Tài liệu Beginning writing 1 (curriculum binders reproducibles saddleback educational publishing)

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g n i n n i g e B riting W 1 Joanne Suter Three Watson Irvine, CA 92618-2767 E-Mail: info@sdlback.com Website: www.sdlback.com Development and Production: Laurel Associates, Inc. Copyright © 2001 by Saddleback Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher, with the exception below. Pages labeled with the statement Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 are intended for reproduction. Saddleback Publishing, Inc. grants to individual purchasers of this book the right to make sufficient copies of reproducible pages for use by all students of a single teacher. This permission is limited to a single teacher, and does not apply to entire schools or school systems. ISBN 1-56254-147-1 Printed in the United States of America 05 04 03 02 01 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1   CONTENTS GET READY GET SET UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH DEVELOPING SENTENCES 1 Nouns 28 Avoiding and Correcting Fragments I 2 Collective Nouns 29 Avoiding and Correcting Fragments II 3 Verbs 30 Run-Ons I 4 Verb Phrases 31 Run-Ons II 5 Irregular Verb Forms 32 Parallel Elements 6 Pronouns 33 Inverted Sentences 7 Indefinite Pronouns 34 Active and Passive Verbs 8 Subject-Verb Agreement 35 9 Conjunctions LAUGH OUT LOUD! Malapropisms (Ludicrous Misuse of Words) 36 Review 10 Adjectives 11 Choosing Appropriate Adjectives 12 Adverbs 13 Adverbs That Tell How, When, and Where 14 Choosing Appropriate Adverbs 15 Prepositions 16 Interjections 17 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misused Homonyms 18 Review DEVELOPING PARAGRAPHS 37 Stating the Main Idea 38 Using Relevant Details 39 Using Facts and Examples 40 Comparing and Contrasting 41 Cause and Effect 42 Putting Detail Sentences in Order 43 Using Transitions 44 Review UNDERSTANDING THE SENTENCE PREWRITING/IDEAS AND CONTENT 19 A Complete Thought 20 Four Kinds of Sentences 21 Compound Subjects 22 Compound Predicates 23 Using Phrases 24 Using Clauses 25 Using Direct and Indirect Objects 26 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misplaced Modifiers, Dangling Phrases 27 Review 45 Determining Purpose 46 Narrowing Your Topic 47 Writing to Persuade 48 Writing to Inform 49 Writing to Describe 50 Writing to Instruct (How To) 51 Personal Interests 52 Personal Experiences 53 Brainstorming i 54 Tone (Formal or Informal?) 76 Capitalization I 55 Deciding on Point of View 77 Capitalization II 56 Deciding on Verb Tense 78 Commas I 57 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 79 Commas II 80 Punctuating Quotations I 58 Review 81 Punctuating Quotations II 82 Unnecessary Repetition 83 Double Negatives WRITE PRACTICAL WRITING 59 The Friendly Letter 84 Proofreader’s Marks 60 Thank-You Letters 85 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misspelled Words 61 Sending Messages 86 Review 62 The Business Letter 63 Addressing an Envelope 64 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misused Words 65 Review CREATIVE WRITING 66 Expanding Sentences 67 Using Your Senses 68 Haiku 69 Writing About Pictures 70 Writing About People 71 LAUGH OUT LOUD! What’s in a Name? 72 Review CHECKING YOUR WRITING ii IMPROVING YOUR WRITING 87 Sentence Variety I: Varying Sentence Beginnings 88 Sentence Variety II: Combining Sentences 89 Sentence Variety III: Avoiding “And” Sentences 90 Concise Writing 91 Avoiding Mixed Comparisons 92 Recognizing Facts and Opinions 93 Qualifying Opinions 94 Making and Qualifying Generalizations 95 Word Choices 96 New Beginnings 97 Effective Endings 73 Spelling Demons 98 Writing Titles 74 Double Trouble 99 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Headline Horrors 75 Letters Often Left Out 100 Review  ANSWER KEY UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH 1 NOUNS A. 1. Emily, PN; spy, CN 2. teenager, CN; mission, CN 3. Emily, PN; shoes, CN; carpet, CN 4. spy, CN; door, CN; bedroom, CN 5. Margo, PN; homework, CN; Emily, PN; mother, CN 6. sneakiness, CN; Margo, PN; sister, CN B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 2. Mrs. Martin carefully explained the rules. 3. Passengers were upset when Southern Airlines canceled flights. 4. Hawkins Sporting Goods offered a refund to every unhappy customer. 2 COLLECTIVE NOUNS A. 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. d B. 1. Senate, has 2. family, needs 3. team, is 4. army, had 5. Carter, Committee, have 3 VERBS A. Verbs will vary. 1. A, love 2. A, drank 3. S, is 4. S, is 5. A, prefer B. In my grandma’s living room was a portrait of Elvis Presley on black velvet. Everyone in the family voiced an opinion about the picture. Uncle Leo called it hideous. Aunt Sally groaned when she looked at it. When I looked at the picture, I felt happy. I believed it was the most beautiful thing in Grandma’s house. 4 VERB PHRASES 1. would carry 2. were used 3. have been used 4. will release 5. will find 6. must reach 7. must have been flying 5 IRREGULAR VERB FORMS A. ACROSS: 2. swam 5. ran 6. grew 7. tore DOWN: 1. caught 2. sank 3. froze 4. sent B. 2. flew 3. drove 4. wrote 6 PRONOUNS A. 1. Karen, Marvin, president 2. teenagers, yellow, Rudy 3. car, family, Charlene B. 1. it 2. They 3. its 4. one 7 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS A. 2. S, Each, has been given 3. S, Everybody, is 4. P, Some, don’t want 5. P, few, feel 6. P, Most, think 7. S, nobody, will be B. Answers will vary.  8 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT A. Possible answers: 1. plays 2. run 3. rides 4. think B. 1. Percy plays in the basketball tournament tomorrow. 2. When do the teams celebrate their victories? 3. Some people like to play sports, and others prefer to watch. 4. To build strength, Marlene uses weights in her training. 9 CONJUNCTIONS A. 1. and 2. but 3. but 4. or B. 1. and 2. but 3. so 10 ADJECTIVES A. 1. ferocious 2. big 3. two 4. endangered 5. that B. Circled words in A: 1. look 2. cats 3. cubs 4. species 5. cub C. Answers will vary. 11 CHOOSING APPROPRIATE ADJECTIVES A. 1. huge 2. Rocky 3. fascinating 4. strong 5. massive 6. powerful 7. golden 8. magnificent 9. colorful B. 1. carefully 2. massive 3. famous (cross out the e) 4. masterful 12 ADVERBS A. 1. swiftly 2. today 3. nearly B. 1. how 2. to what degree 3. where 4. when Circle: 1. furiously 2. completely 3. everywhere 4. Yesterday Underline: 1. rowed 2. drenched 3. rafted 4. took C. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Today 2. everywhere 3. quickly 4. very 13 ADVERBS THAT TELL HOW, WHEN, AND WHERE A. HOW? slowly, gladly, sweetly, hard, silently, expertly WHEN? tomorrow, yesterday, now, soon, never, sometime WHERE? here, near, outside, everywhere, far, nowhere B. 1. Yesterday 2. never 3. expertly 4. nowhere 5. gladly 6. tomorrow (or: now, soon, sometime) 14 CHOOSING APPROPRIATE ADVERBS A. 1. sideways 2. carefully 3. elderly 4. wisely 5. lengthwise 6. lightly B. 1. jointly 2. magically 3. deeply 4. heavily 5. graciously iii 15 PREPOSITIONS A. 1. up 2. against 3. out 4. near 5. under B. 1. on the beach; position 2. down to the storm cellar; direction 3. during the hurricane; time 4. After the storm; time 5. in the Midwest;position 6. from high winds; cause 16 INTERJECTIONS A. 1. ! 2. , 3. ! 4. , B. 1. Gee 2. Ouch 3. Wait 4. My goodness C. 1. My goodness, 2. Hey! 3. Whew! 4. Well, 17 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misused Homonyms 2. bear=bare, adjective 3. weight=wait, noun 4. scent=cent, noun 5. steak=stake, noun 6. reel=real, adjective 7. cereal=serial, adjective 8. blew=blue, adjective 18 REVIEW A. 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. T 7. F B. Possible answsers: 2. opened, verb 3. ridiculous, adjective 4. luckily, adverb C. Possible answsers: 1. under, preposition 2. Hurrah, interjection 3. Well, interjection UNDERSTANDING THE SENTENCE 19 A COMPLETE THOUGHT A. 1. won 2. team 3. fans 4. was B. Answers will vary. C. Answers will vary. 20 FOUR KINDS OF SENTENCES A. 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. a B. (.) (.) (!) (?) (.) (.) 21 COMPOUND SUBJECTS A. 1. Refrigerators and washing machines (use) 2. Jack and Janet (work) 3. biking or carpooling (preserves) 4. wind and the sun (create) 5. coal nor other fossil fuels (are) 6. Dad or the kids (pick) B. 2. Lia, Paul, and Mark conserve water. 3. Jerry and I collect newspapers. 22 COMPOUND PREDICATES A. 1. wrote and mailed 2. will dance and sing 3. drive or walk 4. eat and visit 5. swam and played B. 1. assembled and baked 2. laughed and cheered 3. ate and drank 4. barked and begged 5. rent and watch 6. buy or pop 23 USING PHRASES 1. up the mountain 2. around midnight 3. should always wear 4. a tall, mysterious stranger 5. one good reason 6. in his soup 7. with an open mouth 8. in the salesman’s face 9. for boredom 10. will be playing iv 24 USING CLAUSES A. 1. rings 2. come 3. works 4. path B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 2. that has the best driver 3. During the storm 4. unless you have a permit 5. When the water is dirty 25 USING DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 2. The three judges gave Lisa first prize. 3. George paid the cab driver six dollars. 4. The defendant told the jury the truth. 26 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misplaced Modifiers, Dangling Phrases A. 2. Leonard found his tennis trophy, after years of it being lost. 3. With binoculars, I could see a hawk flying above the treetops. 4. I gobbled the pizza covered with melted cheese and spicy tomato sauce. B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 2. Before I watch television, I have to finish my homework. 3. When she mixed whites and colors, her laundry turned a deep shade of pink. 4. As I drove across the prairie, I saw two eagles. 27 REVIEW A. 1. d 2. e 3. b 4. g 5. f 6. a 7. c B. 1. period 2. question mark 3. capital letter 4. exclamation point C. 1. compound subject 2. phrase 3. clause 4. compound predicate DEVELOPING SENTENCES 28 AVOIDING AND CORRECTING FRAGMENTS I A. 1. C 2. F 3. F 4. C 5. F 6. C 7. C 8. F B. 1. subject 2. verb 3. subject 4. subject 5. subject 29 AVOIDING AND CORRECTING FRAGMENTS II A. 1. Jane hurried faster, thinking she might miss the bus. 2. She stumbled on the curb and dropped her books. 3. When Jane got on the bus, she saw her friend. 4. I can read or sleep when I travel by bus. 5. As the bus approached her stop, Jane pulled the buzzer. B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Carrying his heavy bags, Joe boarded the tour bus. 2. He was looking for an empty seat by the window. 3. The woman sitting behind him was snoring loudly. 4. He stared at the strange group of passengers getting off. 5. He wondered why he liked riding buses so much. 30 RUN-ONS I A. 2. The huge model was built of wood, wire, cloth, and metal. It was covered with 40 bearskins. 3. Audiences screamed as King Kong descended upon New York. They believed he was real! B. 2. Models contain sensors, and the technicians activate them by remote control. 3. The operators can make the model monster look sad, or they can make it look fierce. 31 RUN-ONS II A. Reports of the ape-like beast come from around the world they seem to come mainly from Pacific Northwest forests. According to observers, Bigfoot is 8 feet tall he appears to weigh about 500 pounds. Many people claim to have spotted the creature itself others report seeing his giant footprints. Did people really see a bear were their eyes fooled by tree stumps or shadows? B. 1. Reports of the ape-like beast come from around the world. They seem to come mainly from Pacific Northwest forests. 2. According to observers, Bigfoot is 8 feet tall. He appears to weigh about 500 pounds. 3. Many people claim to have spotted the creature itself, and others report seeing his giant footprints. 4. Did people really see a bear, or were their eyes fooled by tree stumps or shadows? 32 PARALLEL ELEMENTS A. 2. he barked all night 3. be making a mess 4. be offering art classes B. 1. The cat scratched the burglar, and the dog bit him. 2. Great music and good decorations made the party a hit. 33 INVERTED SENTENCES A. 1. are 2. is 3. are B. 1. you 2. reasons 3. bag 4. group C. 1. come 2. are 3. do 34 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VERBS 1. Baseball fans will never forget April 8, 1974. 2. That night Hank Aaron made baseball history. 3. Until then, Babe Ruth had held the major league home run record. 4. The catcher gave the sign for a fast ball. 5. Mighty Aaron smacked the ball hard! 6. The ball cleared the fence! 7. Fans had just witnessed a major moment in baseball history! CHALLENGE: Mexico has suffered many strong earthquakes. In 1985, violent earth movements rocked Mexico City. The quake killed nearly ten thousand people. After the earthquake, fires took even more homes and lives. All Mexicans are aware of the well-known fact that another big one could hit at any time. 35 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Malapropisms (Ludicrous Misuse of Words) Primate=Private; respected=suspected; abuse=accuse; eminence=evidence; pandemonium=condominium; shovel=hovel; bumbling=crumbling; idle=ideal; congeal=conceal; hibernation=hesitation; revolter=revolver; sandal=satchel; defective=detective; pigment=figment 36 REVIEW A. 1. non-parallel structure 2. run-on 3. fragment 4. passive voice B. 2. fragment; Moving ice fields are known as glaciers. 3. non-parallel structure; Glaciers picked up rocks, carried them hundreds of miles, and carved out valleys and lakes. 4. run-on; As the climate of Earth warmed, the glaciers melted. DEVELOPING PARAGRAPHS 37 STATING THE MAIN IDEA A. The ancient Maya had some unusual ideas about beauty. B. 1. a 2. b 38 USING RELEVANT DETAILS A. Circle mechanic and scientist. B. 1. d 2. b 3. c 4. c C. Underline: Cinco de Mayo, which means the Fifth of May, celebrates a Mexican victory over the French. Draw a line through: Less than 20 years earlier, Mexico had been at war with the United States. 39 USING FACTS AND EXAMPLES A. 1. The great white shark is one of the world’s most powerful and efficient hunters; facts/figures 2. Most often the great white shark will not threaten humans; examples B. 1. EX 2. FF 3. FF v 40 COMPARING AND CONTRASTING A. Possible Answers: 1. SKY DIVING: drop head first, jump solo, thrill from solitude BOTH: take nerve and skill, jump from planes, rely on parachutes SKY SURFING: use more equipment, need leg strength, drop feet first, jump in teams, thrill from sharing experience B. 1. S 2. D 3. S 4. D 5. S 6. S 7. D 8. D C. Both, Similarly, however, however 41 CAUSE AND EFFECT A. T H E N H A A F T E R E S B E C A R A I E R N F E D C C O N S E Q U E N R U E E L T T S T H U S E S T L Y O B. EFFECT: volcano erupts CAUSE: rock inside Earth heats up; heat builds pressure; heat melts rock; pressure pushes rock upward 42 PUTTING DETAIL SENTENCES IN ORDER 2. They dressed up like Native Americans; should be 3rd sentence 3. The falling water goes into lakes, rivers, and underground; should be last sentence 4. Panting and sweating, they reached the summit; should be last sentence 43 USING TRANSITIONS A. E R O F I N A Y L L Y O Y L T E S I M R E H R E V N O W E T A N L S U S N E U Q W R E H T R U F T E W O H H E E N R E U T R O F H O R E E S N O C T O T E Y B. 2. In the same manner; compare 3. Then; time 4. for example; explain 44 REVIEW A. 1. Although the planet Venus is right next to Earth in our solar system, it is a different kind of place. 2. On the planet Mercury, it is very hot during the day and very cold at night. 3. Student may circle however or A second big difference 4. c B. Answers will vary. Possible answer: An earthquake can be a major disaster. vi PREWRITING/IDEAS AND CONTENT 45 DETERMINING PURPOSE A. 1. describe 2. inform 3. entertain B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. a. Follow these simple steps to build a bird house. b. To protect nature’s creatures, consider buying a bird house. 2. a. Conditions must be right for a tornado to form. b. I’ll never forget the power and noise of the tornado. 3. a. My dog Scout is a real comedian. b. Many healthy, loving animals need a home. 46 NARROWING YOUR TOPIC A. 1. making a pizza 2. a visit from Grandpa 3. my favorite website 4. building a snow fort 5. the worst school rule 6. an unforgettable character 7. advantages of being the oldest child 8. how Spooky the cat got her name B. Answers will vary. 47 WRITING TO PERSUADE A. Students should check 1, 2, and 5. B. Answers will vary. 48 WRITING TO INFORM A. 1. fads of the 1920s 2. King Tut 3. chicken pox 4. meteorites 5. Vitamin C B. Answers will vary. 49 WRITING TO DESCRIBE A. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 2. making spaghetti 3. the junk closet 4. life in the tide pool 5. the spring shower 6. saving the old elm B. Sight: slender, sparkling, handsome Hearing: beeping, silent, earsplitting Taste: sour, delicious Smell: fragrant Touch: slimy, frigid, sweltering C. Answers will vary. 50 WRITING TO INSTRUCT (HOW TO) A. 1. making salsa 2. tomatoes, onion, green chiles, cilantro, lemon, salt 3. chopping vegetables 4. serve salsa and tortilla chips 5. Answers will vary. B. First; Before; After; Then; Finally 51 PERSONAL INTERESTS Answers will vary. 52 PERSONAL EXPERIENCES Answers will vary. 53 BRAINSTORMING Answers will vary. 54 TONE (FORMAL OR INFORMAL?) A. 1. F 2. I 3. I 4. F 5. I 6. F B. 1. I 2. F 3. F 4. I CHALLENGE: 1. informal 2. formal Rewrites will vary. 55 DECIDING ON POINT OF VIEW 1. 1st 2. 3rd 3. 1st 4. 1st 56 DECIDING ON VERB TENSE A. 1. The golfer makes her shot and then follows the ball with her eyes. 2. The champ entered the ring, went to his corner, and nodded to the crowd. 3. Chico whistled for his dog Ranger, and Ranger bounded to his side. 4. Everywhere Chico goes, Ranger follows him. B. Answers will vary. 57 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Winfield goes back to the wall. He hits his head on the wall and the ball rolls off his glove and back down to second base. 2. The cause of the accident was a guy with a big mouth who was driving a small car. 3. For sale: large dining room set made of solid oak; perfect for big family. 4. Holiday bazaar—hundreds of hard-to-find gifts. 5. We will sell goldfish in a glass bowl to anyone. 6. Drive slower when road is wet. 7. Huge sale on pants! 58 REVIEW A. Answers will vary. B. Answers will vary. C. 1. dies=died 2. has=had PRACTICAL WRITING 59 THE FRIENDLY LETTER Answers will vary. 60 THANK-YOU LETTERS Answers will vary. 61 SENDING MESSAGES A. Answers will vary. Possible answer: August 15 8:00 A.M. Ms. Kostas: Your sister Pam called. She is canceling your lunch date on Tuesday, Aug. 17, because she has a dental appointment. You can call her at (512) 777-3313. Wendy Warren B. Answers will vary. Possible answer: From: Brian Jones To: Denise C. Hayden Date: Thurs, Jul 5, 2001 Subject: Cancellation of Interview Ms. Hayden, I need to cancel our interview scheduled for Monday, July 9, at 9:30 AM. I will contact you to see if we can reschedule. I’m sorry for the inconvenience. Brian Jones 62 THE BUSINESS LETTER ACROSS: DOWN: 4. body 5. greeting 6. address 1. heading 2. closing 3. signature 63 ADDRESSING AN ENVELOPE A. Return address will vary. Address: Mr. William Cole Bridgeport Baking Company 4631 Lester Lane Sand Point, ID 83219 B. 2. Ms. Rachel Roberts Northwest Paper Box Company 340 S.W. 10th Avenue New York, NY 10023 64 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misused Words A. 1. incinerating, insinuating 2. roughage, roughness 3. tycoon, typhoon 4. corporation, cooperation 5. abdominal, abominable B. Answers will vary. 65 REVIEW A. 1. the address of both the writer and the receiver 2. the receiver’s address 3. above the greeting 4. heading B. 1. F 2. B 3. B/ F 4. F 5. B/ F 6. B/ F 7. B/ F 8. B CHALLENGE: 1050 Hillman Street Chicago, IL 77210 August 5, 2001_ Dear Ben, Thank you for asking me to Alaska ... with its bare paws. (Ha, ha! Get it?) Your life in Frozentoe, Alaska, is . . . mine in Chicago. You’ll have to . . . . Your pal, vii CREATIVE WRITING CHALLENGE: 66 EXPANDING SENTENCES Answers will vary. 67 USING YOUR SENSES A. 1. babbling, meow, whisper 2. aroma, stinking, fragrant 3. painful, prickle, burn 4. sour, tangy, flavorful 5. sparkle, pale, scarlet B. Answers will vary. 68 HAIKU A. The / dew / drops / fal/ ling By / ones / and / twos, / rap/ id/ ly,— It / is / a / good / world. B. 1. nature 2. three 3. five 4. seven 5. first 6. does not C. 1. b 2. a 69 WRITING ABOUT PICTURES Answers will vary. 70 WRITING ABOUT PEOPLE A. 1. swaggered 2. tossed 3. piercing 4. smile 5. cat 6. whispered B. Answers will vary. 71 LAUGH OUT LOUD! What’s in a Name? A. 1. d 2. e 3. h 4. k 5. l 6. b 7. i 8. c 9. f 10. a 11. j 12. g B. Answers will vary. 72 REVIEW A. ACROSS: 1. character 4. vivid 5. touch 7. senses 9. image DOWN: 2. haiku 3. taste 6. hearing 7. smell 8. sight B. Answers will vary. CHECKING YOUR WRITING 73 SPELLING DEMONS A. 1. e 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. f 7. h 8. g B. combination, relative, invitation, competition, preparation, declaration, perspiration, author 74 DOUBLE TROUBLE A. 1. hoping 2. scraping 3. hopped 4. moped 5. robbed B. 1. biggest 2. thinnest 3. begged 4. tagged 5. bigger 6. madder 7. betting 8. hitting C. 2. holy, holly 3. desert, dessert 4. hot, hoot 5. raged, ragged 6. ad, add 7. hoping, hopping 75 LETTERS OFTEN LEFT OUT A. 1. bakery, chocolate 2. federal, veterans 3. sophomores, history 4. average, salary, government 5. several, environment B. 1. ordnary, Febuary, evry, intresting, celbrate, substatute viii I N T E R E S T I N G C U O E B R L F S D E E T I B I N R R T A U A U R A T Y R E E E V E R Y 76 CAPITALIZATION I 1. September 2. Angela, Halloween 3. Captain Hook, Angela, Peter Pan 4. Monday 5. Julio’s Sweets Shoppe, Beach Boulevard 6. Dr. Richard’s 7. Thursday, November, Thanksgiving 77 CAPITALIZATION II A. 1. scientist, Professor 2. laboratory, Mount, Park 3. park, Doctor B. 1. New York City 2. Hudson River 3. none 4. Uncle Ted, Kansas City 5. none 78 COMMAS I A. 1. A one-horned rhinoceros, a ten-foot lizard, and a miniature buffalo all live in the jungles of Indonesia. 2. The orangutan, an ape with reddish-orange hair, also makes its home in Indonesia. 3. Professor Durand, can you explain why the orangutan is called “man of the jungle”? 4. Orangutans are, if you can picture this, about the size of humans. B. Answers will vary. 79 COMMAS II A. 1. Because they are big, football players usually eat a lot. 2. At our school, assemblies are held in the gym. 3. The committee was made up of the following four students: Carol Sue, Carlos, Molly, and Ruth. 4. For those who love chocolate, chocolate cake is the perfect dessert. 5. The five stars of the play were Peggy, Anthony, Mary, Jo, and Sam. 6. Rather than red, orange is my favorite color. 7. Instead of Michael, Jordan received the award. 8. While Brenda was climbing down, the ladder slipped. 9. Recognizing the man as his uncle, Joseph shouted a welcome. B. That that is, is. That that is not, is not. Is that not it? It is! 80 PUNCTUATING QUOTATIONS I A. Students should check 1, 3, and 4. B. 1. b 2. a 3. a 4. b 81 PUNCTUATING QUOTATIONS II Bosco studied the weird machine. He read the strange sign. “Enter here to travel through time,” the words said. “All tickets ten dollars.” “Would you like to buy a ticket?” asked a little round man in a blue suit. “You can go forward, backward, or any-which-way!” Bosco was fascinated. “How can I pass up this opportunity?” he whispered. He pulled out a ten-dollar bill. “All aboard,” shouted the little man. “Quickly now. Quickly now!” Bosco climbed three metal stairs and passed through a swinging gate. He heard a lock click behind him. Suddenly he felt nervous. “I’ve changed my mind,” he called out. “Too late!” said the little man. “Have a good journey.” The strange contraption shook and groaned as it hurled Bosco into the future. 82 UNNECESSARY REPETITION A. 2. on his face 3. quickly 4. shape 5. victorious 6. round B. 2. Doctors help their patients by treating illnesses. 3. When I once had trouble walking, I hurried to a doctor. 4. Tests showed that I needed a knee operation. 83 DOUBLE NEGATIVES A. 1. ever 2. any 3. anybody 4. any 5. no 6. ever B. Students should check 1, 3, and 4. 84 PROOFREADER’S MARKS e A. 2. You can lead a hors to water but you cant make it drink. e 3. Evry cloud has a Silver lining 4. Dont bitethe hand that feeds yuo. 5. Theres more than one way too skin a Cat. B. 1. Half a loaf is better than none. 2. You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink. 3. Every cloud has a silver lining. 4. Don’t bite the hand that feeds you. 5. There’s more than one way to skin a cat. 85 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Misspelled Words A. 1. laff=laugh 2. recieved=received 3. Acurrate=Accurate 4. proff=proof 5. grammer=grammar 6. carrot=karat 7. dames=dams 8. boys=buoys B. 1. b 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. b 86 REVIEW A. 2. Odin wanted to be wise as well as strong. 3. “I will drink from the Well of Wisdom,” Odin said. 4. “The water is not free,” said the guardian of the well. 5. The price of a drink was very high. 6. “You must give me one of your eyes, Odin,” said the guardian. 7. Odin gained wisdom, the ability to see the future, and the respect of all the gods. B. 1. Shaniko is a ghost town in the high desert of Oregon. 2. It’s called a ghost town because most of the people are gone, and the buildings are abandoned. 3. In the early 1900s Shaniko was a boom town, a bustling railroad hub. 4. A sign on the road into present-day Shaniko reads, “Population 30.” 5. Some visitors say they hear ghostly laughter in the schoolyard. IMPROVING YOUR WRITING 87 SENTENCE VARIETY I: Varying Sentence Beginnings 2. preposition 3. verb 4. preposition 5. adverb 6. preposition 88 SENTENCE VARIETY II: Combining Sentences A. 2. Seven Great Danes live in the Lavine house, and two will soon have puppies. 3. The family may keep all the puppies, or neighbors may buy some. B. 2. A stage crew of talented artists is designing sets. 3. Tickets for the play, which opens March 5, are going fast. 89 SENTENCE VARIETY I: Avoiding “And” Sentences A. 1. b 2. a B. Answers will vary. 90 CONCISE WRITING A. 1. b 2. d 3. a 4. c B. This launched his career; The cartoon did well; The rodent was very humorous; She thought it was not the right choice. 91 AVOIDING MIXED COMPARISONS A. Students should check 2, 3, and 4. B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 2. His mind galloped from thought to thought like a nervous horse. 3. The warmth of the sun wrapped itself around our campsite like a blanket. 4. The teacher growled at the tardy students like a bear. 92 RECOGNIZING FACTS AND OPINIONS A. 1. F 2. O 3. T 4. F 5. T B. 1. O 2. O 3. F 4. F 5. O ix 93 QUALIFYING OPINIONS A. Students should check 1, 3, and 6. Underline: 2. Mike thinks; 4. In my opinion; 5. I think B. Students should circle 1, 3, and 4. 1. Most students can benefit from a physical education class. 3. I think Mr. and Mrs. Wilson have overly strict rules for their children. 4. It seems that no amount of arguing will convince the Wilsons to change their minds! 94 MAKING AND QUALIFYING GENERALIZATIONS A. Answers will vary. Possible anwers: 1. Most 2. Many 3. supposedly 4. usually B. Answers will vary. Possible anwers: 2. Annmarie will likely make a good doctor some day. 3. At the tournament, our debate team should be hard to beat! 4. Our house may need a new roof in three to five years. 5. The growing population will likely lead to overcrowding. 95 WORD CHOICES A. 1. pranced 2. growled 3. mature 4. moderate, quaint 5. screamed B. Answers will vary. x 96 NEW BEGINNINGS A. 1. a 2. b 3. a 4. b B. Answers will vary. 97 EFFECTIVE ENDINGS A. 1. a 2. c B. thus, in conclusion, in summary 98 WRITING TITLES A. 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b B. 1. Tales from the Titanic 2. The Lady or the Tiger? 3. Chief Joseph: Man of Honor 99 LAUGH OUT LOUD! Headline Horrors 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Students upset by teacher strike Man-eating sharks spotted offshore Woodview Heights man murdered Burglar robs Richard’s Pants Shop More meat-eaters deciding to eat vegetables New law cuts curfew violations in half U.S. steel giant puts end to strike Two small planes collide; one person dies Free clinic offers medical care for the poor 100 REVIEW A. 1. vary in length 2. different parts of speech 3. a generalization 4. qualify 5. summarize ideas 6. gets to the point without wasting words B. Answers will vary. Possible answers: 1. Scientists think humans could live on Mars, but there is no food or water there. 2. Mars, one of our closest neighbors in space, has been called Earth’s “red twin.” NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: NOUNS  A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. A common noun names any person, place, thing, or idea. A proper noun names a specific person, place, thing, or idea. EXAMPLES: COMMON NOUNS: student, forest, pencil, confusion PROPER NOUNS: Howard, Everglades, Statue of Liberty A. First underline all the nouns in the following sentences. Then write CN above each common noun and PN above each proper noun. 1. Emily was training herself to become a spy. 2. The teenager anxiously prepared to complete her first mission. 3. Emily took off her shoes and tiptoed across the carpet. 4. The young spy quietly opened the door and peeked into the bedroom. 5. “Margo isn’t doing her homework!” Emily yelled to her mother. 6. “I hate sneakiness!” Margo shouted at her sister. B. Rewrite each sentence. Replace the boldface common noun with a specific proper noun. The first sentence has been done for you. 1. The seashore is my favorite vacation spot. ____________________________________________________________________ Waikiki Beach is my favorite vacation spot. 2. The teacher carefully explained the rules. ____________________________________________________________________ 3. Passengers were upset when the airline canceled flights. ____________________________________________________________________ 4. The store offered a refund to every unhappy customer. ____________________________________________________________________ CHALLENGE: Select one of the proper nouns from Part B. On the back of this sheet, write three sentences telling about that person, place, or thing. For example, you might write three sentences about Waikiki Beach. Circle each noun you use. Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com • Beginning Writing 1 1 NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: COLLECTIVE NOUNS  A collective noun names a group of persons or things. The word jury is a collective noun. So is the word committee. A. Write a letter to match each collective noun in the first column with its description in the second column. The first one has been done for you. 1. _____ c crowd a. a group of many 2. _____ flock b. a lot of bees flying together 3. _____ swarm c. a great number of persons gathered together 4. _____ class d. women who feel a common bond 5. _____ sisterhood e. students who meet with a teacher Depending on how the collective noun is used in the sentence, it may take a singular or plural verb. Here are the rules: • If you are thinking of the collective noun as a single unit, use a singular verb. EXAMPLE: The committee is meeting once a month. • If you are thinking of the group members as separate individuals, use a plural verb. EXAMPLE: The jury are entering the courtroom one by one. B. Read each sentence about the 1980s. Then underline the collective noun that is the subject of the sentence. Finally, circle the verb form that agrees with the subject. 1. The year is 1981, and the Senate ( has / have ) voted to make Sandra Day O’Connor the first woman on the Supreme Court. 2. Today, as in the ’80s, a family often ( needs / need ) more than one wage-earner. 3. It is 1980, and the team from the United States ( is / are ) not attending the summer Olympic Games. 4. The Soviet army ( had / have ) invaded Afghanistan in December of 1979. 5. President Jimmy Carter and the U.S. Olympic Committee ( has / have ) called for a boycott of the Moscow games. CHALLENGE: On the back of this sheet, write a brief news report about a concert, a big game, or some other group event. Circle each collective noun you use. Be sure to use the correct verb form. 2 Beginning Writing 1 • Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: VERBS  Verbs are words that express an action or a state of being. Action verbs (run, talked, went) tell what people do. Other verbs (is, am, are) express a state of being. A. Add a verb to complete each sentence. Then, on the line before the sentence, tell what the verb expresses. Write A for action or S for state of being. 1. _____ Many people ____________________ the taste of chocolate. 2. _____ Montezuma, a ruler of the ancient Aztecs, _________________ 50 cups of hot chocolate a day. 3. _____ Hot chocolate ____________________ still a favorite drink. 4. _____ Chocolate, however, ____________________ quite high in calories. 5. _____ Do you ____________________ chocolate or vanilla? Most verbs change form to show the time something is happening. The form of a verb shows whether something is happening now, has happened in the past, or will happen in the future. EXAMPLES: The car needs a tune-up. (present) The car needed a tune-up last month. (past) The car will need a tune-up in three months. (future) B. The action in the following paragraph takes place in the present. First underline each verb. Then rewrite the paragraph on the back of this sheet. Replace each present-tense verb with a past-tense verb. The first one has been done for you. was was In my grandma’s living room is a portrait of Elvis Presley on black velvet. Everyone in the family voices an opinion about the picture. Uncle Leo calls it hideous. Aunt Sally groans when she looks at it. When I look at the picture, I feel happy. I believe it is the most beautiful thing in Grandma’s house. Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com • Beginning Writing 1 3 NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: VERB PHRASES  One or more helping verbs are often used along with the main verb in a sentence. Together, the helping verb or verbs and main verb make up a verb phrase. A helping verb can show time or add meaning to the main verb. EXAMPLES: The mechanic will check the tires before we leave. The mechanic should check the fluid levels too. The mechanic has been working for an hour. Sometimes the words in verb phrases are separated by other words. EXAMPLES: You should not pay your bill until the work is completed. I had never seen such a big repair bill! Find the complete verb phrase in each sentence. Write it on the line. Hint: The number in parentheses tells how many words are in the verb phrase. 1. During World War II, a homing pigeon named Beachcomber would carry messages across enemy lines. (2) ____________________ 2. In all, 32 homing pigeons were used in the war. (2) ____________________ 3. Homing pigeons have been used for service and for sport. (3) ____________________ 4. Their owners will often release them far from home. (2) ____________________ 5. The birds will cleverly find their way across many miles. (2) ____________________ 6. A racing pigeon must reach its home loft as quickly as possible. (2) ____________________ 7. That weary bird over there must have been flying all day! (4) ____________________ CHALLENGE: On the back of this sheet, write three sentences about a race or contest. Use a verb phrase in each sentence. Circle the main verb and underline the helping verb in each verb phrase. 4 Beginning Writing 1 • Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: IRREGULAR VERB FORMS  Add -ed or -d to form the past tense of a regular verb. To form the past tense of an irregular verb, you will usually change the spelling. EXAMPLES: REGULAR VERB: IRREGULAR VERB: PRESENT PAST PRESENT look looked sing PAST sang A. Read the irregular past-tense verb forms in the box. Then complete the puzzle by matching each one to a present-tense form listed as a clue. ran tore swam sent caught sank grew froze 1 2 ACROSS DOWN 2. swim 1. catch 2. sink 6. grow 3. freeze 3 S 4 5 5. run C R 6 S G 7 7. tear F 4. send T B. Fill in each blank with the past-tense form of the verb in parentheses. The verb you write should rhyme with the words in italics. The first one has been done for you. rang 1. With a bong and a clang, the steeple bell (ring) ____________________. 2. The baby eagle grew and grew; then from its nest it bravely (fly) __________________. 3. Into the shady, peaceful cove, my little boat I slowly (drive) _________________. 4. The list of promises each candidate (write ) _________________, should help us decide just how to vote. CHALLENGE: On the back of this sheet, write five sentences using the past-tense form of the following verbs: steal, catch, dive, do, buy. Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com • Beginning Writing 1 5 NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: PRONOUNS  Imagine you are writing a story about a fellow named Mike. How do you avoid repeating the word Mike in your story? You use pronouns! A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Notice the boldface pronouns in the following example: Mike plays baseball for the Riverside Rockets. He is their star pitcher. When he winds up, batters stop breathing! They wait nervously for his fast ball. They know the umpire is likely to call, “Strike three. You are out!” A. Circle the three words in each group that are not pronouns. 1. it 2. they 3. car Karen him teenagers our us her yellow family Marvin my we president I Rudy Charlene A pronoun must always agree with the noun it replaces. INCORRECT: People should not volunteer for a job unless he really wants to do it. CORRECT: People should not volunteer for a job unless they really want to do it. B. Complete each sentence with one of these pronouns: one, they, it, its. Notice that each pronoun replaces a boldface noun or nouns. 1. The octopus is a fascinating creature, but some people think ________________________ is scary. 2. The octopus has eight twisting tentacles. ________________________ help the creature move along the ocean floor. 3. The octopus uses ________________________ tentacles when hunting. 4. When an octopus’s tentacle is cut off, a brand new ________________________ grows! CHALLENGE: On the back of this sheet, write a short paragraph about an animal with a frightening appearance. Use pronouns to avoid repetition— and make sure each pronoun agrees with the noun it replaces! 6 Beginning Writing 1 • Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com NAME DATE  UNDERSTANDING PARTS OF SPEECH: INDEFINITE PRONOUNS  Indefinite pronouns can cause writers problems. These pronouns include words like all, each, either, few, and none. As with other pronouns, writers must make sure that every indefinite pronoun agrees with its verb. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS SINGULAR either neither anyone everybody MAY BE SINGULAR OR PLURAL no one none each any all more most some A. Read each sentence. Then circle the indefinite pronoun and underline its verb. Finally, write S if the pronoun is singular or P if it is plural. The first one has been done for you. 1. _____ P All of the party guests have been given a list of items for the scavenger hunt. 2. _____ Each of the party guests has been given a list of items for the scavenger hunt. 3. _____ Everybody in the group is expected to participate. 4. _____ Some of the guests don’t want to join the hunt. 5. _____ A few feel silly going door to door asking for unusual objects. 6. _____ Most think it sounds like great fun! 7. _____ I’ll bet that nobody will be able to find a wooden clothespin. B. Complete the two sentences below. Make sure to use a verb that agrees with the boldface indefinite pronoun. 1. All of the job applicants ____________________________________________. 2. Both Hector and Neil ______________________________________________. CHALLENGE: Indefinite pronouns are often the subject of a sentence. In fact, one indefinite pronoun and one verb can make a complete sentence! EXAMPLES: Everyone screamed. Nobody answers. On the back of this sheet, write three two-word sentences containing an indefinite pronoun and a verb. Saddleback Publishing, Inc. © 2001 • Three Watson, Irvine, CA 92618 • Phone: (888) 735-2225 • Fax: (888) 734-4010 • www.sdlback.com • Beginning Writing 1 7
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