Tài liệu Strategic plan of the academy of finance (aof) center for foreign languages, hanoi, vietnam for the years 2013-2017

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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY Republic of the Philippines STRATEGIC PLAN OF THE ACADEMY OF FINANCE (AOF) CENTER FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGES, HANOI, VIET NAM FOR THE YEARS 2013-2017 A RESEARCH PROPOSAL PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE SCHOOL SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY LUCBAN, QUEZON, PHILIPPINESTHAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY S.R. VIETNAM IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTORS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Name: Nguyen ThiThuyTrang Thai Nguyen, 2013 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I would like to express my most sincere thanks to the Management Board of the Southern Luzon State University, Thai Nguyen University, teachers of the school have helped me facilitate the learning process throughout. I would like to express sincere gratitude and profound Dr.Walberto A. Macaraan, enthusiastic teacher who has dedicated guidance, encouragement, spending time and exchange orientation for me during this research. I sincerely thank the Board of Academy of Finance (AOF), colleagues in AOF, classmates DBA1, especially Mr. Ngo Anh Cuong, facilitated enthusiastic help and share experience to help complete the thesis. Finally, I would like to thank my best friends who have encouraged me to complete my thesis.   2 Contents  STRATEGIC PLAN OF THE ACADEMY OF FINANCE (AOF) CENTER FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGES, HANOI, VIET NAM FOR THE YEARS 2013-2017.............1  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTORS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ................................................................1  ACKNOWLEDGMENT............................................................................................................2  ABSTRACT...............................................................................................................................5  List of tables...............................................................................................................................7  CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................8  1.1 Background of the study ................................................................................................11  1.2 Statement of the problem ...............................................................................................12  1.3 Significance of the study................................................................................................15  1.4 Scope and limitation of the study: .................................................................................15  1.5 Terms: ............................................................................................................................16  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES............................19  2.1 Requirement of English proficiency ..............................................................................19  2.2 Establishment of a language center in a business educational institution .....................19  2.3 General environment in Vietnam...................................................................................21  2.3.1 Natural environment ...............................................................................................21  2.3.2 Historical and political situation .............................................................................21  2.3.3 Socio-cultural factors ..............................................................................................22  2.3.4 Economic profile.....................................................................................................24  2.4 Education Industry .........................................................................................................28  2.4.1 General Education System in Vietnam ...................................................................28  2.4.2 Viewpoint on education development ....................................................................30  2.4.3 Demand and Supply Analysis.................................................................................31  2.4.4 Competitor Analysis ...............................................................................................36  2.4.5 Introduction of Best Practices.................................................................................48  2.5 Opportunities and Threats..............................................................................................51  CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY .........................................................................................56  3.1 Research design .............................................................................................................56  3.2 Determination of sample size.........................................................................................58  3.3 Sampling design and techniques....................................................................................59  3.4 Research instrument.......................................................................................................61  3.5 Data gathering procedure...............................................................................................61  3.6 Data processing method.................................................................................................61  Chapter IV: Company study, data analysis and findings.........................................................63  3 4.1 Brief history of AOF and CFL.......................................................................................63  4.2 Overall performance ......................................................................................................63  4.3 Institutional Activities....................................................................................................64  4.3.1 Major activities ...........................................................................................................64  4.3.1.1 Logistics...............................................................................................................64  4.3.1.2 Operations ............................................................................................................74  4.3.1.3 Marketing and sales .............................................................................................78  4.3.2 Support activities ........................................................................................................86  Chapter V: Strategic Plan – Conclusions and Recommendations ...........................................96  5.1 CFL’s Vision, Mission, Objectives and Key Result Areas............................................96  5.2  Current strategy .......................................................................................................100  5.2.1 Organizational Strategy ........................................................................................100  5.2.2 HRM strategy........................................................................................................100  5.2.3 Operating strategy.................................................................................................101  5.2.4 Marketing strategy ................................................................................................102  5.2.5 Financial strategy ..................................................................................................102  5.3 Recommended strategic plan .......................................................................................102  5.4 Comparison with the current strategy ..........................................................................104  5.5 Management of changes ..............................................................................................105  5.5.1 Organizational Strategy ........................................................................................106  5.5.2 HRM Strategy .......................................................................................................106  5.5.3 Operations Strategy...............................................................................................112  5.5.4 Financial Strategy .................................................................................................116  APPENDICIES ......................................................................................................................118  REFERENCES: .....................................................................................................................134  BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................................................................137  4 ABSTRACT  Academy of Finance is one of very few nationally recognized State-owned universities in Vietnam and has provided the economy with highly appreciated graduates in banking, finance and accounting. However, in recent years, with higher requirement of English proficiency from employers, Academy of Finance graduates have faced competition from other universities’ graduates whose majors of banking, finance or accounting are said to be less appreciated. The tendency of English proficiency requirement can be seen in many job advertisements found in various job sites such as Vietnamworks.com, vieclam.com, dulieuvieclam.com, timviecnhanh.com,… According to Ministry of Education and Training, students can graduate from university only when they reach a certain proficiency of English. Also, the ministry requires each university to set its own requirement of English proficiency. Accordingly, Academy of Finance requires 450 TOEIC for graduation. This is compulsory for the 48th batch and batches later. To better meet job requirements and able to graduate, undergraduates plan to get prepared with English during their university. They are free to choose an English center as long as they can obtain some certain certificates such as IELTS, TOEFL, TOEIC. Some universities provide their undergraduates with another choice of their own language centers and learners are free to choose to sit in an exam for an international certificate or certificates issued by universities. Academy of Finance could not increase the in-class time of English lessons, so out-of-school time programs were recommended. In fact, Academy of Finance set up its own language center in 2010 to serve firstly its own students and then other interests. It is a kind of out of school time program for students. CFL was established by the Director of Academy of Finance in 2010 with the aim of providing AOF students with English proficiency to better meet the market’s needs. CFL focuses on English while other OST programs are topic-specific and focus on categories like the arts, sports, theatre, math or science. CFL is a not for profit organization under the direct 5 control of Academy of Finance. It is different from other commercial language centers in the market and also differs from other college’s/university’s centers that are directly controlled by Faculty of Foreign Languages of the college/university.   6 List of tables  Table 1 2 3 4 Pages Population growth rate in 1990 – 2010 Gross domestic product at constant 1994 prices by economic sector Gross domestic product at current prices by economic sector Enterprises in Vietnam are classified by capital sources and ownership 15 16 17 18 Retail sales of goods and services at current prices by kind of economic 5 activity 18 Structure of employed population at 15 years of age and above as of annual 1 6 July by kinds of economic activity 20                     7 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION  Today Vietnam has involved in the global integration both vertically and horizontally. This has led to the requirement of English proficiency from employers toward job seekers. In this context, Vietnam’s public schools are serving their students under increasing pressure to improve academic performance. The inexorable drive to reach continuously higher levels of student achievement was spurred by the Ministry of Education and Training – MOET’s requirements in English proficiency. The current economic recession has only exacerbated the stress on educators at all levels, as they are expected to push students’ achievement scores higher than ever before (while also closing achievement gaps between different sub-groups of students), despite diminishing resources that have resulted in staffing cuts, larger class sizes, and fewer support services for many of the nation’s students. The increased emphasis on student achievement in general and student’s English proficiency, as measured by large-scale, state-mandated summative assessments, has resulted in school leaders and education policymakers embracing the notion that teachers can no longer afford to work in isolation if they seek to improve the performance of their students. This trend is apparent in the current literature on professional development, where one can find an abundance of articles and books extolling the virtues of teacher learning teams, collaborative learning teams, communities of continuous inquiry, professional learning communities, and other configurations of collaborative work arrangements among teachers. In reality, educational researchers and advocates for educational reform have been writing about various forms of teacher collaboration as a means to improve educational outcomes since the early 1990’s (Hord, 2004; Pounder, 1998). As Saunders, Goldenberg, and Gallimore (2009) indicated, there is “an intuitively appealing logic that underlies PLC [professional learning communities] and learning team programs” (p. 1009). Yet, despite the significant body of literature regarding the importance of teacher collaboration in the effort to improve schools and the “intuitive logic” of such an approach, there is a dearth of empirical research that ties 8 collaborative processes to improved teacher practice and improved student learning (Gallimore, Ermeling, Saunders, & Goldenberg, 2009; Goddard, Goddard, &TschannenMoran, 2007; InPraxis Group, Inc., 2006; Pounder, 1998; Saunders et al., 2009; Vescio, Ross, & Adams, 2008). The following quote from InPraxis Group, Inc. (2006) captures the current body of literature and contemporary wisdom regarding the value of teacher collaboration and PLC-like approaches: Although there is little empirical research that links collaborative processes directly with student learning and achievement, there is a relatively consistent recommendation emerging from the literature on professional development – those who share the same concerns and challenges will learn more effectively if they work together in a professional development experience and teacher quality can be positively affected. (p. 33) The relative paucity of empirical research supporting the effectiveness of professional learning communities (PLCs) begs the following question: In schools that have implemented PLCs, to what extent have teacher practice and student achievement improved? This is the key question driving the establishment of out-of-school time programs while schools have to follow MOET’s rules of limited in-class time. Although a number of studies have documented evidence regarding the various benefits of PLCs, for example, enhanced teacher learning (Little, 2003; Grossman, Wineberg, & Woolworth, 2001), improved school culture (Supovitz, 2002), and changes in classroom practice (Brownell, Adams, Sindelar, Waldron, &Vanhover, 2006), the most valuable aspect of PLCs lies in their potential to impact student achievement in a positive manner. As Brownell et al. (2006) argued, “Ultimately, professional collaborative efforts are important only if they help teachers change in ways that promote student learning” (p. 184). 9 Academy of Finance is one of very few nationally recognized State-owned universities in Vietnam and has provided the economy with highly appreciated graduates in banking, finance and accounting. However, in recent years, with higher requirement of English proficiency from employers, Academy of Finance graduates have faced competition from other universities’ graduates whose majors of banking, finance or accounting are said to be less appreciated. The tendency of English proficiency requirement can be seen in many job advertisements found in various job sites such as Vietnamworks.com, vieclam.com, dulieuvieclam.com, timviecnhanh.com,… According to Ministry of Education and Training, students can graduate from university only when they reach a certain proficiency of English. Also, the ministry requires each university to set its own requirement of English proficiency. Accordingly, Academy of Finance requires 450 TOEIC for graduation. This is compulsory for the 48th batch and batches later. To better meet job requirements and able to graduate, undergraduates plan to get prepared with English during their university. They are free to choose an English center as long as they can obtain some certain certificates such as IELTS, TOEFL, TOEIC. Some universities provide their undergraduates with another choice of their own language centers and learners are free to choose to sit in an exam for an international certificate or certificates issued by universities. Academy of Finance could not increase the in-class time of English lessons, so out-of-school time programs were recommended. In fact, Academy of Finance set up its own language center in 2010 to serve firstly its own students and then other interests. It is a kind of out of school time program for students. Out of School Time (OST) is a general term that describes any structured programs outside of the normal school day hours. "The National Institute on Out-of-School Time defines out-ofschool time programs as encompassing a wide range of program offerings for young people that take place before school, after school, on weekends, and during the summer and other 10 school breaks " ("Making an Impact on Out-of-School Time: A Guide for Corporation for National Service Programs Engaged in After-School, Summer, and Weekend Activities for Young People," 2000, p. 3). The programs are sometimes referred to as "after-school," "extended day," or "school-aged care" programs and can occur before or after school or during the vacation days. These terms are often used interchangeably. CFL focuses on English while other OST programs are topic-specific and focus on categories like the arts, sports, theatre, math or science. While the definition of OST is quite broad, the OST programs reviewed for this research study are those specifically created to meet the goals of English proficiency. The specific program goal for CFL is, "To provide AOF students with English proficiency." CFL has become a response to combat the factors facing newly-graduated job seekers and to meet the academic and social needs of students. This school year, Academy of Finance is welcoming the 50th batch to the campus. It means only 2 years left for the 48th batch to get themselves ready for graduation and job market. As far as I observed, Center of Foreign Languages affiliated with Academy of Finance has not achieved any success which is shown in enrollment. As not only a teacher of English in Academy of Finance but also the Associate Dean of Faculty of Foreign Languages who is in charge of cooperating with Center of Foreign Languages in serving Academy of Finance students, I personally think that a study on Center of Foreign Languages is in need to find out a strategic plan for its development in order to implement its mission and vision. 1.1 Background of the study  CFL was established by the Director of Academy of Finance in 2010 with the aim of providing AOF students with English proficiency to better meet the market’s needs. However, CFL has served only few groups of about 300 students, far less than expected, out 11 of more than 10,000 present students. This is a disappointing result. Therefore, the question of how to attract students to the center has been discussed for an answer. CFL is a not for profit organization under the direct control of Academy of Finance. It is different from other commercial language centers in the market and also differs from other college’s/university’s centers that are directly controlled by Faculty of Foreign Languages of the college/university. Studies or researches on commercial language centers in Vietnam, especially in Hanoi have not been fully publicized though some researches on market needs have been cited on newspapers and magazines. The information from these researches can be used as secondary data for this study. However, the special situation of CFL requires further research and deeper analysis. That’s why the thesis is conducted toward the solution to CFL’s performance. It is aimed at how to increase the performance of CFL – a provider of OST programs via a feasible strategic plan for CFL. 1.2 Statement of the problem  The study is to aim at building a strategic plan for CFL – Center of ForeignLanguages – an affiliation with AOF – Academy of Finance, Hanoi, Vietnam. The study is also to examine teacher collaboration designed to influence teachers’ classroom practice and student achievement outcomes in AOF and CFL. The study is conceptually grounded in social capital theory (Leana&Pil, 2006; Nahapiet&Ghoshal, 1998) and the construct of strategic plan both of which will be presented in Chapter 2. In short, social capital theory posits that the network of interpersonal relationships which exist within any organization is a valuable resource that has the potential to improve organizational performance (Nahapiet&Ghoshal, 1998). Social capital theory is essentially interrelated with research-based descriptions of collaboration practice; these organization-based groups are also viewed as powerful units of analysis with the potential to improve overall organizational performance (Koliba&Gajda, 12 2009). This study will explore the relationship between the quality of collaboration within teacher-based teams and student achievement outcomes as measured by mandated, annual assessments. In addition, the study will address the impact of administrative leadership on the success of CFL by examining the relationship between teachers’ perceptions of administrative support for discrete teacher teams (PLCs) and student achievement outcomes, again measured by mandated, annual state assessments. Also, the study will explore the relationship between the quality of teacher collaboration and self-reported changes in instructional practice. Finally, the study will analyse the students’ expectations and perception toward CFL, conduct market research for CFL and many other related issues to come up with a feasible strategic plan for CFL. To that end, the research will address the following: • environmental factors affecting the industry, its macro and micro dimensions; • general structure of the Education Industry, of higher education industry, especially of business educational institutions; • potential threats and opportunities, strengths and weaknesses in the industry of business educational institutions and language centers; • to what extent, a relationship between the quality of teacher collaboration on discrete teacher teams and student achievement outcomes; • to what extent, a relationship between teachers’ perceptions of administrative support for discrete teacher teams and student achievement outcomes; • key success factors for AOF within the industry of business educational institutions and for CFL; • how CFL moves forward. The study is conducted through analysis and synthesis of data gathered from primary and secondary sources. 13 Primary data will be from interviews and surveys. Interviews will be conducted with the key officials, employees of AOF and CFL, its competitors and its employees. Internal and external surveys will be conducted to determine the level of awareness, perception toward and image of CFL; the satisfaction level of learners and employees of the center. The primary data will be collected by the author through offline surveys, interviews with CFL stakeholders. The questions the author asks are tailored to elicit the data that will help him/her with the study. Secondary sources will be collected from the AOF reports, published materials of Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education and Training. This study also refers to the Government policies, official magazines on the topics relevant to the MRR from various institutions and universities in Vietnam. There are several types of secondary data. They can include information from the Center, AOF, Ministry of Education and Training, some employers, jobsites or other government statistical information. Secondary data tends to be readily available and inexpensive to obtain. In addition, secondary data can be examined over a longer period of time. With a combination of these two data sources, the researcher are able to determine which factors are critical to the Center’s performance. Both primary data and secondary data have their pros and cons. Primary data offers tailored information but tends to be expensive to conduct and takes a long time to process. Secondary data is usually inexpensive to obtain and can be analyzed in less time. However, because it was gathered for other purposes, the researcher may need to tease out the information to find what he/she is looking for. Due to the limited budget, skills and available resources, the researcher chose to use both primary data and secondary data. 14 1.3 Significance of the study  The study is very important for the existence of CFL as well as the reputation of AOF. 10 years ago, AOF’s teachers of English were all not majored in English but Russian. Over the last 10 years, only English-majoring applicants have been recruited as teachers of English at AOF. However, it is still a common knowledge that AOF graduates with low proficiency of English are mainly due to non-English majoring teachers of English at AOF. It is also believed to be the reason for not many AOF students to come to enroll in CFL. The study of Strategic Plan for CFL would bring benefits to AOF when CFL’s success would change the society’s perception on AOF’s students and teachers of English. Faculty of Foreign Languages also gets benefited from CFL’s success in this sense. Each individual teacher would get more offers from external markets. After all, AOF graduates would be the first and most important beneficiary because they have a good in-campus center for their English learning. Personally, I find myself benefited too because as a leader, I need to bring good changes to my students and my teachers. 1.4 Scope and limitation of the study:  The study mainly focuses on CFL’s current situation, target market and successful examples in the sector. Besides, it is also about feasibility of some options to come up with a recommendation for CFL. The study looks at AOF since 2000 to present and CFL from its establishment in August 2010 to present. The study is done through interviews and surveys. The results of the study can be affected by a small number of stakeholders in interviews and surveys. 15 1.5 Definition of terms:  English proficiency - is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in an acquired language, English. As theories among pedagogues as to what constitutes proficiency go, there is little consistency as to how different organizations classify it. Additionally, fluency and language competence are generally recognized as being related, but separate controversial subjects. In predominant frameworks in the United States, proficient speakers demonstrate both accuracy and fluency, and use a variety of discourse strategies. Thus, native speakers of a language can be fluent without being considered proficient. This is also true for non-native English speakers who are expected to be fluent and accurate at the same time. Teacher collaboration – is the act of collaborating between teachers before, during and after their lessons. It can be as simple as teachers’ working together to make connections across curriculum or as true collaborative as their checking calendars for their next week meeting scheduling. Together, they would begin to construct fully structured bridges between their curriculums that would not only bring them deep professional satisfaction, more importantly; they would enrich the learning experiences of their students. Teacher image – is the general opinion of most learners about a certain teacher. Teacher image can include his/ her knowledge, qualifications, teaching style, interpersonal skills, pronunciation, handwriting or even his/ her dressing. Academic curriculum – or the academic program of study is the degree that the student is working toward achieving, also referred to as "sought learner outcome" (sought degree). Curriculum rules in the system control the academic requirements defined in the approved program of study (i.e., the student curriculum), represented by the program code in Banner. Curriculum rules are also used in conjunction with program codes to populate major, minor, concentrating, department, or other related discrete pieces of data, to a variety of student record tables (e.g., student level). 16 Teaching methodology – has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology is that which links theory and practice. Theory statements would include theories of what language is and how language is learned or, more specifically, theories of second language acquisition (SLA). Such theories are linked to various design features of language instruction. These design features might include stated objectives, syllabus specifications, types of activities, roles of teachers, learners, materials, and so forth. Design features in turn are linked to actual teaching and learning practices as observed in the environments where language teaching and learning take place. This whole complex of elements defines language teaching Academic management – means to coordinate the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling the center. Enrollment – is the act or process of enrolling students/ learners in the center. Enrollment management can include: improving yields at inquiry, application, and enrollment stages; increasing net revenue, usually by improving the proportion of entering students capable of paying most or all of unsubsidized tuition; ("full-pays"); increasing demographic diversity; improving retention rates and increasing applicant pools Physical plant and facility – refers to the necessary infrastructure used in support and maintenance of a given facility. The operation of these facilities, or the department of an organization which does so, is called "plant operations" or facility management. It can be buildings of classrooms, labs, stadium, swimming pool, café, canteen, dormitory, etc. HR management – is the process of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the center. Human Resources Management includes conducting job analyses, planning personnel needs, recruiting the right people for the job, orienting and training newly recruited employees and managing wages and salaries, providing benefits and 17 incentives evaluating performance, resolving disputes, and communicating with all employees at all levels. Administration – is the process or activity of running the center. The goal of administration (more exactly administrative activities) is to ensure smooth running of the center’s process by coordinating people participating in the processes, and providing them with information needed for completing their assignments. Administration deals with gathering, processing and communicating information. Practically, everybody working for an organization participates in the administrative activities. The administration is regulated by rules (operational instructions, or procedures) that prescribe or recommend who should be doing what and in what order in each type of the processes. 18 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES  This chapter is to set the comprehensive background for the study of CFL. That’s why it discusses general conditions of the country, the education industry, the demand and supply of in-class educational institutions including AOF as well as opportunities and threats for them. The analysis for OST programs such as CFL will be shown in Chapter IV. 2.1 Requirement of English proficiency  Under the direction of MOET, many universities set their own requirement of English proficiency. For instance, University of Finance and Marketing issued Decision 754 QĐ/ĐHTCM-QLĐT on a certificate of 450 TOEIC for graduation. According to Decision 1184/QĐ-HVTC dated 28/10/2009 by Director of Academy of Finance, students are required to obtain a certificate of 450 TOEIC to be eligible to graduate from school. Meanwhile AOF in the same pool with other universities in Vietnam who provide the society with graduates with very low English (Vu Thi Phuong Anh& Nguyen BichHanh, 2004). The requirement of English proficiency is more clearly shown in some articles on jobsites. According to Le Anh Viet – Business Development Manager of Future World, the most important Asian partner of Apple – and a graduate of Information Technology 1st batch of SaigonTech, recruiters are expecting candidates with good soft skills and high English proficiency. This becomes a social demand that schools have to meet. He said his job requires 90% of communication in English. Besides, Chris Harvey - CEO of VietnamWorks said the demand for human resources in marketing, sales, finance and accounting is still high. That means job opportunities for business graduates are available as long as their English proficiency is high enough in the eyes of recruiters. 2.2 Establishment of a language center in a business educational institution     Academy of Finance was founded according to Decision 120/2001/ QD/ TTg dated August 17th 2001. Academy of Finance is a merger between Hanoi University of Finance and 19 Accounting (established in 1963), Institute of Finance Research – IFR (established in 1963) and ImprovementCenter for Financial Officers. However, IFR and the ImprovementCenter for Financial Officers are two legal entities. Hanoi University of Finance and Accounting was diluted and its training activities play a key role in Academy of Finance. The study focuses on Center of Foreign Language which was set up based on the requirements of Academy of Finance’s training activities. AOF belongs to Ministry of Finance but simultaneously is under state management of Ministry of Education and Training. Since its establishment, AOF has been the first and unique national – class higher educational institution specializing in training financial officers. AOF bachelors played a very important role in the Vietnam socio – economic development especially prior to 1975 when Vietnam was seeking for the independence throughout the country. Since then together with other major colleges and universities, AOF has been one of key players in this training sector. However, for more than 20 years of ‘doimoi’ (innovation) higher educational institutions including AOF have shown a tendency of expanding into new courses and new types of training. This resulted from the positive changes in recent socio - economic situation in Vietnam. During its expansion, AOF is maintaining its focuses meanwhile competing with key players in new areas. At present AOF have seven competitors that are all government educational institutions. According to 2007’s statistics done by Ministry of Education and Training, AOF is in the 2nd rank of enrollment quality and the 4th rank of preferred schools for high school students, which goes down from the 3rd rank in two previous years. This brings a question whether AOF is losing its attractiveness to high school students. Moreover, the number of AOF graduates meeting the requirements at work in big economic institutions is smaller than expected by the employers (according to the article “Vietnam: opportunities and threats from 20
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