Assembly automation and product design

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5 6 Long parts A/B ≤ 3, A/C > 4 Flat (see note 6) parts 4 3 L/D > 1.5 (see note 5) Flat parts L/D < 0.8 (see note 5) 2 Cubic parts Long cylinders L/D > 1.5 (see note 5) 1 0 0.8 ≤ L/D ≤ 1.5 (see note 5) Short cylinders Discs 0.8 ≤ L/D ≤ 1.5 (see note 5) 7 8 9 A/B ≤ 3, A/C ≤ 4 Cubic (see note 6) parts Parts are difficult to feed using conventional hopper feeders (see note 1) Rectangular A/B > 3 parts (see note 6) (see note 4) Triangular or square prismatic parts (see note 3) Rotational parts (see note 2) L/D < 0.8 (see note 5) Long parts Parts can easily be fed (but not necessarily oriented) using conventional hopper feeders (see note 1) Small Parts for Automatic Handling (Choice of the first digit) 396 Assembly Automation and Product Design Appendix D 397 Small Parts for Automatic Handling (Choice of the first digit) 1. A first digit of 0-8 is for parts that can be fed easily (but not necessarily oriented) using conventional vibratory or nonvibratory hopper feeders. Parts having characteristics making them difficult to feed, irrespective of basic shape, are assigned a first digit of 9. Difficult-to-feed parts include those that are flexible, delicate, sticky, light, overlap, large, very small, nest, severly nest, tanlge, severly tangle or are abrasive. 2. A part whose basic shape is a cylinder or regular prism whose cross section is a regular polygon of five or more sides is called a rotational part. 3. A part whose basic shape is a regular prism whose cross section is a regular polygon of three or four sides is called a triangular or square part. 4. A part whose basic shape is a regular prism is called a rectangular part. 5. L is the length and D is the diameter of the smallest cylinder that can completely enclose the part. 6. A is the length of the longest side, C is the length of the shortest side, and B is the length of the intermediate side of the smallest rectangular prism that can completely enclose the part. SECOND DIGIT Part is ALPHA symmetric (see note 2) End surface Side view Principal axis 6 7 8 9 BETA symmetric step, chamfer or taper too small for orientation purposes Other features, slight asymmetry, features too small or non-geometric features [such as paint, lettering, etc.] (see note 8) 5 On end surfaces only BETA asymmetric features or BETA symmetric parts with features other than steps, chamfers or tapers but too small for orientation purposes (see note 9) 4 On side surface only 3 2 1 0 BETA symmetric hidden features with no corresponding exposed features (see note 7) BETA symmetric grooves, holes or recesses (see note 6) On both side and end surfaces BETA symmetric steps or chamfers on external surfaces (see note 5) Part can be fed in a slot supported by large end or protruding flange with center of mass below supporting surfaces (see note 4) End view Transverse axis Side surface Centroid Rotational Parts (Parts with a first digit of 0, 1, or 2) Part is not ALPHA symmetric [code the main feature or features, causing ALPHA asymmetry] (see note 3) 0 To be fed end-to-end (see note 11) 1 2 3 4 5 Through grooves can be seen in end view 6 On end surfaces 7 On side surface Through grooves cab be seen in a side view 8 9 Other features, slight asymmetry, features Holes or rece- too small or, sses [cannot non-geometric be seen in out-features [such er shape of sil- as paint, letthouette in ering, etc.] end views] BETA asymmetric grooves, holes, recessess on external surfaces Part is not BETA symmetric [code the main feature or features causing BETA asymmetry] (see note 10) THIRD DIGIT BETA asymmetric projections [can be seen in silhouette] To be fed side-by-side On both side (see note 11) On side On end and end surface only surfaces only surfaces Part is BETA symmetric (see note 9) 398 Assembly Automation and Product Design Appendix D 399 Rotational Parts (Parts with a first digit of 0, 1, or 2) 1. A rotational part is one whose basic shape is a cylinder or regular prism having five or more sides. The part is not difficult to feed. 2. The part does not require orientation end to end. 3. A main feature causing ALPHA asymmetry is one defining the endto-end orientation of the part. 4. These are parts that will orient themselves with their principal axis vertical when placed in a parallel-sided horizontal slot. 5. A BETA-symmetric step or chamfer is a concentric reduction in diameter. The cross section can be circular or any regular polygon of four or more sides. Discrete projections, recesses or irrelevant features should be ignored in choosing this digit. 6. The reductions and increases in diameter forming the groove must be concentric. The cross sections can be circular or any regular polygon of four or more sides. Discrete projections, recesses or irrelevant features should be ignored in choosing this digit. 7. These parts have an ALPHA-symmetric external shape but their center of mass is not at the geometric center of the part. 8. If exposed features are prominent but the symmetry caused by these features is too small to be employed for orienting purposes, then the symmetry is said to be slight asymmetry. 9. A BETA-symmetric part does not require orientation about its principal axis. 10. A main feature causing BETA asymmetry is one that completely defines the orientation of the part about its principal axis. 11. Some parts can only be fed one way. However, when a choice exists, the technique employed and hence the code can be affected by the delivery orientation. 400 Assembly Automation and Product Design Triangular and Square Parts (Parts with a first digit of 3, 4, or 5) 1. A part whose basic shape is a regular prism whose cross section is an equilateral triangle or square is called a triangular or square part. The part is not difficult to feed. 2. Part does not require orientation about its principal axis. 3. A part has rotational symmetry about a specified axis if the part’s orientation is repeated by rotating it through a certain angle (less than 360 deg) about that axis. 4. When the envelope of a part is a perfect cube, the principal axis should be selected according to the following priorities: a. Any axis about which the part is 90 deg rotationally symmetric. b. An axis about which the part has 180 deg rotational symmetry and clearly not 90 deg rotational symmetry. c. An axis about which the part has 180 deg rotational symmetry and almost 90 deg rotational symmetry. d. When a part has no rotational symmetry and there is more than one main feature, the principal axis should be the axis of symmetry of one of the main features. When utilizing the above rules and multiple choices still exist, then the axis that will provide a code with the smallest third digit should be selected as the principle axis. 5. Part does not require orientation end to end (it has 180 deg rotational symmetry about at least one transverse axis). 6. A main feature causing ALPHA asymmetry defines the end-to-end orientation of the part and distinguishes the end and side surfaces. 7. The various aspects of a part resting on a plane are called natural resting aspects. 8. If exposed features are prominent but the symmetry caused by these features is too small to be employed for orienting purposes, then the asymmetry is said to be slight asymmetry. When the part is 180 rotationally symmetric about a certain axis, slight asymmetry implies that the part is almost 90 deg rotationally symmetric about the same axis. 9. Steps, chamfers or through grooves are features which result in a deviation of the silhouette of the part from the silhouette of its envelope. 10. These are parts that will orient themselves with their principal axis vertical when placed in a parallel-sided horizontal slot. Side surfaces Side view Principal axis Part has 90 or 120 rotational symmetry about the principal axis (see notes 2, 3 and 4) End view End surfaces Transverse axis Centroid 0 0 Part has only one natural resting aspect or end and side surfaces can be readily distinguished by their shapes or dimensions (see note 7) 1 End and side surfaces can be distinguished because of steps, chamfers, holes or recesses 2 End and side surfaces can only be distinguished because of other features, features too small or slight asymmetry (see notes 8 and 12) Part is ALPHA symmetric (see note 5) Triangular and Square Parts (Parts with a first digit of 3, 4, or 5) 3 4 5 6 7 8 Part is not ALPHA symmetric [code the main feature or features causing ALPHA asymmetry] (see note 6) Steps or chamfers Through grooves (see note 9) (see note 9) Part can be fed in Part cannot be Holes or receslot and support- fed in slot and sses (cannot Other ed by large end or supported by protruding flang- large end or pr- Can be seen in Can be seen in be seen in outer geometric es with center of otruding flanges end view side view shape of features mass below supp- with center of mass below sup- (see note 11) (see note 11) silhouette) orting surfaces and the part is not porting surfaces or part is triangular triangular (see note 10) THIRD DIGIT 9 Slight asymmetry, features too small or non-geometric features [such as paint, lettering, etc.] (see notes 8 and 12) Appendix D 401 Part does not have 180⬚ rotational symmetry about the principal axis [code the main feature or features causing rotational asymmetry] (see notes 4 and 14) Part has 180⬚ rotational symmetry about the principal axis [code the main feature or features causing 180⬚ rather than 90⬚ rotational symmetry about the principal axis] (see notes 4 and 13) End view End surface Side view Principal axis Non-external External to the envelope Other features, features too small or slight asymmetry (see notes 8 and 12) Holes or recesses [cannot be seen in outer shape of silhouette] Through grooves can be seen in side or end views (see note 9) Steps or chamfers can be seen in side or end views (see note 9) Other features, features too small or slight asymmetry (see notes 8 and 12) Holes or recesses [cannot be seen in outer shape of silhouette] Through grooves can be seen in side or end views (see note 9) Steps or chamfers can be seen in side or end views (see note 9) Transverse axis Side surface Centroid 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 Code the same feature or features coded in the second digit Steps, chamfers Steps, chamfers or grooves can or grooves can be seen in side be seen in end view or other view or other features on features on side surfaces end surfaces (see note 9) (see note 9) 2 End and side surfaces can only be distinguished because of features too small or slight asymmetry (see notes 8 and 12) Part is ALPHA symmetric (see note 5) 3 Features on side surfaces (see note 15) 4 Features on end surfaces (see note 15) 5 Features on side surfaces (see note 15) 6 Features on end surfaces (see note 15) Steps or chamfers provided by non-external features (see note 9) 7 On side surfaces (see note 15) 8 On end surfaces (see note 15) Holes or recesses [cannot be seen in outer shape of silhouette] Part is not ALPHA symmetric [code the main feature or features causing ALPHA asymmetry] (see note 6) Steps or chamfers provided by external features (see note 9) Triangular and Square Parts (Parts with a first digit of 3, 4, or 5) (continued) SECOND DIGIT 9 Other features, slight asymmetry or features too small (see notes 8 and 12) 402 Assembly Automation and Product Design Appendix D 403 Rectangular Parts (Parts with a first digit of 6, 7, or 8) 1. A part whose basic shape is a rectangular prism is called a rectangular part. The part is not difficult to feed. 2. 180 deg rotational symmetry about an axis means that the same orientation of the part will be repeated only once by rotating the part through 180 deg about that axis. 3. Part can be oriented without utilizing features other than the dimensions of the envelope. 4. Steps, chamfers or through grooves are features which result in a deviation of the silhouette of a part from the silhouette of its envelope. 5. If exposed features are prominent but the symmetry caused by these features is too small to be employed for orientation purposes, then the symmetry is said to be slight asymmetry. For a part with 180 deg rotational symmetry about a certain axis, slight asymmetry implies that the part is almost 90 deg rotationally symmetric about the same axis. 6. A feature is too small, if it is too small to be employed for orientation purposes. 7. A part having no rotational symmetry means that the same orientation of the part will not be repeated by rotating the part through any angle less than 360 deg about any one of the three axis X, Y, and Z. The Xaxis is parallel to the longest side of the envelope, the Y-axis is parallel to the intermediate side and the Z-axis is parallel to the shortest side. 8. A main feature is a feature that is chosen to define the orientation of the part. All the features that are chosen to completely define the orientation of the part should be necessary and sufficient for the purpose. Often, features arise in pairs or groups and the pair or group of features is symmetric about one of the three axis X, Y, and Z. In this case, the pair or group of features should be regarded as one feature. Using this convention, two main features at most are needed to completely define thed orientation of a part. 9. Sometimes, when a part has no rotational symmetry, its orientation can either be defined by one or by two main features. Under these circumstances the part code is determined by the following in decreasing order of preference: a. Choose one main feature, if it results in a third digit less than 5. b. Choose two main features if they result in a third digit less than 5. c. Choose one main feature, if it results in a third digit greater than 5. d. Choose two main features if they result in a third digit greater than 5. 10. The symmetric plane is the plane that divides the part into halves that are mirror images of each other. Y axis C Rectangular envelope B Part has 180⬚ rotational symmetry about all three axes (see note 2) X axis A Z axis 0 0 Three adjacent surfaces of the envelope have significant differences in dimensions (see note 3) 1 Parallel to X axis Rectangular Parts (Parts with a first digit of 6, 7, or 8) THIRD DIGIT 2 Parallel to Y axis 3 Parallel to Z axis 4 Parallel to X axis 5 Parallel to Y axis 6 Parallel to Z axis 7 Holes or recesses (cannot be seen in outer shape of silhouette) 8 Slight asymmetry or features too small (see notes 5 and 6) Two or more adjacent surfaces of the envelope have similar dimensions [code the main feature or features which distinguish the adjacent surfaces having similar dimensions] Steps or chamfers Through grooves (see note 4) (see note 4) 9 Other geometric features or non-geometric features (such as paint, lettering, etc.) 404 Assembly Automation and Product Design SECOND DIGIT C Part’s orientation is defined by one main feature only (see note 90 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 About Z axis Part has a symmetric plane (see note 10) 2 1 About Y axis About X axis Rectangular envelope Y axis B Part has no symmetric plane (see note 10) One feature is syPart’s orientation mmetric about X is defined axis and the othby two main er one is symmetric about Y axis features and at least one One feature is syof them is a mmetric about Y axis and the othstep, er one is symmechamfer or tric about Z axis through One feature is sygroove or a mmetric about Z group of su- axis and the othch features er one is symme(see note 9) tric about X axis Part has slight asymmetry about at least one of its axes or the orientation of the part can only be defined by two main features neither of which are steps, chamfers or through grooves (see notes 5 and 8) Part has no slight asymmetry and its orientation can be defined by one main feature only or by two Part has no main features at rotational least one of symmetry which is a step, [code the main chamfer or feature or through groove features that or group of such can completely features define the (see note 5) orientation] (see notes 7 and 8) Part has 180⬚ rotational symmetry about one axis only (see note 2) X axis A Z axis 0 Parallel to X axis 1 Parallel to Y axis Steps or chamfers (see note 4) 2 Parallel to Z axis 3 Parallel to X axis 4 Parallel to Y axis Through grooves (see note 4) 5 Parallel to Z axis 6 Holes or recesses [cannot be seen in outer shape of silhouette] Code the main feature [code the feature that gives largest third digit, if more than one feature is utilized to define the orientation of the part] (see note 8) 7 Other geometric features 8 9 Non- geometric Features too features [such small as paint, (see note 6) lettering, etc.] Appendix D 405 406 Assembly Automation and Product Design Difficult-to-Feed Parts (parts with a first digit of 9) Flexible. A part is considered flexible if the part cannot maintain its shape under the action of automatic feeding so that orienting devices cannot function satisfactorily. Delicate. A part is considered delicate if damage may occur during handling, either due to breakage caused by parts falling from orienting sections or tracks onto the hopper base, or due to wear caused by recirculation of parts in the hopper. When wear is the criterion, a part would be considered delicate if it could not recirculate in the hopper for 30 min and maintain the required tolerance. Sticky. If a force, comparable to the weight of a nontangling or nonnesting part, is required to separate it from bulk, the part is considered sticky. Light. A part is considered too light to be handled by conventional hopper feeders if the ratio of its weight to the volume of its envelope is less than 1.5kN/m3. Overlap. Parts will tend to overlap in a feeder when an alignment of better than 0.2 mm is required to prevent shingling or overlapping during feeding in single file on a horizontal track. Large. A part is considered to be too large to be readily handled by conventional hopper feeders when its smallest dimension is greater than 50 mm or if its maximum dimension is greater than 150 mm. A part is considered to be too large to be handled by a particular vibratory hopper feeder if L > d/8, where L is the length of the part measured parallel to the feeding direction and d is the feeder or bowl diameter. Very small. A part is considered to be too small to be readily handled by conventional hopper feeders when its largest dimension is less than 3 mm. A part is considered to be too small to be readily handled by a particular vibratory hopper feeder if its largest dimension is less than the radius of the curved surface joining the hopper wall and the track surface measured in a plane perpendicular to the feeding direction. Nest. Parts are considered to nest if they interconnect when in bulk causing orientation problems. No force is required to separate the parts when they are nested. Severely nest. Parts are considered to severely nest if they interconnect and lock when in bulk and require a force to separate them. Tangle. Parts are said to tangle if a reorientation is required to separate them when in bulk. Severely tangle. Parts are said to severely tangle if they require manipulation to specific orientations and a force is required to separate them. Abrasive. A part is considered to be abrasive if it may cause damage to the surface of the hopper feeding device unless these surfaces are specially treated. 407 Appendix D Difficult-to-Feed Parts (parts with a first digit of 9) Not delicate Delicate Not delicate Parts do not tend to overlap during feeding Parts tend to overlap during feeding Delicate Nonflexible 0 Flexible 1 Nonflexible 2 Flexible 3 Nonflexible 4 Flexible 5 Nonflexible 6 Flexible 7 Light Not light Light Not sticky Sticky Not sticky Sticky Not sticky Sticky Not sticky Sticky 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very small parts Rotational parts For definitions of these terms and dimensions see code sheet − choice of first digit Parts are very small or large but are non-abrasive 8 9 Incorrect choice of first digit Large parts Non-rotational parts Rotational parts Discs or short cylinders L/D ≤ 1.5 Long cylinders L/D > 1.5 Flat parts A/B ≤ 3 A/C > 4 Long parts A/B > 3 Cubic parts A/B ≤ 3 A/B ≤ 4 0 1 2 3 4 Non-rotational parts Discs or short cylinders L/D ≤ 1.5 Long cylinders L/D > 1.5 Flat parts A/B ≤ 3 A/C > 4 Long parts A/B > 3 Cubic parts A/B ≤ 3 A/C ≤ 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 Parts will not severely tangle or nest Small parts Part’s orientation is defined by geometric feature(s) alone Part’s orientation is defined by Non-flexible Parts do not Parts tend geometric Parts do not Parts tend to tend to overto overlap feature(s) tend to over- overlap dur- Flexible lap during during alone lap during ing feeding feeding feeding feeding 0 Abrasive parts 9 1 2 Very small parts Large parts Part’s orientation is not defined by geometric feature(s) alone 3 4 5 Part’s orientation is not defined by geometric feature(s) alone Part’s orientation is defined by geometric feature(s) alone 6 7 Part’s orientation is not defined by geometric feature(s) alone 8 Parts will severely tangle or nest SECOND DIGIT Parts are small and non-abrasive Not light Parts will severely tangle Parts will tangle or nest but not severely Parts will not tangle or nest Parts will severely nest but not severely tangle THIRD DIGIT 9 408 Assembly Automation and Product Design D.2 Feeding and Orienting Techniques Data sheets showing feeding and orienting techniques catalogued under part codes. PART CODE REVOLVING HOOK HOPPER FEEDER d ~ 100 L 0 0 L Hopper wall D Rotational frequency, n d A Revolving hook A Section on A-A Parts delivered per revolution, Np Stationary base 12 10 8 6 4 Feed rate = Np ⫻ n 16 L/D = 0. L/D = 0.14 L/D = 0.12 L/D = 0.10 L/D = 0.08 2 0 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 n Rotational frequency ratio, n c where: Np = Parts delivered per revolution n = Rotational frequency of hook nc = Critical rotational frequency of the hook (See section D4) c E = Efficiency v = Conveying velocity v Feed rate = D ⫻E where: a b, c Plan view Side view L b D 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 L/D 0.4 0.6 0.8 g = Acceleration due Parts can be stacked in the to gravity (9.81 m/s2) 0.8 discharge hole to v = 0.1 increase efficiency gD 0.6 v = 0.2 gD 1.0 a Wiper blade* (Device code 10) Part orientations b Hooded discharge hole* (Device code 13) a Efficiency, E PART CODE 0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Return belt 0.3 0.4 L/D 0.5 X X v d 0.6 0.7 0.8 Part waiting to be picked up d ~ 50 D HORIZONTAL BELT FEEDER Drive shaft Efficiency, E VIBRATORY BOWL FEEDER 1.5D D v D ⫻E Load > 100 parts v = Main belt velocity E = Efficiency D = Part diameter where: Feed rate = L 0 0 1 Section on X-X Wiper blade Main belt PART CODE Appendix D 409 Blade X X I 0.3 D 3L 2 0 0 L I 12 Enlarged section on X-X Feed rate = E  Nt  n r I = 0.5 r PART CODE Number of parts fed per reciprocation E = Efficiency = Track capacity, Nt Nt = Track capacity = Maximum number of parts that can fit in track n = Frequency of blade reciprocation 0.2 Delivery chute 0 0.05 0.07 0.1 L/D 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Level of parts Track I ~ 50 L CENTERBOARD HOPPER FEEDER 1 X I 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Rotary disc 0.3 d 0.4 0.5 L/D 0.6 t 1 Parts delivered per slot = Number of slots n = Rotational frequency of disc Ns Np = where: Feed rate = Np ⫻ Ns ⫻ n Enlarged section on X-X D/4 1.1D Delivery chute L L/2 < t < L PART 0 0 CODE D Level of parts d ~ 20; I = 3.5 D D Orientation problems X Stationary hopper ROTARY DISC HOPPER FEEDER Stationary plate Ns slots Parts delivered per slot, Np Hopper Efficiency, E 410 Assembly Automation and Product Design r 1 0.30 3 5 7 Nb blades Parts delivered per blade, Np X 0.35 0.45 L/D 0.40 Delivery chute X 0.50 I 1.5D 1.1D 45 Blade D 0.55 Parts delivered per blade Nb = Number of blades n = Rotational frequency of wheel Np = where: L 0 1 Feed rate = Np  Nb  n Enlarged view on X-X 0.4 (L + D) Delivery chute Hopper 0.1L 0.6L 0.1L Level of parts Rotational frequency, n Hopper r = I ~ 10 D D PART 0 CODE X 0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Reciprocating tube Stationary hopper (truncated cone) 0.5 0.6 L/D 0.7 0.8 X D w 45 1.5D PART CODE 0 Parts delivered per cycle n = Frequency of reciprocation Np = where: Feed rate = Np  n For L/D ≤ 0.5 w = 1.5L For L/D > 0.5 w = 1.4L L 0 1 Enlarged section on X-X 45 Level of parts RECIPROCATING TUBE HOPPER FEEDER Reciprocation frequency, n Parts delivered per cycle, Np BLADED WHEEL HOPPER FEEDER Appendix D 411 n = 0.16 s−1 n = 0.08 s−1 L/D Section on X-X 40 0 L 1 Magnet holding capacity is 10−20 times weight of one part. Np = Parts delivered per magnet Nm = Number of magnets n = Frequency of rotation where: Feed rate = Np  Nm  n Rotating disc D Agitator Level of parts Delivery chute Rotating disc d = 30L1/3D2/3 Stationary hopper Agitator Enlarged section on X-X D 10 d Y Y 0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Magnet Wiper blade X 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 0.40 Magnet Wiper blade d L/D 0.45 Rotating disc 0.50 90 1.5L L 0 1 Section on X-X Feed rate = Np  Nm  n Magnet holding capacity is 10−20 times weight of one part. Np = Parts delivered per magnet Nm = Number of magnets n = Rotational frequency where: D PART 0 CODE Delivery chute Level of parts Stationary hopper d = 30L1/3D2/3 MAGNETIC DISC HOPPER FEEDER Magnet diameter ~ D Parts delivered per magnet, Np Agitator X PART CODE X MAGNETIC DISC HOPPER FEEDER X Magnet diameter ~ D Parts delivered per magnet, Np 412 Assembly Automation and Product Design 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 L/D Feed rate = Np  n Np = Parts delivered per cycle n = Rotational frequency where: 0.7Di .51D View on arrow X 1.25D D L 0 1 Head of the pin is designed to accept only one part Shroud Pin Orienting track 0.14 D deep Orienting track Feed chute Path of head of pin 0.8 1.0 Crank X 0.2 0.4 0.6 Pivot block Trough Shroud Pivot center Level of parts Parts delivered per cycle, Np PART 0 CODE Di b *For devices see section D4 v = Conveying velocity E = Efficiency where: v ⫻E D a Sloped track and ledge* (device code 25) Feed rate = c D 0 0 L 1 b, c a Note: Wiper blade (device code 10) Required with L/D ≥ 0.7 Plan view Side view PART CODE L/D 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Part orientations a VIBRATORY BOWL FEEDER Efficiency, E ROCKING TROUGH HOPPER FEEDER Appendix D 413 v ⫻E D⬘ b reorients to a *For devices see section D3 v = Conveying velocity E = Efficiency, E where: Feed rate = c Part orientations b Hooded discharge hole* (device code 13) a Plan view Side view 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c PART 0 0 2 CODE D⬘ 0.2 5D ⬘ L 0 0.2 0.4 L/D⬘ 0.6 v = 0.2 gD⬘ v = 0.1 gD⬘ 0.8 g = acceleration due Parts can be stacked to gravity (9.81 m/s2) in the discharge hole to increase efficiency Frequency of vibration = 60 Hz c, d b Wiper blade* (device code 10) d Efficiency, E 5D ⬘ 0.2 VIBRATORY BOWL FEEDER Feed rate = v ⫻E D b reorients to a *For devices see section D3 v = Conveying velocity E = Efficiency where: c Part orientations b d Hooded discharge hole* (device code 13) a 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Plan view Side view L c PART CODE D 0 0 5 0 0.2 L/D 0.4 v = 0.2 gD 0.6 0.8 v = 0.1 gD g = acceleration due Parts can be stacked to gravity (9.81 m/s2) in the discharge hole to increase efficiency Frequency of vibration = 60 Hz c, d b Wiper blade* (device code 10) VIBRATORY BOWL FEEDER Efficiency, E 414 Assembly Automation and Product Design v ⫻E D a d *For devices see section D3 b Plan view Side view 0.6 L D L/D 0.7 c, d 0.8 0.35D 0 0 6 Wiper blade* (device code 10) Portion of b 0 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Proportion of b reorients to a v = Conveying velocity E = Efficiency where: Feed rate = c Part orientations b Sloped track and rail* (device code 24) a Efficiency, E PART CODE 0 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Return belt 0.4 0.5 H/L 0.6 X X D1 = 0.5 D 0.7 0.8 0.9 H D v E D Load > 90 parts v = Main belt velocity E = Efficiency D = Part diameter where: Feed rate = L 0 2 1 D1 1.5D PART CODE Section on X-X Wiper blade d Main belt Part waiting to be picked up v d ~ 50 D HORIZONTAL BELT FEEDER L = 0.5 D Drive shaft Efficiency, E VIBRATORY BOWL FEEDER Appendix D 415
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