of individual personality, and raise the
level of cultural, ethical awareness, legal awareness of female to their
voluntarily complying with ethical standards, legal standards and not to
commit offenses. Specifically:
- Renewal forms of education, legal advocacy for people widely.
- Implement measures to synchronize ideas, culture, sports and
entertainment to enhance the spiritual life of the people, especially for
- The authority to control and prevent the importation of cultural
products have unhealthy content inciting violence, sex toys, books, video
tapes, electronic games from the water outside our country.
- Combating gender inequality.
3.2.3. State management measures of security, order and social safety
This measure aims at eliminating situations of life and favorable
circumstances give rise to criminal or intent to create favorable
conditions for the implementation of criminal acts including some of the
following specific measures:
Firstly, to strengthen people management in residential areas.
Secondly, well done patrolling.
Thirdly, measures to control the behavior of female subjects and
questionable impact on preventing criminal behavior.
Fourthly, local administrations should perform regular warning measures,
professional training to prevent crimes against people, businesses and
organizations in the area so they do not become victims of crime.
Fifthly, the authorities should strengthen inspection, inspection of
business establishments sensitive services.
3.2.4. Measures to improve the effectiveness of crime prevention
activities, operations improvement and community reintegration for
18.104.22.168. Measures to improve the effectiveness of crime prevention
activities carried out by women
* Police Authority to improve the efficiency of crime done by
female should carry out the following measures:
Firstly, police agencies should coordinate with the Vietnam
Fatherland Front and other agencies and organizations in the area to
organize various forms such as a hotline, confidential mailbox,
mailboxes, whistleblower... to enabling everyone to participate actively
detecting and denouncing.
conducting the proceedings to be brought to trial all criminal cases,
especially cases performed by femaleunder their jurisdiction timely,
Secondly, police agencies should cooperate with police in
severely punish the right people, crime and legal compliance and low
Firstly, the Court should grant coordination with agencies
neighboring countries, combating transnational crimes that have
restriction canceled projects, edit project improvements, the project backlog.
participated in many female as crimes related to social evils like drugs,
Secondly, agencies should strengthen court trial in the local mobile
trade Porn, gambling, smuggling and human trafficking.
scene of crime carried out by women.
* Procuracy agencies to improve operational efficiency crime and
crime generally done by female in particular need to implement the
Thirdly, the Court petition repair defects in the management.
Fourthly, continue to reinforce and strengthen the organizational
apparatus of court officials at all levels especially at district level
Firstly, that the state needs to renew the organization 's activities of
Procuracy agencies for towards ensuring good performance of the
functions and control elements adjudication in criminal, civil, economic,
capacity building to all the district courts can take jurisdiction under the
provisions of paragraph 1 Article 170 of the Criminal Procedure Code.
Fifthly, the Court should apply more sanctions not deprived of
freedom, including the imprisonment but suspended sentence.
Secondly, the Procuracy of improving the quality of investigative
prosecution. Procuracy should coordinate closely with the police to make
22.214.171.124. Measures to improve the efficiency of rehabilitation and
community reintegration for female offenders
good supervision function investigation. For these cases have female
knowledgeable about female offenders.
Thirdly, exercise the right to trial proceedings in cases performed by
especially for the enforcement of judgments and decisions of the criminal
courts done by women.
* Court Authority to improve operational efficiency crime and
crime generally done by female in particular need to implement the
implement the following measures:
Firstly, establish separate female prison inmates.
Secondly, prisons need to make good cultural education activities for
female achieve better results.
To enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation female inmates should
Thirdly, the need to implement good prison vocational training for
Fourthly, implement good prison labor regime for female prisoners.
Fifthly, expand the prison regime should meet their relatives and
contacts regime for prisoners.
Sixthly, prisons need to make a good preparation for the release of
acceptance of deviant views, to improve self awareness, discipline of
women, for all female as complying with ethical standards, legal
standards and not to commit offenses.
Seventhly, family, government wards where female inmates reside
and social organizations especially need help female reintegrate female
offenders stable community life after a separation period.
Preventing crime is a combination of measures taken by the State
agencies, political organizations - civil society and implemented to
minimize or eliminate the causes of crime, crime not to happen. To take
measures to prevent crimes by female done scientifically and efficiently
requires evaluation curent stituation research done by women, its causes
and female offenders curent stituation forecasts by real femalein the
Based on research, analysis, evaluation curent stituation done by
femalein Vietnam in the period 2003 - 2012, the causes of crime by
femaleand performed by female curent stituation forecasts done in our
country from now to 2020, we launched four basic groups of measures to
prevent crimes done by female as follows:
- Economic - Social developmentand, limit the impact of negative
factors arising from the process of economic and social development in
order to eliminate the effects of poverty, unemployment, negative impact
process of urbanization, industrialization and social evils.
- Educational Development - Training and limit weaknesses of
education, training to eliminate unfavorable conditions in the family
environment, school and social environment has adversely affected
formative female offenders and also raise the general cultural and legal
culture of women, creating a mechanism is secured firmly to prevent the
- Improve efficiency of State management over a number of areas to
eliminate the circumstances, the situation has created favorable
opportunities for the formation of the engine, and criminal intent to
commit offenses at the same time warning organizations and people are
not creating loopholes to become victims of crime.
- Advanced anti-criminal operation, improvement activities and
community reintegration for female inmates to general crime prevention
and recidivism prevention for women.