Tài liệu bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi tiếng anh lớp 9

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Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 PERIOD: 1 TENSES REVIEW I. THEORY NO. TENSE 1. Simple present HTĐ 2. Present continuous HTTD + S + is/am/are +  Tobe : S + is/am/are ... + S + V/VS, ES … - S + doesn’t /don’t + V … ? Do/Does + S + V … ? Now, right now, at the/this moment, at this time, at present, at the present Không chia ở thì tiếp diễn: Know, not + Ving … ? Is/am/are + S + understand, hate, love, like, want, 3. Simple past QKĐ Past continuous QKTD Present perfect HTHT - Every day/month/year/… - Always, constantly, usually, often, generally, frequently, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, never, - Once/twice a week, how often, … (Chú ý: thêm "ES" khi V kết thúc: s, sh, ch, o, x, z, (y) ...) think, believe, hear, see, smell, wish, sound, have, need, appear, seem, taste, own,...  Tobe: S + was/were ... - Yesterday (morning, afternoon, evening) + S + Ved/V2 … - Last week/month/year/… - S + didn’t + V … ? Did + S + V … ? + S + was/were + Ving.... - S + was/were + not + Ving … ? Was/were + S + Ving …? + S + has/have + P.P... 5. ADVERBS FOLLOWING time, (today/ this week) … Ving … - S + is/am/are + Ving … ? 4. FORM - …ago Ex: three days ago - In + năm trong qk, in the past - At this time yesterday, at 7.00 a.m last week - At that time, then - When, while - Since + 1mốc thời gian , for + 1 khoảng thời gian - S + has/have + not + P.P ... - Yet, ever, never, already, recently, lately, just, before, ... ? Has/have + S + P.P ... ? - So far, until now, up to now, up to the present time 1 6. Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 Present perfect continuous HTHTTD 7. Past pefect QKHT 8. Past pefect continuous QKHTTD 9. + S + has/have + been + Ving ... Since + 1mốc thời gian, for + 1 khoảng thời gian, up to now - S +has/have+ not + been + Ving ... (thường dùng với V chỉ hoạt động: run, learn, teach, work, rain, sleep, wait, ? Has/have + S + been + Ving ... ? + S + had + P.P … stand, sit, try, … - After + QKHT, QKĐ - S + had + not + P.P ... - QKHT, before/by the time + QKĐ ? Had + S + P.P ... ? - Before/by + thời gian trong qk Ex: before 6 p.m last night … since + 1 mốc thời gian (before) QKĐ + S + had + been + Ving ... - S + had + not + been + Ving ... ? Had + S + been + Ving ...? + S + will + V ... Simple future TLĐ - S + will + not + V ... ? Will + S + V ... ? 10. + S + will + be + Ving ... Future continuous TLTD - S + will + not + be + Ving ... … for + 1 khoảng thời gian (thường dùng với V chỉ hoạt động: run, learn, teach, work, rain, sleep, wait, stand, sit, try, …) - Tomorrow (morning, afternoon, evening) - Next week/month/year/... - In 2 hours, in a few minutes/some days/… - Some day, soon - At this time tomorrow, at 8.00 a.m next Monday - When ? Will + S + be + Ving ...? + S + will + have + P.P … 11. - S + will + not + have + P.P … Future perfect TLHT ? Will + S + have + P.P … ? - Before/by + thời gian trong tương lai Ex: by next year 12. Future perfect continuous TLHTTD - TLHT, before/by the time + HTĐ + S + will + have + been + Ving ... - S +will+not+have+been + Ving ... ? Will + S + have + been + Ving ... ? 2 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 (since/for) … before/by + thời gian trong tương lai TLHTTD, before/by the time + HTĐ (thường dùng với V chỉ hoạt động: run, learn, teach, work, rain, sleep, 13 Modal verbs wait, stand, sit, try, …) S + can/could/may/might/must/ have to/be going to/ ought to... + V XI. Supply the correct verb forms. 1. I (see) a car accident while I (wait) for you on this corner yesterday................................................................................ 2. Mr. john (be) principal of our school since last year........................................................................................... 3. Mr. Smith (teach) at this school since he (graduate) in 1980....................................................................... 4. My father (not watch) TV every night............................................................................ 5. I (meet) Authur three weeks ago............................................................................................... 6. Yesterday the police (report) that they (capture) the thief.......................................................................................... 7. My friend (thank) me for what I had done for him................................................................ 8. Someone (steal) my handbag on the bus........................................................................................................................... 9. The Browns (live) in Paris for 7 years when the second World War (break) down.............................................................. 10. Last month I (be) in the hospital for ten days.......................................................................... 11. Don't call me in the afternoon. I usually (be) away in the afternoon................................................................................ 12. Mr. Clark (be) in New York 2 months ago. Mr. Rossi (be) in New York until 2 months ago......................................... 13. John (drive) that car ever since I (know) him.................................................................. 14. People (speak) English in most of Canada............................................................................................... 15. The dog (wag) his tail whenever he (see) me............................................................................................................. 16. What you (do) when I (ring) you last night?.............................................................................................................. 17. Up to then I never (see) such a fat man....................................................................................................................... 18. I (not see) him last Monday....................................................................................................................................... 19. They had sold all the books when we (get) there..................................................................................................... 20. I think he (leave) as soon as he (know) the news.............................................................................. 21. She (play) the piano when our guests (arrive) last night................................................................................... 22. He (come) and (see) you soon........................................................................................................................................ 3 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 23. I (come) as soon as I have finished my work. You (be) ready?.................................................................................. 24. My mother (come) to stay with us next weekend.............................................................................. 25. Where you (spend) your holidays next summer?........................................................................ 26. Violets (bloom) in spring.............................................................................................................................................................. 27. We (not live) in England for two years now............................................................................................................ 28. I (never forget) what you (just tell) me...................................................................................................................... 29. They (prepare) the Christmas dinner at the moment........................................................................... 30. When I last (stay) in Cairo, I (ride) to the Pyramids on a camel that my friend (borrow) the day before................................................. 31. Our teacher (tell) us yesterday that he (visit) England in 1970...................................................................... 32. George (work) at a university so far............................................................................................................. 33. When he lived in Manchester, he (work) in a bank.................................................................................... 34. Birds (build) their nests in summer and (fly) to the South in winter....................................................................... 35. I (lose) my key. (Can) you help me look for it?........................................................... 36. My father (not smoke) for 5 years..................................................................................................................... 37. My teacher wasn't at home when I (arrive). He (just go) out........................................................ 38. How long Bob and Mary (be) married?........................................................................................................... 39. You (receive) any letter from your parents yet?...................................................................... 40. My brother (join) the army when he (be) young.................................................................... 41. You (remember) my name or you (forget) it someday?............................................................................. 42. Tom (study) chemistry for three years and then he gave it up................................................................... 43. Miss Lee often (write) when she was on holiday.................................................................................... 44. He (leave) home two weeks ago and we (not hear) from him since then........................................................................ 45. You (speak) to Mrs. Baker yesterday? No, I (not see) her for a long time. I (not can) remember when I last (see) her....................................................... 46. When the teacher came in, the pupils (play) game................................................................................... 47. Columbus (discover) America more than 400 years ago............................................................................... 48. By next month, I (finish) my first novel................................................................................................................ 49. By May 5, we (live) in this city for ten years......................................................................................................... 50. When your father (die)? I (not kow) when he (die)…………………………………………………………… 51. Bill said he (forget) to buy a dictionary........................................................................................................ 52. He felt asleep while he (do) his homework.................................................................................................... 53. We (not see) them for a long time..................................................................................................................... 54. It (rain) when we arrived................................................................................................................................... 4 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 55. Kite and I (wait) right here until you get back..................................................... 56. He'll leave as soon as he (hear) the news..................................................................................................... 57. Dick (start) school before he seven............................................................................................................... 58. How long you (study) in this school?.......................................................................................................... 59. We (not receive) any letter from him since he (leave) four months ago......................................................... 60. Where are you? I'm upstairs. I (have) a bath.............................................................................................. PERIOD: 2 Passive Voice Các điểm lưu ý: +Có 1 số động từ không bao giờ đổi sang bị động: seem, appear, have. +Khi đổi sang bị động những thành phần trong câu chủ động không đổi: trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian , chỉ địa điểm, từ đệm.... phải giữ nguyên vị trí như trong câu chủ động. +Nếu trong câu chủ động chủ ngữ là nobody, no one thì khi đổi sang bị động, động từ sẽ để ở thể phủ định. Công thức chung : S+BE+past participle(P2) I. CÁC CÔNG THỨC CỤ THỂ CỦA CÁC THÌ: 1. Đối với Hiện tại đơn giản : S + am/is/are+P2 2. Đối với Hiện tại tiếp diễn : S +am/is/are+being+P2 3. Đối với Hiện tại Hòan thành: S + have/has+been+P2 4. Đối với Quá khứ đơn giản: S + was/were+p2 5. Đối với Quá khứ tiếp diễn: S + was/were+being+P2 6. Đối với Tương lai đơn giản: S + will+be+P2 7. Đối với Tương lai gần: S + to be+going to+Be+P2 8. Đối với Tương lai hòan thành: S + will have been+P2 9. Đối với Quá khứ hoàn thành: S + had been+P2 Notes: Các thì HTHT tiếp diễn, TLHT tiếp diễn, TL tiếp diễn, QKHT tiếp diễn không đổi được sang bị động. II/ THỂ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA MODAL VERB 1/ Cấu trúc 1: S + modal Verb +Verb infinitive(Vinf) Dùng để chỉ hành động xảy ra trong hiện tại hoặc tương lai. >>> Thể bị động S+modal verb + be +P2. EX: I must do this homework.>> This homework must be done. 2/Cấu trúc 2: S + modal Verb + have +P2 Dùng để chỉ những hành động cần phải làm trong quá khứ hoặc đáng lẽ phải xảy ra nhưng không làm. Hoặc những hành động đoán biết chắc hẳn phải xảy ra trong quá khứ. >>>Bị động: S + modal Verb + have been +P2 III/ CÁC TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẶC BIỆT: 1/ It's your duty to+Vinf >>> bị động: You're supposed to+Vinf EX: It's your duty to make tea today. >> You are supposed to make tea today. 2/ It's impossible to+Vinf >>>bị động: S + can't + be + P2 EX: It's impossible to solve this problem.>> This problem can't be solve. 3/ It's necessary to + Vinf >>> bị động: S + should/ must + be +P2 EX: It's necessary for you to type this letter. >> This letter should/ must be typed by you. 5 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 4/ Mệnh lệnh thức + Object. >>> bị động: S + should/must + be +P2. EX: Turn on the lights! >> The lights should be turned on. IV/ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ MAKE/ LET. Công thức chủ động : S + make/ let + sb+ Vinf. >>> Bị động: S + make/ let + to + Vinf. EX: My parent never let me do anything by myself. >> I'm never let to do anything by myself. V/ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA CẤU TRÚC " NHỜ AI LÀM GÌ". Chủ động: S + have(get) + sb + (to)Vinf >>>Bị động: S + have/ get + st +done. EX: I have my father repair my bike. >> I have my bike repaired by my father. VI/ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ ĐI SAU NÓ LÀ MỘT ĐỘNG TỪ Ở DẠNG VING. Các động từ đó như : love, like, dislike, enjoy, fancy, hate, imagine, regret, mind, admit, involve, deny, avoid....etc >> Chủ động: S + V + sb +Ving. Bị động: S + V + sb/st + being + P2 EX: I like you wearing this dress.>> I like this dress being worn by you. VII/ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA CÁC ĐỘNG TỪ TRI GIÁC( Vp --- verb of perception) 1/ Cấu trúc 1: S + Vp + sb + Ving. (Ai đó chứng kiến người khác làm gì và chỉ thấy 1 phần của hành động hoặc 1 hành động dand diễn ra bị 1 hành động khác xen vào) EX: Opening the door, we saw her overhearing us. 2/ Cấu trúc 2: S + Vp + sb + Ving. (Ai đó chứng kiến người khác làm gì từ đầu đến cuối) EX: I saw him close the door and drive his car away. NOTE: riêng các động từ : feel, find, catch thì chỉ sử dụng công thức 1. >> Bị động: S + be + P2(of Vp) + to +Vinf EX: He was seen to close the door and drive his car away. VIII/ BỊ ĐỘNG KÉP. 1/ Khi main verb ở thời HIỆN TẠI. Công thức: People/they + think/say/suppose/believe/consider/report.....+ that + clause. >> Bị động: a/ It's + thought/said/ supposed/believed/considered/reported...+ that + clause ( trong đó clause = S + Vinf + O) b/ Động từ trong clause để ở thì HTDG: S + am/is/are + thought/ said/supposed... + to + Vinf EX: People say that he is a good doctor. >> It's said that he is a good doctor./ He is said to be a good doctor. c/ Động từ trong clause để ở thời QKDG hoặc HTHT. S + am/is/are + thought/ said/ supposed... + that + to + have + P2. EX: People think he stole my car. >> It's thought he stole my car. He is thought to have stolen my car. 2/ Khi main verb ở thời QUÁ KHỨ. Công thức: People/they + thought/said/supposed...+ that + clause. >>Bị động: a/ It was + thought/ said/ supposed...+ that + clause. b/ Động từ trong clause để ở thì HTDG: S + was/were + thought/ said/ supposed... + to + Vinf. EX: People said that he is a good doctor.>> It was said that he is a good doctor./ He was said to be a good doctor. c/ Động từ trong clause ở thì QKDG hoặc HTHT: S + was/were + thought/ said/ supposed... + to + have + P2. EX: They thought he was one of famous singers.>> It was thought he was one of famous singers. He was thought to have been one of famous singers. 6 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 IX/ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA TÁM ĐỘNG TỪ ĐẶC BIỆT. Các động từ : suggest, require, request, order, demand, insist(on), recommend. Công thức: S + suggest/ recommend/ order/ require... + that + clause. ( trong đó clause = S + Vinf + O) >> Bị động: It + was/ will be/ has been/ is... + P2( of 8 verb) + that + st + be + P2. ( trong đó "be" là không đổi vì động từ trong clause ở câu chủ động ở dạng Vinf) EX: He suggested that she buy a new car.>> It was suggessted that a new car be bought. X/ BỊ ĐỘNG CỦA CẤU TRÚC CHỦ NGỮ GIẢ " IT". Công thức: It + be + adj + for sb + to do st.>>Bị động: It + be + adj + for st + to be done. EX: It is difficult for me to finish this test in one hour>> It is difficult for this problem to be finished this test in one hour. XI/ BỊ ĐỘNG TRONG TRƯỜNG HỢP 2 TÂN NGỮ. Trong đó : Oi = Indirect Object. Od = Direct Object. Công thức: S + V + Oi + Od >>Bị động: 1/ Oi + be + P2( of V) + Od 2/ Od + be + P2( of V) + to Oi. ( riêng động từ " buy" dùng giới từ " for"). EX: My friend gave me a present on my birthday.>> A present was given to me by my friend on my birthday. I was given a present on my birthday by my friend.(Theo Home of ELS) Exercises with keys 1) Julia rescued three cats.Three cats were rescued. 2) The students handed in the reports.The reports were handed in. 3) Maria crashed into the blue car.The blue car was crashed into. 4) Alex learned the poem.The poem was learned. 5) Steven has forgotten the book.The book has been forgotten. 6) The mechanic has not repaired the DVD recorder.The DVD recorder has not been repaired. 7) They play handball.Handball is played. 8) Sue puts the rucksack on the floor.The rucksack is put on the floor. 9) The girls had lost the match.The match had been lost. 10) The teacher is not going to open the window.The window is not going to be opened. 1) She bought four apples.Four apples were bought. 2) We won the match.The match was won. 3) The man stole the blue car.The blue car was stolen. 4) The police arrested the thieves.The thieves were arrested. 5) Jack swam the 200 metres.The 200 metres were swum. 6) The dog bit the old lady.The old lady was bitten. 7 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 7) Tom and Max ate five hamburgers.Five hamburgers were eaten. 8) Oliver taught the children.The children were taught. 9) Victoria rode the brown horse.The brown horse was ridden. 10) Grandmother told good stories.Good stories were told. Put the following into the passive voice: 1. You should open the wine about three hours before you use it. 2. Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice. 3. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit. 4. We use this room only on special occasions. 5. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission. 6. In some districts farmer use pig to find truffles. 7. Someone switched on a light and opened the door. 8. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife. 9. They are pulling down the old theatre. 10. Why didn’t they mend the roof before it fell in? 11. The mob broke all the shop windows in recent riots. 12. The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people were not returning book. 13. The police asked each of us about his movement on the night of the crime. 14. Someone will server refreshments. 15. People must not leave bicycles in the hall. 16. Members may keep books for three week. After that they must return them. 17. The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door. 18. I‘ve bought a harp. They are delivering it this afternoon. (Do not change the first sentence.) 19. Someone has already told him top report for duty at six. 20. They rang the church bells as a flood warning. 21. No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information. 22. People are spending far more money on food now than they spent ten years ago. 23. The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month. 24. They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun. 25. It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child. 26. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offer 20 pounds reward for him. 27. The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine. 28. They make these artificial flowers of silk. 29. They can’t make tea with cold water. 8 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 30. The thief engineer was instructing all the workers of the plant. 31. somebody has taken away some of my books. 32. They will hold the meeting before May Day. 33. They have to repair the engine of the car. PERIOD 3 Reported speech Quy t¾c chung: + §èi víi c©u trÇn thuËt th× thªm liªn tõ that hoÆc kh«ng. Dïng ®éng tõ say that ( to smb that ) , tell smb that. + §èi víi c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái th× dïng tõ ®Ó hái ®ã lµm liªn tõ, víi c©u kh«ng cã tõ ®Ó hái th× dïng liªn tõ If hoÆc Whether, dïng ®éng tõ nh : ask, enquire, want to know… Víi c©u c¶m th¸n th× dïng : Exclaim. + §èi víi c©u mÖnh lÖnh thøc dïng : tell, ask, order, advise, beg…. smb ( not ) to do smt. + Víi tÊt c¶ c¸c lo¹i c©u ph¶i lïi mét thêi ( Trõ khi ®éng tõ ë c©u chÝnh ë thêi hiÖn t¹i ( vdô: I say / she is saying ….) Nãi chung c©u ®iÒu kiÖn If / wish / as if ( lo¹i 2 / 3) kh«ng ®æi th× : vdô she said, ‘ I would complain If I were you’  she said that she would complain if she were me) thay ®æi ®¹i tõ nh©n xng, ®¹i tõ së h÷u, tÝnh tõ së h÷u …. cho phï hîp. Chó ý mét sè nh sau. Time: today  that day this/ these  that / those yesterday  the day before / the previous day here  there the day before yesterday  two day before last night  the night before tomorrow  the next day / the following day tomorrow night  the following night the day after tomorrow  in two days’ time / two days later needn’t  didn’t have to next week / year  the following week / year have to ( had to )  had to ( had had to a year ago  a year before / the previous year must  had to / mustn’t wasn’t (weren’t) to Special situations : 1. You had better ….. Why don’t you ( You should )….. If I were you ….( were I you ) 2. What about ….? / How about …? Why don’t we ….? / Let’s …. 3. Could I have ………..? Could you ……….? Could you please …….? 4. Would you mind + V_ing 5. Shall I ..? / I will. 6. Would you like to V_infinitive ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 advised smb to do smt ( nÕu cã ý nghÜa khuyªn r¨n ) ……. S + suggest + V_ing (c©u cã ý nghÜa ®Ò nghÞ) Or suggest (that) smb (should) do smt ask for ask smb if ask smb to do smt… ask smb to do smt ….. offer to do smt……… invite smb to do smt… 9 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 7. Would you like (+noun) ? 7 offer smb smt………. 8. Remember to do smt / Don’t forget.. 8 Remind smb to do smt……….. 9. You must … 9 strongly advised smb to do smt ……. 10. I’m sorry for doing smt / about smt 10 Smb apologize to smb for doing smt 11. Happy birthday … 11 To congratulate smb on one’s … 12. Good luck… 12 To give smb a good luck / wish smb …. 13. Welcome to Mongcai…. 13 To welcome visitors to …… 14. Hello! Hi / Good morning … 14 To greet smb. 15. What a fine day it is ! ( c©u c¶m th¸n) 15 Smb exclaimed that what a …..it was 16. Bye ! … 16 To say good bye / good morning …. 17. Let’s not … 17 To object to the idea 18. “ Don’t let people cheat you’ …. 18 Smb told smb not to let ( himself /..) be P2 19. ‘ Let them go’……. 19 To suggest (that) they (should) go ( he go * 20. ‘Let me go”……. 20 To ask smb to let ( him / her ..) go 21. ‘ If you’d sign here’….. 21 To ask smb to do smt * Th× trong mÖnh ®Ò phô kh«ng ®æi khi: - §éng tõ trong c©u nãi trùc tiÕp cã thêi gain x¸c ®Þnh: - Mét ch©n lý / might / used to / would rather Ex: He said , ‘ I was born in 1980’  He said that he was born in 1980 - C©u ®iÒu kiÖn lo¹i 2/ 3 / c©u gi¶ ®Þnh wish Ex: she said ‘ I wish I were rich’  ..that she wished she were rich Chó ý: Cßn nhiÒu trêng hîp, tuú theo ng÷ c¶nh ®Ó thÝch hîp c©u gi¸n tiÕp (thank you so much) 1. ‘I’ve no idea what the time is but I’ll dial 1080 and find out’ said his daughter. 2. he said, ‘ my wife has just been made a judge.’ 3. ‘I’ll come with you as soon as I am ready,’ she replied.. 4. ‘I have a German lesson this afternoon and I haven’t done my homework yet,’ said the boy. 5. ‘If you let the iron get too hot you will scorch your clothes.’ I warned her. 6. ‘You haven’t given me quite enough. The bill is for $16 and you have paid me only $10’ he pointed out. 7. ‘ Do you play the guitar?’ said Peter. 8. ‘Will you have time to play regularly?’ he said . 9. ‘Did you play for your school team?’ said Bill. 10 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 10. “Put your pistol on the table,’ said the director. 11. ‘ Please book me a seat in a non- smoker,’ said the traveller. 12. ‘Don’t forget your sandwiches,’ said his mother. 13. ‘ Don’t go near the water, children,’ she said. 14. ‘Search the house,’ said the police. 15. ‘ Don’t make mountains out of molehills,’ he said. 16. ‘ Put down that gun. It is loaded,’ she ordered. 17. ‘ Can the children get dinner at school, John?’ said Janes. 18. ‘ Is there a bus- stop in your town, James ?’ I wanted to know. 19. ‘ How often does it meet?’ George said to her. 20. ‘ Were your own boys happy here?’ Linda said to Maria. 21. ‘ Open the safe!’ The raiders order the clerk. 22. ‘ Please do as I say’ he begged me. 23. ‘ Don’t make too much noise, children,’ said the mother. 24. ‘ You’d better slow down. There’s a speed limit here,’ she said to me. ( advise) 25. ‘ I could not get into the house because I had lost my keys, so I had to break the door,’ said he. 26. ‘ The mirror is there so that you can see your self when you are dancing,’ she told him. 27. ‘ I wrote to him the day before yesterday. I wonder why he hasn’t rung up,’ she said. 28. ‘ My horse might win,’ said the owner. 29. ‘ You needn’t speak to my sister,’ David said to Janes. 30. ‘ If I were taller, I would climb the door,’ he said. 31. ‘ What happened to you, Linda ?’ I asked. 32. ‘ How long has your son learnt English?,’ I said to Mrs. Kent. 33. ‘ When will you go back?,’ said Susan. 34. ‘ Who have you seen at the meeting?’ We asked the workers. 11 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 35. ‘ Where were you last night ?’ she said to Janes 36. ‘ What will you buy the day after tomorrow, Helen?’ said the mother. PERIOD 4 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES I. THEORY -Các trợ động từ hình thái như will, would, can, could thường xuất hiện trong các câu điều kiện. Các câu điều kiện thường chứa từ if (nếu) - Cã 2 mÖnh ®Ò trong c©u ®iÒu kiÖn: MÖnh ®Ò chÝnh vµ mÖnh ®Ò ®iÒu kiªn( mÖnh ®Ò if) - MÖnh ®Ò ®iÒu kiÖn (mÖnh ®Ò if) cã thÓ ®Æt tríc hoÆc sau mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh. Khi nã ®øng tríc mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh, dïng dÊu phÈy ®Ó t¸ch 2 mÖnh ®Ò. Khi nã theo sau mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh kh«ng dïng dÊu phÈy. Ex: If I have money, I will buy a new car. I will buy a new car if I have money. *Conditional types: ( C¸c lo¹i hinh c©u ®iªu kiÖn) - Cã 3 lo¹i c©u ®iÒu kiÖn: Lo¹i 1, lo¹i 2 vµ lo¹i 3 1. Type 1 (Điều kiện loại 1): Present Real Conditional (§iÒu kiÖn cã thËt ë hiÖn t¹i) - Câu điều kiện có thực là câu mà người nói dùng để diễn đạt một hành động hoặc một tình huống thường xảy ra (thói quen) hoặc sẽ xảy ra (trong tương lai) nếu điều kiện ở mệnh đề chính được thoả mãn. Nếu nói về tương lai, dạng câu này được sử dụng khi nói đến một điều kiện có thể thực hiện được hoặc có thể xảy ra. Ex: - If he tries much more, he will improve his English. - If I have money, I will buy a new motorbike. IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If) MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính) Simple Future S + will + V(inf) S + will not + V(inf) Will + S + V(inf)…? Dạng bài tập : V(inf)… + OR + Clause (Simple Future) = Unless you + V(inf)… , Clause (Simple Future) = If you don’t + V(inf)… , Clause (Simple Future) Ví dụ: Study hard or you will fail the exam. = Unless you study hard , you will fail the exam. = If you don’t study hard , you will fail the exam. Cut your hair or they won’t let you in. = Unless you cut your hair , they won’t let you in. = If you don’t cut your hair , they won’t let you in. Ghi chú :- Sau mệnh đề If hoặc mệnh đề Unless phải có dấu phẩy (,) - Sau Unless không được dùng dạng phủ định (Ví dụ : không được viết Unless you don’t write) * Command (Thức mệnh lệnh) 12 Simple Present S + V[-e/es] S + don’t / doesn’t + V(inf) Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 Form: If + S + simple present tense ... + command form of verb + ... Ex: - If you go to the Post Office, mail this letter for me. - Please call me if you hear anything from Jane. 2. Type 2(Điều kiện loại 2): Present Real Conditional (§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë hiÖn t¹i) - §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë hiÖn t¹i ®îc dïng ®Ó ®Ò cËp ®Õn nh÷ng t×nh huèng tëng tîng hoÆc lµ kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i.Ex: - If I were rich, I would travel around the world. (I am not rich) (I’m not going to travel around the world) *Động từ to be phải chia là were ở tất cả các ngôi. 3. Ex: - If I were you, I wouldn't go to that movie. Type 3 (Điều kiện loại 3): Past unreal conditional (§iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë qu¸ khø) - §iÒu kiÖn kh«ng cã thËt ë qu¸ khø ®îc dïng ®Ó ®Ò cËp ®Õn nh÷ng t×nh huèng ®· kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë qu¸ khø.- If I hadn’t been in a hurry, I wouldn’t have had an accident. (I was in a hurry) (I had an accident) * Chú ý rằng cũng có thể thể hiện một điều kiện không có thực mà không dùng if. Trong trườnghợp đó, trợ động từ had được đưa lên đầu câu, đứng trước chủ ngữ. Mệnh đềđiều kiện sẽ đứng trước mệnh đề chính. Ex: - Had we known that you were there, we would have written you a letter. - Had he studied harder for the test, he would have passed it. Lưu ý: Câu điều kiện không phải lúc nào cũng tuân theo qui luật trên. Trong một số trường hợp đặc biệt, một vế của điều kiện là quá khứ nhưng vế còn lại có thểở hiện tại (do thời gian qui định). Ex: - If she had caught the train, she would be here by now. TYPE 2,3 (Lo¹i 2,3) IF CLAUSE (Mệnh đề If) II Simple Past (Be  were) S + V-ed/2 S + didn’t + V(inf) III Past Perfect S + had + V-ed/3 S + hadn’t + V-ed/3 MAIN CLAUSE (Mệnh đề chính) S + would / could + V(inf) S + wouldn’t / couldn’t +V(inf) Would / Could + S + V(inf)… ? S + would / could have + V-ed/3 S + wouldn’t / couldn’t have + V-ed/3 Would / Could + S + have + V-ed/3…? II. EX. I. Conditional sentences: type I: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1. If I see him I (give)…………….. him a lift. 2 If he (eat)…………………… all that he will be ill. 13 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 3. If I find your passport I (telephone)…………………. you at once. 4. If he (read)………………….. in bad light he will ruin his eyes. 5. Someone (steal)…………………… your car if you leave it unlocked. 6. What will happen if my parachute (not open)?............................................................................................. 7. If he (wash)…………………….. my car I'll give him Ј10. 8. If she (need)…………………………….. a radio she can borrow mine 9. If you (not go) ……………………….away I'll send for the police. 10. I'll be very angry if he (make)……………………….. any more mistakes. 11. If he (be) ……………….late we'll go without him. 12. If you give my dog a bone he (bury)…………………… it at once. 13. If you come late they (not let) you in. 14. We'll have to move upstairs if the river (rise) any higher. 15. If he (work)……………………….. hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow? 16. If you (not like)……………………. this one I'll bring you another. 17. She won't open the door unless she (know) ……………………….who it is. II. Conditional sentences: type 2: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 If I had a typewriter I (type)………………….. it myself. 2 If I (know)………………………….. his address I'd give it to you. 3 He (look) ……………………………a lot better if he shaved more often 4. If he worked more slowly he (not make) ………………………………so many mistakes. 5. I shouldn't drink that wine if I (be) ………………………..you. 6. More tourists would come to this country if it (have)……………………… a better climate 7. If I (win)…………………… a big prize in a lottery I'd give up my job. 8. What you (do)……………………… if you found a burglar in your house? 9. I could tell you what this means if I (know)……………………………. Greek. 10. If he knew that it was dangerous he (not come)…………………………….. 11. I could get a job easily if I (have) ………………………a degree. 12. If we had more rain our crops (grow)…………………………. faster. 13. What would you do if the lift (get) ………………………..stuck between two floors? 14. If you (paint)………………………….. the walls white the room would be much brighter. 15. I'd climb over the wall if there (not be) ……………………….so much broken glass on t of it. III. Conditional sentences: type 3 14 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses. 1 If I had known that you were in hospital I (visit) ……………………..you. 2.You would have seen my garden at its best if you (be) ………………………..here last week. 3 I shouldn't have believed it if I (not see)…………………… it with my own eyes. 4 If he had asked you, you (accept)?............................................................................................................. 5. If I (know) ……………………………..that you were coming I'd have baked a cake. 6. If I (had) ……………………….a map I would have been all right. 7. The hens (not get)…………………………. into the house if you had shut the door. 8. If he had known that the river was dangerous he (not try)………………………… to swim across it. 9. If you (speak)……………………….. more slowly he might have understood you. 10. If he had known the whole story he (not be) ………………………..so angry. 11. If she had listened to my directions she (not turn) ………………………….down the wrong street. V. Use “if” in place of “unless” 1/ We won’t go out unless it stops raining. 2/ I will call the police unless you give back my bicycle. 3/ You wouldn’t be able to do this exercise unless your English were good. 4/ Unless we had enough rain, we couldn’t grow rice. 5/ The fishermen couldn’t have caught a lot of fish unless they had had good nets. Exercise 3: Rewrite these sentences, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same. 1. I don’t buy it because I don’t have enough money.- If I ...................... 2. I didn’t buy it because I didn’t have enough money.- I would............................................................ 3. There was a test yesterday. I didn’t know that, so I didn’t study for it.----> If I ........................................................ 4. I’m busy right now, so I can’t help you.- I could.................................................................................... 5. He’s very thin, that’s why he feels the cold so much.----> If he....................................................................................................... 6. I didn’t eat breakfast several hours ago, so I am hungry now.----> If I.......................................................................................................... 7. If John had played for our football team, we would not have lost the game Unless........................................................ 8. If I won a big prize in a lottery, I’d give up my job.- Unless................................................................ 9. If you don’t like this one, I’ll bring you another.- Unless........................................................................ 10. I’ll only help you if you promise to try harder.- Unless...................................................................... 11. If she doesn’t work harder, she’ll lose her job.- She’ll........................................................... 12. You can use my car, but have to keep it carefully.-Provided..................................... 13. If the work is finished by lunch , you can go home.-Get....................................................................... 14. Keeping calm is the secret of passing your driving test………………………………………………. PERIOD 5 ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ 15 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 I. THEORY DẠNG 1 : NỐI 2 CÂU Dạng này đề bài người ta cho 2 câu riêng biệt và yêu cầu mình dùng đại từ quan hệ nối chúng lại với nhau. Các bước làm dạng này như sau: Bước 1 :Chọn 2 từ giống nhau ở 2 câu :Câu đầu phải chọn danh từ, câu sau thường là đại từ ( he ,she ,it ,they ...) ví dụ :The man is my father. You met him yesterday. BƯỚC 2 :Thế who,which... vào chữ đã chọn ở câu sau, rồi đem (who ,which ..) ra đầu câu The man is my father. You met him yesterday. Ta thấy him là tan ngu chi người, làm túc từ nên thế whom vào -> The man is my father.You met whom yesterday.Đem whom ra đầu câu -> The man is my father whom You met yesterday. Bước 3 :Đem nguyên câu sau đặt ngay phía sau danh từ đã chọn ở câu trước The man is my father. whom You met yesterday -> The man whom You met yesterday is my father DẠNG 2 : ĐIỀN VÀO CHỔ TRỐNG Dạng này đề bài người ta cho sẳn một câu đã được nối với nhau nhưng chừa chỗ trống để hoc sinh điền đại từ quan hệ vào. Các bước làm dạng này như sau:+ Nhìn danh từ phía trứơc (kế bên chỗ trống) xem người hay vật ( hoặc cả hai ):- Nếu vật thì ta điền WHICH / THAT The dog __________ runs .....( thấy phiá trứoc là dog nên dùng WHICH / THAT)Nếu là : REASON, CAUSE thì dùng WHY The reason ________ he came ... ( dùng WHY )Nếu là thơì gian thì dùng WHEN-Nếu là nơi chốn thì dùng WHERE Lưu ý : - WHEN , WHERE , WHY không làm chủ từ, do đó nếu ta thấy phía sau chưa có chủ từ thì ta phải dùng WHICH / THAT chứ không được dùng WHEN , WHERE , WHY.Do you know the city _______ is near here ? Ta nhận thấy city là nơi chốn, nhưng chớ vội vàng mà điền WHERE vào nhé ( cái này bị dính bẩy nhiều lắm đấy ! ). Hãy nhìn tiếp phía sau và ta thấy kế bên nó là IS ( động từ ) tức là chữ IS đó chưa có chủ từ, và chữ mà ta điền vào sẽ làm chủ từ cho nó -> không thể điền WHERE mà phải dùng WHICH /THAT ( nếu không bị cấm kỵ )-> Do you know the city __WHICH / THAT_____ is near here ? - Nếu ta thấy rõ ràng là thời gian, nơi chốn nhưng xem kỹ phía sau động từ người ta có chừa lại giới từ hay không, nếu có thì không đựoc dùng WHEN , WHERE, WHY mà phải dùng WHICH / THAT The house ________ I live in is nice .Ta thấy house là nơi chốn, nhưng chớ vội điền WHERE nhé, nhìn sau thấy ngừoi ta còn chừa lại giới từ IN nên phải dùng WHICH /THAT-> The house ___which/that_____ I live in is nice Nhưng đôi khi ngưoì ta lại đem giới từ lên để trứoc thì cũng không đựoc dùng WHERE nữa nhé : The house in ___which_____ I live is nice - Nếu là NGƯỜI thì ta tiếp tục nhìn phía sau xem có chủ từ chưa ? nếu có chủ từ rồi thì ta dùng WHOM / THAT, nếu chưa có chủ từ thì ta điền WHO / THAT. - Lưu ý : nếu thấy phía sau kế bên chổ trống là một danh từ trơ trọi thì phải xem xét nghĩa xem có phải là sở hửu không, nếu phải thì dùng WHOSE . The man ________son studies at ..... Ta thấy chữ SON đứng một mình khôNG có a ,the ,.. gì cả nên nghi là sở hửu, dịch thử thấy đúng là sở hửu dùng WHOSE (người đàn ông mà con trai của ông ta . .. )=> The man ____( whose )____son studies at .....- Nếu phía trứoc vừa có người + vật thì phải dùng THAT The man and his dog THAT .... II. Cách dùng WHOSE và OF WHICH 16 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 WHOSE :ùng cả cho người và vật This is the book .Its cover is nice -> This is the book whose cover is nice .-> This is the book the cover of which is nice WHOSE :đứng trứoc danh từ OF WHICH : đứng sau danh từ ( danh từ đó phải thêm THE )OF WHICH : chỉ dùng cho vật ,không dùng cho người. This is the man . His son is my friend.-> This is the man the son of which is my friend.( sai )-> This is the man whose son is my friend.( đúng ) III. NHỮNG LƯU Ý KHI DÙNG ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ ( WHO ,WHICH ,WHOM.... ) 1.Khi nào dùng dấu phẩy ?Khi danh từ đứng trước who ,which,whom... là :+ Danh từ riêng ,tên Ha Noi, which ....Mary, who is ... + Có this ,that ,these ,those đứng trước danh từ :This book, which .... + Có sở hửu đứng trước danh từ :My mother, who is .... + Là vật duy nhất ai cũng biết : Sun ( mặt trời ), moon ( mặt trăng )The Sun, which ... 2. Đặt dấu phẩy ở đâu ?- Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ ở giữa thì dùng 2 dấu phẩy đặt ở đầu và cuối mệnh đề My mother , who is a cook , cooks very well - Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ ở cuối thì dùng một dấu phẩy đặt ở đầu mệnh đề ,cuối mệnh đề dùng dấu chấm .This is my mother, who is a cook . 3.Khi nào có thể lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ WHO ,WHICH ,WHOM... - Khi nó làm túc từ và phía trước nó không có dấu phẩy ,không có giới từ ( whose không được bỏ ) This is the book which I buy. Ta thấy which là túc từ ( chủ từ là I ,động từ là buy ) ,phía trước không có phẩy hay giới từ gì cả nên có thể bỏ which đi :-> This is the book I buy. This is my book , which I bought 2 years ago. Trước chữ which có dấu phẩy nên không thể bỏ được .This is the house in which I live . Trước which có giới từ in nên cũng không bỏ which đựơc .This is the man who lives near my house. Who là chủ từ ( của động từ lives ) nên không thể bỏ nó được . 4. Khi nào KHÔNG ĐƯỢC dùng THAT :- Khi phía trước nó có dấu phẩy hoặc giới từ : This is my book , that I bought 2 years ago. (sai) vì phía trước có dấu phẩy -.> không được dùng THAT mà phải dùng which This is the house in that I live .(sai) vì phía trước có giới từ in -> không được dùng THAT mà phải dùng which 5. Khi nào bắt buộc dùng THAT- Khi danh từ mà nó thay thế gồm 2 danh từ trở lên trong đó vừa có ngừơi vừa có vật The men and the horses that ....That thay thế cho : người và ngựa 6. Khi nào nên dùng THAT- Khi đầu câu là IT trong dạng nhấn mạnh (Cleft sentences) It is My father that made the table. - Khi đứng trước đó là : all, both, each, many, most, neither, none, part, someone, something, so sánh nhất There is something that must be done This the most beautiful girl that I've ever met. II. Exercises:Rewrite these sentences, using relative pronouns 1. Brenda is a friend.I went on holiday with her.-> …………………………………………….. 2. This is Mr Smith. His son Bill plays in our team.->……………………………………………… 3. Her book was published last year. It became a best seller.->……………………………………………… 4.This is the bank. We borrowed the money from it.->………………………………………………. 5. I told you about a person. She is at the door.->………………………………………………. 6. Jack’s car had broken down. He had to take a bus.->……………………………………………….. 7. I lent you a book. The book was written by one my friends.->………………………………………………... 8. Some boys were arrested. They have been released.->…………………………………………………. 17 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 9. Do you know a restaurant? We can have a good meal there.->…………………………………………………. 10. I don’t remember the day. I left school on that day.->………………………………………………….. 11/ This is the man. I met him in Paris......................................................................................... 12/ I wanted the painting. You bought it.- .......................................................................................... 13/ This is the chair. My parents gave it to me.- ........................................................................... 14/ She’s the woman. She telephoned the police.- ............................................................................. 15/ He’s the person. He wanted to buy your house.- ............................................................................... 16/ We threw out the computer. It never worked properly.- ..................................................................................... 17/ Are you the man ? The man won the first prize.- ..................................................................... 18/ The man was badly injured. He was driving the car.- .......................................................................................... 19/ The children broke the window. They live in the next street.- ................................................................................ 20/ That’s the woman. I was telling you about her.- ..................................................................................... 21/ Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other........................................................................... 22/ This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory. -............................................................................................ 23/ A man brought in a small girl. Her hand had been cut by flying glass............................................................................................. 24/ There’s the lady. Her dog was killed.............................................................................. 25/ He’s the person. His car was stolen.- _.................................................................................... 26/ They’re the people. Their shop burned down last week................................................................... 27/ I’m the person. You stayed in my flat.- ________________________________________________ 28/ This is a story of a group of boys. Their plane crashed on an uninhabited island.-____________________________________________________ 29/ This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.-________________________________________________ 30/ I know the woman. You bought the car from her son.-________________________________________________ 31/ The roads were crowded with refugees. Many of them were wounded.-____________________________________________________ 32/ The lorry crashed into a bus-load of schoolchildren. Six of them were slightly injured.-____________________________________________________ 33. In prison they fed us on dry bread. Most of it was mouldy.-____________________________________________________ 34. I saw several houses. Most of them were quite unsuitable.-____________________________________________________ 35. He introduced me to his students. Most of them were from abroad.-____________________________________________________ 36. He expected me to pay 2$ for 12 eggs. Four of the eggs were broken.-____________________________________________________ 37. They gave me four very bad tyres. One of them burst before I had driven four miles.-____________________________________________________ 38/ The car crashed into a queue of people. Four of them were killed.-____________________________________________________ 39/ We need a room. We can study in that room.- ________________________________________________ 40/ He invited her to eat out on a day. It rained heavily on that day.-________________________________________________ Hãy rút gọn các mệnh đề tính từ trong các câu sau đây( 1) We had a river in which we could swim . -.We had a river to swim in 2) Here are some accounts that you must check. -.Here are some accounts for you to check. 3) The last student that was interviewed was Tom. -The last student to be interviewed was Tom 4) We visited Hanoi, which is the capital of VN. -We visited Hanoi, the capital of VN. 5) My father, who is a pilot, often goes abroad.-My father, a pilot, often goes abroad. 6) I was the only one who realized him. )-I was the only one to realize him 7) I have some homework which I must do tonight. ) -I have some homework to do tonight. 18 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 8) Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way. -Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way. 9) I was awakened by the sound of a laughter which came from the room which was next to mine at the motel. -I was awakened by the sound of a laughter coming from the room next to mine at the motel. 10) There are six reports which have to be typed today. -There are six reports to be typed today. Bai tap II) Combine these pairs of sentences, using the relative pronoun. a. The student is from China. He studies Vietnamese. b. We are learning sentences. They contain adjective clauses. c. The girl is smart. Her eyes are bright. d. Saturday is the day. Boys and girls go together on that day. e. This is the village. I was born in it. f. I' ve sent him to letters. He has received neither of them. g. Last year I visited a country. It is very beautiful. h. In the middle of the village there is a well. The villagers take water from this well to drink. 1) Combine these pairs of sentences, using the relative pronoun. a. The student is from China. He studies Vietnamese.=>The student who studies Vietnamese is from China. b. We are learning sentences. They contain adjective clauses.=>We are learning sentences which contain adjective clauses. c. The girl is smart. Her eyes are bright.=> The girl whose eyes are bright is smart. d. Saturday is the day. Boys and girls go together on that day.=> Saturday is the day on which Boys and girls go together. e. This is the village. I was born in it.=>This is the village where I was born. f. I' ve sent him two letters. He has received neither of them.=> I' ve sent him two letters neither of which He has received . g. Last year I visited a country. It is very beautiful.=> Last year I visited a country which is very beautiful. h. In the middle of the village there is a well. The villagers take water from this well to drink. => In the middle of the village there is a well from which The villagers take water to drink. PERIOD6 côm tõ vµ mÖnh ®Ò trong tiÕng anh * Clauses and phrases:  Noun + be + adj è The/ (her, his, their ….. ) + Adj + noun  Pronoun + be +Adj è The/ (her, his, their ….. ) + Noun ( of the adj )  Pronoun + Verb + (adv) è The/ (her, his, their ….. ) + Adj (of the adv) + Noun ( of the verb)  Pronoun +Verb + (O) è V-ing ( same Subject)  There be + Noun è The + Noun A. Clauses and phrases of reason: 19 Tài liệu Bồi dưỡng học sinh giỏi Tiếng Anh lớp 9 Because/ Since/As + Clause ( S+V ) Because of/ Due to/ Thanks to + Phrase ( N phrase/ V-ing phrase ) B. Clauses and phrases of concession: Although/ Though/ Even though + Clause ( S+V ) In spite of/ Despite + Phrase ( N phrase/ V-ing phrase )  Exercise: Rewrite these sentences: 1. He left school because his life was hard.  Because of .................................................................................... 2. John succeeded in his exam because of his hard and mathedical work. Because .......................................... 3. We didn’t want to go out because of the heavy rain.  Because ...................................................................... 4. Although he had much experience in machinery, he didn’t succeed in repairing this machine.  Despite ..... I.Phrases and clauses of reason.(Côm tõ vµ mÖnh ®Ò chØ lý do). 1>. Phrases of reason.Côm tõ chØ lý do thêng ®îc b¾t ®Çu b»ng tõ nèi : Because of. I.Adverb Phrase of Reason: Because of => Because of + Noun/ Noun Phrase/ V-ing (reason) II.> Clauses of reason = Adverbial clauses of reason : ( MÖnh ®Ò tr¹ng ng÷ chØ lý do )  MÖnh ®Ò tr¹ng ng÷ chØ lý do lµ mét mÖnh ®Ò phô chØ lý do hoÆc nguyªn nh©n cña hµnh ®éng ®îc nªu trong mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh.  MÖnh ®Ò tr¹ng ng÷ chØ lý do thêng ®îc nèi víi mÖnh ®Ò chÝnh nhê c¸c tõ nèi sau: Because, since, as ( lu ý “ Since vµ As” Thêng ®îc ®Æt ë ®Çu c©u) Because/ Since / As + S + V + O ( clause) Ex: She was worried because it started to rain. Notes : Khi ®æi mÖnh ®Ò sang côm tõ, nÕu hai chñ ng÷ gièng nhau ta cã thÓ dïng “ Gerund phrase ”. Ex. She stayed at home because she was sick.-> She stayed at home because of being sick. Notes : Because , As , Since… + Because Of + Noun Phrase = Because + Clause( gioáng nhö “Although & in spite of”) + So, So ………That, If, To Inf… + S + Stop / Prevent + O + From + V-ing = Because of Ex: The teacher is sick, so we have no class tomorrow. (because -> Because the teacher is sick. We have no class tomorrow. Ex: That restaurant is so dirty that nobody wants to eat there. (because) -> Because that restaurant is dirty, nobody wants to eat there. Exersises: 1.(Because/So / Because of) Pelly was tired , he went to bed. 2. .He passed the exam ( because / so / because of ) he had a good teacher. 3.We stayed in ( because / because of ) the rain. 4..He was able to go to university ( because / because of) his aunt’s help. 5.The price of oranges is high, __________ frost damage. (because, because of) II.> Phrases and clauses of concession .( Côm tõ vµ mÖnh ®Ò chØ sù nhîng bé) 1>. Côm tõ chØ sù nhîng bé thêng ®îc b¾t ®Çu b»ng giíi tõ : Inspite of/ Despite ( mÆc dï , cho dï) In spite of Despite + N/ N phrase / Gerund phrase. 20
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