Tài liệu Determinants of households in come in planned areas a case of my phuoc down toawn - ben cat - binh duong luận văn thạc sĩ

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INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES THE HAGUE THE NETHERLANDS UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY VIETNAM VIETNAM- NETHERLANDS PROGRAMME FOR M.A. IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME IN PLANNED AREAS: A CASE OF MY PHUOC DOWNTOWN- BEN CAT DISTRICT- BINH DUONG A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS By THAI THANH PHONG ,so G1i0ovc 1:~Xo ·~o---. ·-1 TRIJONG f),~, HQC KINH TE TP.HCM I TIIV YVII1.r\T I ) 1 1-i1 HO CHI MINH CITY, OCTOBER 2009 I UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY VIETNAM INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL STUDIES THE HAGUE THE NETHERLANDS VIETNAM- NETHERLANDS PROGRAMME FOR M.A. IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME IN PLANNED AREAS: A CASE OF MY PHUOC DOWNTOWN- BEN CAT DISTRICT- BINH DUONG A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Academic Supervisor: DR. HA THUC VIEN Student: THAI THANH PHONG HO CHI MINH CITY, OCTOBER 2009 Acknowledgements In the first of all, my heartfelt thank goes to my supervisor, Dr. Ha Thuc Vien. His comments and suggestions on my term paper for Rural Development course helped me to form my research topic. During the course of my thesis research and writing, I have received numerously his kind supervision, guidance, useful comments and encouragements. My deepest thanks also go to Associate Professor Dr. Nguyen Trong Hoai, Co- Director of Vietnam - The Netherlands Programme for M.A. in Development Economics, who has always given me his encouragements and kindly during the course of my study and thesis research. My thanks also go to my kindly and enthusiastic classmate, Mr Nguyen Ngoc Danh, who is always ready to instruct me while I am processing and analyzing to my data with STATA 9 .1. My thesis was made possible with co-operation and supports of local people in of My Phuoc downtown who kindly provided me useful information and ideas related to my research. I am grateful to My Phuoc downtown and Ben Cat district People's Committee, especially to Mrs. Thuy who gave me many information which included important data; Mr Tuan in ward 2, Mr Chau in Ward 3, Ms Hoa in ward 4 who took and introduced me with local people during time conducting my fieldwork. I would also like to present many thanks to my cousin and my friends, who helped me to approach project documents of My Phuoc IPs. I am grateful to my manager in Binh Duong Telecommunication, Mrs Huong, who created advantage condition in job let I had time to survey during two month. My heartfelt gratitude also goes to my wife, Ha and two girls, Nha and Thanh, who are my love and motivation during the studying time. Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas DECLARATION I declare that "Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas: A Case of My Phuoc Downtown - Ben Cat District - Binh Duong Province" is my own work, that it has not been submitted to any degree or examination at any other universities, and that all the sources used or quoted are indicated and acknowledged by complete references. HCMC, October 2009 THAI THANH PHONG MDE- Class 13 11 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas Abstract This study aims to investigate the impacts of land recovery for industrial and urban development on displaced people's livelihoods those who are living in industrial and urban planed areas in Binh Duong Province through a case study of My Phuoc Downtown. A main approach of this study is based Sustainable Livelihood Framework developed by DFID (2001). A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed throughout the research process, from the early stage to the data analysis stage to describe livelihood patterns of surveyed households before and after displacement and to analyze statistically factors affecting their income. More specifically, econometrics models were applied to estimate the role of livelihood assets on livelihood outcome of displaced households. Quantitatively, linear regression model was applied to estimate the impacts of household livelihood assets, compensation (both in kind and in cash) on household income. The estimation results show that there is positive impact of livelihood assets on livelihood outcome (total household income) before the displacement at a 1% significant level (wage and saving) and at a 5% significant level (farmland and residential land). After resettlement, estimating results of simultaneous equations model with three-stage least-squares estimation method inform that compensated money, compensated residential land and accessed credit volume has positively determined the total investment for livelihood rehabilitation at 1% significant level. In addition, a number of resettled housing land transfer times are positive effect (significantly at a 5% level) to household's total livelihood investment. Together with investment for livelihood rehabilitation, total expenditure on children education after resettlement also has positive impact with total household's income after resettlement at a 5% significant level. Proxy indicators of livelihood assets are positively and significantly related with total income after resettlement such as: education of household head (at a 5% level), a number of working member in household (at a 1% level); a number of cell phone in a household (at a 1% level); a number of meeting time per year (at a 1% level) and financial savings and livestock value before the displacement (at a 5% level). Moreover, the study found that, most displaced households do not receive any priority in vocation trainings, credit for alternative livelihood development and tax MDE- Class 13 lll Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas exemplification programs from local government and urban development project investors although displaced people are often promised by authorities and investors at the beginning ofthe project initiation. Keywords: Livelihood, industrialization, land recovery, compensation, resettlement. MDE- Class 13 IV Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas Contents Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................... i Abstract ...................................................................................................................... iii Contents ........................................................................................................................ v List of Tables ..............................................................................................................vii List of Figures .......................................................................................................... viii Chapter 1....................................................................................................................... 1 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1 1.1. Problem statement .......................................................................................... 1 1.2. Objectives ofthe study ................................................................................... 3 1.3. Research questions ......................................................................................... 4 1.4. Outline of the thesis ........................................................................................ 4 Chapter II ..................................................................................................................... 6 2. Literature Review .................................................................................................. 6 2.1 Definitions and terminologies ........................................................................ 6 2.1.1 Land ownership ..................................................................................... 6 2.1.2 Land allocation ...................................................................................... 6 2.1.3 Land use rights ....................................................................................... 6 2.1.4 Land price .............................................................................................. 7 2.1.5 Land recovery and resettlement ............................................................. 7 2.1.6 Livelihoods ............................................................................................ 8 2.2 Empirical studies of land recovery, resettlement and its impacts on displaced farm households' livelihoods ......................................................... 8 Chapter III ................................................................................................................. 12 3. Research Methodology ........................................................................................ 12 3 .1. 3.2. 3.3. 3 .4. Analytical framework of the study ............................................................... 12 Econometric framework ofthe study ........................................................... 14 Variables definition ...................................................................................... 16 Data collection and analysis ......................................................................... 18 3.3 .1 Selection of study site .......................................................................... 18 3.3 .2 Unit of analysis .................................................................................... 19 3.3 .3 Data sources and collection techniques ............................................... 19 3.3.4 Data· analysis ........................................................................................ 20 Chapter IV .................................................................................................................. 22 4. Description of Study Area ................................................................................... 22 MDE- Class 13 v Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Industrialization progress ofBinh Duong province ..................................... 22 Background of study site (My Phuoc downtown) ........................................ 22 Regulations of Vietnam on land recovery and resettlement.. ....................... 24 Regulations of land recovery and resettlement of My Phuoc Industrial Park project ................................................................................................... 25 The implementation of policies of land recovery and resettlement in My Phuoc downtown .......................................................................................... 27 Chapter V ................................................................................................................... 32 5. Displaced Households' Livelihoods .................................................................... 32 5.1 Household's livelihood patterns ................................................................... 32 5.1.1 Households' livelihood patterns before land recovery (Year 2000) .... 32 5.1.2 Patterns of household's livelihood right after resettlement ................. 33 5.1.3 Current patterns of households' livelihood ......................................... 37 5.2 Compensation and compensation using ...................................................... .41 5.2.1 Compensation ...................................................................................... 41 5.2.2 Compensation using ............................................................................. 44 5.3 Livelihood Assets ......................................................................................... 51 5.3.1 Natural Capital ..................................................................................... 51 5.3.2 Physical capital .................................................................................... 52 5.3.3 Financial Capital .................................................................................. 54 5.3.4 Social Capital ....................................................................................... 56 5.3.5 Human capital ...................................................................................... 58 5.4 Households' expenses .................................................................................. 61 5.5 Household's income ..................................................................................... 61 5.5.1 Income sources and income calculation method ................................. 61 5.5.2 Trends in household income ................................................................ 63 5.6 Results ofthe econometric analysis .............................................................. 67 5.6.1 Determinants of households' income before the planning .................. 67 5.6.2 Determinants of households' income after resettlement ..................... 68 Chapter VI .................................................................................................................. 73 6. Conclusions ........................................................................................................... 73 6.1 6.2 Conclusion and recommendations ................................................................ 73 Research limitation ....................................................................................... 75 References ................................................................................................................... 76 Appendices ................................................................................................................. 82 Appendix A: Variables definition .......................................................................... 82 Appendix B: Aggregated income model before the planning (Year 2000) ........... 83 Appendix C: Aggregated Income Model after the Resettlement (Year 2008) ...... 83 Appendix D: Questionnaires .................................................................................. 85 MDE- Class 13 Vl Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas List of Tables Table 3-1 : Variable definition ..................................................................................... 17 Table 4-1: Summary of compensation following regulations ..................................... 25 Table 4-2: Summary of compensation in My Phuoc Industrial Park .......................... 27 Table 4-3: Policies of compensation and resettlement ................................................ 31 Table 5-l: Patterns of Livelihood before the Planning ................................................ 32 Table 5-2: Patterns oflivelihood activity combination before the planning ............... 33 Table 5-3: Patterns of household's livelihood activities after land recovery and resettlement .................................................................................................................. 36 Table 5-4: Number kinds oflivelihood after displacement and resettlement.. ............ 37 Table 5-5: Current patterns of households' livelihoods .............................................. 39 Table 5-6: Current patterns of household livelihood activity combination ................. 40 Table 5-7: Vary in cash compensation among households ........................................ .42 Table 5-8: Classification of household's cash compensation ...................................... 42 Table 5-9: Vary in household's land compensation .................................................... 43 Table 5-l 0: Classification of household's land compensation by area ...................... .43 Table 5-11: Cash compensation expenses ................................................................... 44 Table 5-12: Detail of property investment from cash compensation ......................... .45 Table 5-13: Household's investment in education ...................................................... 46 Table 5-14: Using compensated/resettled residential land .......................................... 47 Table 5-15: A number oftimes to transfer compensated land .................................... .47 Table 5-16: Reasons of sale compensated/resettled residentialland ........................... 48 Table 5-17: Other income sources of displaced household ......................................... 48 Table 5-18: Balance of compensation expenses .......................................................... 49 Table 5-19: Detail of household finance deficit .......................................................... 49 Table 5-20: Finance sources to cover deficit.. ............................................................. 49 Table 5-21: Surplus of compensation after expenses .................................................. 50 Table 5-22: Land area of observed households before the planning and at the present ..................................................................................................................................... 51 Table 5-23: Classification of household's house types before the planning ............... 53 Table 5-24: Public service access by households before the planning ........................ 53 Table 5-25: Price of one kilowatt of electrical power ................................................. 54 Table 5-26: Types of constructed house at the present.. ............................................. 54 Table 5-27: Area of house before the planning/at the present.. ................................... 54 Table 5-28: Average distance to public service systems ............................................. 54 Table 5-29: Saving and livestock value of household before the planning/at the present .......................................................................................................................... 55 Table 5-30: Household's loan access before the planning/at the present.. .................. 55 Table 5-31: Household's loan sources before the planning/at the present .................. 55 Table 5-32: Loan using before the planning ................................................................ 56 Table 5-33: Loan using at the present.. ........................................................................ 56 Table 5-34: Friendly level of neighbours .................................................................... 57 Table 5-35: Security condition level.. .......................................................................... 57 Table 5-36: Social environment before the planning/at the present ............................ 57 Table 5-37: Organizations/Associations before the planning/at the present ............... 58 Table 5-38: Member of social organizations before the planning/at the present ........ 58 Table 5-39: Age of household head in the sample at the present ................................ 59 MDE- Class 13 Vll Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas Table 5-40: Classification of average age of household members at the present.. ..... 59 Table 5-41: Household size ......................................................................................... 59 Table 5-42: Average education of household members at the present.. ...................... 59 Table 5-43: Education in observed households at the present ..................................... 60 Table 5-44: Composition of household at the present.. ............................................... 60 Table 5-45: Annual expenses of households before the planning/at the present ......... 61 Table 5-46: Detail of annual expense before the planning/at the present.. .................. 61 Table 5-47: Comparison of household annual expenses ............................................. 61 Table 5-48: Income sources of surveyed households .................................................. 63 Table 5-49: Annual farm-based income before the planning/after displacement/at the present .......................................................................................................................... 64 Table 5-50: Household aggregated income ................................................................. 65 Table 5-51: Trends in proportion of farm-based income ............................................ 65 Table 5-52: Household's non-farm income before the planning/after resettlement /at the present .................................................................................................................... 66 Table 5-53: Descriptive statistics of proxy variables before the planning .................. 68 Table 5-54: Regression results of econometric model before the planning ................ 68 Table 5-55: Descriptive statistics ofproxier variables after resettlement ................... 70 Table 5-56: Regression results of econometric model after resettlement.. .................. 71 List of Figures Figure 3-1: Conceptual framework for the empirical study ........................................ 12 Figure 4-1: Administrative map of Ben Cat district .................................................... 23 Figure 4-2: Location map of My Phuoc downtown .................................................... 23 Figure 4-3: Double market (Chq Doi) ......................................................................... 28 Figure 4-4: Silent professional school in My Phuoc IP ............................................... 29 Figure 5-1: Resettled house border with the cattle cage of Uncle Pham Van Hai ...... 34 Figure 5-2: Cattle freely on non-using resettled land .................................................. 34 Figure 5-3: Recruitment information pasted on the gate of a company ..................... 35 Figure 5-4: Villa of Mr. Pham Van Tru with motorbike mend panel in the front ....... 38 Figure 5-5: Internet Shop of a displaced household ................................................... 38 Figure 5-6: Chain of rooms for lease of a resettled household .................................... 40 Figure 5-7: Old lady Nguyen Thi An keeping a herd ofcattle ................................... .41 Figure 5-8: Chart of compensation expenses ............................................................... 45 Figure 5-9: New house of the most successful displaced household ........................... 50 Figure 5-10: Average education of household members at the present ....................... 60 Figure 5-11: Trends in household income sources ...................................................... 64 Figure 5-12: Trends in average annual income ofhousehold ...................................... 67 MDE- Class 13 V111 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas Chapter I 1. Introduction 1.1. Problem statement The centrally planned economy led Vietnam into deep socio-economic crisis and serious food shortage in the beginning of 1980s. In attempting to get the country out of its difficult situation, in 1986, the Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP) and the government of Vietnam decided to implement radically innovative reform, known as "Doi Moi'' reform towards a market-oriented economy. As a result, Vietnam's economy has significantly improved and a lot of bright achievements. Economy has grown over 7% per year in the 90s and it still continues to present. The economic growth has improved living standard of people, significantly; GDP per capita rising from under 100 USD per year in the early of 1990 to over 800 USD per year in 2007 (WEO 2008). The industrialization and urbanization process in line with economic reforms has been taken place throughout the country. As a consequence, a large area of farmland is converted into non-agricultural land for expansion of urban areas, industrial zones, and infrastructure. Thanh· (2007) asserts that more than 73,000 hectares of farmland was annually converted for expansion of industrial clusters and parks, urban areas and infrastructure development. Particularly, in the period of 2001 - 2005 land conversion has suddenly increased, approximate 360,000 hectares of farmland were shifted into non-agricultural land in the whole country. Vietnam is a country with 75 percent of its population living in rural areas (Dower 2004:4). Their life and livelihoods are heavily relied on agriculture or at least agriculture - related activities. Land is, therefore, one of the most valuable assets to farm households, particularly the poor. It is not only the primary means for generating livelihoods, but also the vehicle to accumulate capital and transfer it between generations (Moore 1999:3). Therefore, land recovery by the government for industrialization and urbanization process has strongly affected the life and livelihood of farm households in planned areas. Empirical evidence suggests that one hectare of farmland converted into non-agricultural land leads ten farmers to be jobless. As a MDE- Class 13 1 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas consequence, millions of those whose land recovered for industrial, urban and infrastructure development have become no career since adopting economic reforms in 1986 (Nga 2007). Binh Duong is one of leading provinces in the industrialization and urbanization process in Vietnam. The first industrial park of the Southern provinces was founded in Binh Duong province in 1995. Currently, Binh Duong has 25 operating industrial clusters and parks with over 12,135 hectares (ICBD 2009). The industrialization and urbanization process has significantly stimulated local economic development. Binh Duong province's GDP has annually grown over 14 percent and GDP of industry has grown over 36 percent annually, on average in a period of 1997- 2004. Moreover, the industrialization process has offered dozens of thousands of jobs to local people and migrant workers from other provinces (ICBD 2008). The fast industrialization and industrialization has caused thousands hectares of farmland converted in a period of 2001 - 2005. Of which, converted land was used for Industrial Parks (excluding resettlement areas) until September, 31st 2005 approximate 2,500 hectares (author summed areas of nine operating Industrial Parks). Consequently, thousands of farm households lost their farm land. Farmland recovery for non-agricultural purposes has led those displaced farm households have to adjust partly or even totally their livelihood activities. However, many displaced households have faced serious challenges in making their livelihoods in new economic and living environment since most of them have traditionally based agriculture, rural culture and living style, have low education and lack of skillfulness in economic activities other than agriculture. Binh Duong is claimed as one of the most successful localities in solving the compensation and resettlement for farm households in planned areas; especially, land recovery and compensation for My Phuoc Industrial Park project was recognized as the most successful one in Binh Duong in terms of recovery progress, compensation and resettlement. However, as empirically observed, displaced people seem to be very hard while seeking their livelihoods in the new living environment Although, the impacts of land recovery and resettlement on displaced people's livelihoods have been widely discussed in daily rumors, newspapers, magazines, few empirical studies on this issue have not been done. In addition, comprehensive studies MDE- Class 13 2 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas on displaced farm households' livelihoods are very rare up till now. In order to enrich both theoretical and empirical knowledge on impacts of industrialization, urbanization, land recovery, compensation and resettlement on resettled farm households' livelihoods and recommend to policy makers strategies to resolve problems created by such policies and development process, this work will take land recovery for the development of My Phuoc Industrial Park as a case study. The research aims at comparing and analyzing in detail impacts of industrialization and urbanization progress; more precisely the impacts of land recovery and resettlement displaced farm households' livelihoods in My Phuoc planned areas by relying on Sustainable Livelihood Framework that developed by DFID (2001). Besides, I attempt to simulate an econometric model that demonstrates the relationship between livelihood assets and outcomes of households in the planned area. 1.2. Objectives of the study The study has both conceptual and practical relevance: 1. It is to understand the development process of industrialization and urbanization in Binh Duong province in general and farmland conversion in particular; 2. It is to have a precise insight on the implementation process related to recovery of land, compensation, subsidy and resettlement in Binh Duong province (a case of My Phuoc downtown); 3. It is to describe, analyze, compare livelihoods, livelihood assets and outcomes of households in planned areas before and after the recovery of land, compensation, subsidy and resettlement; 4. It is to assess impacts of the recovery of land, compensation, resettlement and subsidies policies having on livelihood assets and outcomes ofhouseholds. As these objectives are fulfilled, this work aims at achieving the two following basic objectives: 1. Major policy themes related to land recovery, compensation, resettlement and their impacts on farm households' livelihoods in planned areas will be MDE- Class 13 3 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas recommended to policy-makers to construct more effective and flexible policies and programs on the mentioned issues. 2. Findings from this work will contribute to the growing discussion on the field related to land recovery, compensation, resettlement and their impacts on farm households' livelihoods in planned areas 1.3. Research questions 1. How does the policy of land recovery, compensation, subsidies and resettlement implement in Binh Duong province, particularly in My Phuoc Downtown? 2. What are livelihood patterns of households in planned areas before and after implementing land recovery and resettlement? 3. What impacts do land recovery, compensation, subsidies and resettlement have on livelihood assets and outcomes of households in planned areas? 1.4. Outline of the thesis The thesis is divided into six chapters. The introductory chapter comprises of problem statement of the study, objectives of the study and research questions. Chapter II begins with some definitions and terminologies ofVietnam's Land Law 1993 and 2003 about land ownership, land allocation, land use rights, land price, land recovery and resettlement. The next section reviews empirical studies of land recovery, resettlement and their impacts on displaced farm households' livelihoods. Chapter III reviews research methodology used for the analysis throughout this work. It begins with first section including analytical framework and econometric framework of the study. The last section mentions about selection of study site, unit of analysis, data sources, data collection techniques and methods to analyze collected data. Chapter IV, in first two sections, presents the industrialization process of Binh Duong province and the background of My Phuoc downtown. Next two sections mention about regulations of Vietnam on land recovery and resettlement, and policies of land recovery and resettlement of My Phuoc Industrial Park project. The last section MDE- Class 13 4 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas discovers the implementation of policies of land recovery and resettlement in My Phuoc downtown. Chapter V presents findings of the study, it includes five sections. The first section describes household's livelihood patterns in planned areas through three different periods: before land recovery, right after resettlement and at the present. The second section analyzes compensation implementation and the ways in which displaced households used their compensation. The third section describes five livelihood assets (natural, physical, financial, social, and human) of displaced households before the planning and at the present. Next two sections present about expenses and incomes of displaced household before the planning and at the present. And final section shows the determinants of households' income in two periods, before the planning and after resettlement. Chapter VI summarize the findings of the study and recommends some policies implications which drawn from the research results. MDE- Class 13 5 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas Chapter II 2. Literature Review This chapter presents some terminologies and empirical studies ofland recovery, resettlement and its impacts on displaced farm households' livelihoods. 2.1 Definitions and terminologies 2.1.1 Land ownership "Land is the property of the entire people, uniformly managed by the State" (Vietnam's Land Law, 1993). The 2003 Land Law of Vietnam re-defined: "Land belongs to the entire people with the State as the representative owner". 2.1.2 Land allocation "The State shall allocate land to organizations, households and individuals for stable and long-term use" (Vietnam's Land Law, 1993). The 2003 Vietnam's Land Law re-confirmed: "Land allocation by the State means the grant of land use rights by the State by way of an administrative decision to an entity which has requirements for land use". 2.1.3 Land use rights Vietnam's 1993 Land Law regulated: Certification of land use rights will be granted to those who are using land on a stable basis which is certified by the People's Committee of rural, urban communes and commune towns. Household or individual, who were land owner, can exchange, transfer, inherit, or mortgage the land use right. Vietnam's 2003 Land Law adjusted the land use right more detail: Land owners may exercise the right to exchange, assign, lease, sub-lease, bequeath and donate land use rights; right to mortgage, guarantee and contribute capital using land use rights; and right to be paid compensation when the State recovers land. MDE- Class 13 6 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas 2.1.4 Land price Provincial authorities launched decision which regulated land price in province and this price was used to compute: transfer tax; fees of land using, land leasing; compensation price when the State recover land for goals of military, security, development, national benefit; ... Compensation land price for displaced households in My Phuoc downtown based on the frame of land price of Decision no. 24/1999/QD-UB (dated 06/03/1999) of People's Committee ofBinh Duong Province. 2.1.5 Land recovery and resettlement - Land recovery means "the issuance by the State of an administrative decision to recover land use rights or to recover land which has once been allocated to economic entities such as individuals, households, economic organizations, etc." (Vietnam's 2003 Land Law). Land often is recovered for objectives of national defense and security, national interest, public interest, or economic development. - Recovered land's compensation: Decree No. 2211998/ND-CP of Vietnam's Government stated a principle: people, who have recovered land, will be compensated money or house or new land. Decree No. 197/2004/ND-CP, an upgraded of Decree No. 22/1998/ND-CP, regulates more detail: "Persons who have land recovered shall be compensated with new land having the same using purpose; if there is no land for compensation, they shall receive compensation equal to the land use right value at the time of issuance of the recovery decisions; in case of compensation with new land or houses, if there is any difference in value, such difference shall be paid in cash." - Resettlement means policies of compensation, relocation, assistance are provided by the State (or the organization who using the recovered land) to displaced people, who have recovered land (Vietnam's Land Law 2003). The resettlement policies for displaced farmer's households after land recovery often circle these modes: cash resettlement, employment resettlement, farming resettlement, land reallocating resettlement, housing resettlement, and social insurance resettlement (ADB 2007). However, Decree No. 197/2004/ND-CP of Vietnam's Government just regulates three cases of resettlement: dwelling houses resettlement, new residential land resettlement and money for acquiring new residences resettlement. Beside that, it also mentions four others subsidy and compensation policies, they are: a) compensate or support whole MDE- Class 13 7 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas recovered land, b) compensate or support all assets linked to recovered land and invested cost in the land, c) support for: moving, stabilization of living, training and transfer job, ... d) support for stabilization of production and life of displaced people in resettled area. 2.1.6 Livelihoods Livelihood is "a mean of gaining a living". "A livelihood comprises capabilities, and mean ofliving, including food, income and assets" (Chambers and Conway 1991). Ellis (2000) suggests a more elaborate definition, that is, "A livelihood comprises the assets (natural, physical, human, financial, and social capital), activities, and the access to these (mediated by institutions and social capital) that together determine the living gained by an individual or households". 2.2 Empirical studies of land recovery, resettlement and its impacts on displaced farm households' livelihoods During the last two decades of the 20th century, about 10 millions people per year in the world were displaced and resettled due to development projects such as: industrial parks, irrigation, transportation highways, power generation, urban resident areas ... (Cernea 2000: 11). In China from 1993 to 2003, about 1.7 million hectares of cultivated land were converted into non-farming use purposes and this impacted to approximate 3.3 million farmers, annually. Farm households in planned areas was recovered all or partly of their farmland, a main asset on which their livelihoods are generated. Regularly, if investors or Governments take land from farmers, they must have some resettlement policies such as: cash resettlement, farming resettlement, vocational training programs to help displaced households rehabilitate their livelihoods. However, resettlement policies applied by the authorities still have some limitations and negative effects. For example, cash resettlement is easy to manage and often is accepted by displaced farm households. But, it only suited to young people and farmers who are working out of horne and was not suitable to groups of above 45 years old or who are low skill labors, it is rather difficult for these farmers to seek job by themselves (ADB 2007). Besides, the efficient of vocational training courses and new job introduction services to support land loss farmers still is a big problem. Most of displaced households are farmers and low education, so they have a limited to perceive and compute for their future. Just few MDE- Class 13 8 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas households invest in training alternative jobs after resettled. Many displaced households did not use the huge compensated money in a proper way, they used such money to build new and expensive house, equip luxury electric appliances and vehicles (Quang et al. 2005, Nang 2006, Sen 2007). In the near future, these households certain faced difficult situation when the compensation money was exhausted. According to recent study of Sen, although displaced households received compensation, assistance and subsidies from investors or the government, but proportion of resettled people being jobless and having unstable jobs is still very higher, occupying over 615 respondents or 44.5 percents of sample (Sen 2007). Free time of displaced people increases sharply in Vo Que district (Bac Ninh province, Vietnam) due to industrial zone development, it is higher 50 percents of working time fund, especially in young labors force (average age is around 26 years old) (Tho 2006). Land recovery caused losing household's productive assets o, such as farmland, common property resources, jobs, community articulation and the changing of culture living (Webber and Mcdonald 2004). It also created several impoverishment risks for land-loss farmers: income reduction, employment difficulty, poor long-term livelihood guarantees. Cernea (1995: 251) shows that displaced people will loss some principal capitals such as: natural capital, man-made capital, social capital, human capital. The farm production and income of displaced households is major impacted by land recovery and resettlement. The household's income reduces significantly after the resettlement (Syagga & Olima 1996, Webber & Mcdonald 2004, ADB 2007). Many displaced households have difficulties in rebuilding livelihoods because of the lack of access to common household capital and limited farmland (Heming et al. 2001 ). Especially, a proportion of displaced farm households are in a "four-no" status - no land, no job, no security, and no capital for establishing business. Only a half of them can be transferred to non-farming employment (ADB 2007). Land recovery leads to the gradually shifting of laborers to non-farming sector. However, most of them just to be employed in fields which require a relative low level of education and skills and to be laid off easily due to poor adaptability after a short period (ADB 2007, Phong 2005). The sharp reduction of cultivated land and the weakness of industrial foundation lead to the serious surplus of rural laborers. Female employees in displaced areas are impacted firstly because most of them are farmers, not MDE- Class 13 9 Determinants of Households' Income in Planned Areas well educated and just do domestic works, so they face more difficult if leave their home to find non-farming jobs (Shaoquan et al. 2004). After land recovery, people who were relocated into new farmland will face less changing in their livelihoods. However, in industrial planned areas, displaced people received often compensated money, resettled residential land or new house. They had no farmland after resettlement. Therefore, livelihoods of these affected households were very differing with the prior situation; they had to adopt non-farm livelihood strategies and urban living style. In developed areas, some affected households used remain compensation money to build flats for renting, or run small shops, or to buy vehicle engage transportation (Sen 2007, ADB 2007). The highest second proportion of households in the study of Nang (2006) deposited remain compensated money in the bank and received the return of interest rate or withdrew a proportion of the deposit monthly for their daily spending. Price of goods in planned areas often increases after land recovery due to reduce cultivation land areas. Therefore, displaced households in slowly developed areas will face more difficult, livelihoods is lack and poor while they have to spend at high price for everything, from water, electricity, coal to food, farm products (such as: rice, vegetable, ... ) (ADB 2007). Some people had to migrate to find job after land recovery. Many empirical studies show various reasons that rural households often diversify their livelihoods, simultaneously participate in more than one income earning activities. However, Adi (2007) used simultaneous equation model suggested by Smith and Blundell (1986) to estimate the probability of participating in non-farm or nonagricultural activities of households, and come to conclude that, despite of high incidence of diversification, agriculture still is highly significant to households' livelihoods in rural communities of Eastern Nigeria. Schwarze (2004) also have some major results after a quantitative study in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia), non-agriculture activities play an important role in rural livelihoods but households' livelihoods principally depend on agriculture activities which generate about 70 percents of the total household income. Therefore, lost whole of cultivated land and have to adopt nonagriculture livelihoods are a big leap or shock with displaced farmers. The lack of efficient vocational training programs and social insurance for displaced people who are old or do not meet the demand of industrial jobs is one of the foremost causes of poverty because of land recovery and resettlement (ADB 2007). MDE- Class 13 10
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