Tài liệu State policy on the development of handicraft villages in vietnam

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1 2 INTRODUCTION To implement the research objectives, the thesis will answer the following questions: 1) The development of the handicraft villages in Vietnam in recent years like? What is the positive and negative? What are the causes? 2) What criteria to use to evaluate government policies to develop handicraft village today? 3) The state policy for development Vietnam handicrafts villages were applied in recent years is the policy? Status of the policy is evaluated like? 4) The views and orientations in order to improve policy development Vietnam handicrafts village is what? 5) The solutions and recommendations should be proposed to improve state policy on the development of handicraft villages in Vietnam in the coming time? 3. Object and scope of the research 3.1. Object of the research: theory and practice of public policy (the policy of the central government) to develop handicraft village in Vietnam. 3.2. Scope of the research The content on research, focused mainly on evaluate and improve the content of the policy of the State (thesis not studied in depth the policy process), and also pay attention to the conditions for a system of policies promoting the beneficial effects for the development of handicraft villages in Vietnam. Focusing mainly on the following policies: policy on planned villages, products in villages; policy on investment and credit; policy on science, technology and environment; policy on human resources and policy on trade. Space and object survey, survey of handicrafts villages in the provinces /cities mainly in the North. Surveying some sectors/products such as handicrafts typical: (1) ceramic art; (2) art wood; (3) lacquer; (4) rattan; (5) silk; (6) embroidery; (7) carved stone; (8) metal casting. About the study period, focusing on the state policy on the development of handicraft villages in Vietnam in the period from 2000 to present and forecasts to 2020. 4. Research methodology 4.1. Approach: The thesis uses the method of dialectical materialism, historical materialism and approach systems research methodologies throughout the thesis. 1. The necessity of the research Craft Village handicrafts play an important role in the economic development of the local society and Vietnam economy. Now, there are about 3000 villages [58], including the village handicrafts accounted for nearly 40% [2, p.8], attract about 13 million workers; 1.4 million households engaged in manufacturing [15]. Vietnam's rural population accounts for over 70% of the villages have seen really important role in attracting more jobs, maintain stable lives, creating higher income levels from 2-4 times agricultural laborers. More particularly, arts and crafts is a group created huge value-added, effective high socio-economic. Although there has been a positive contribution to exports, the restructuring of the rural economy, as well as many social and economic benefits others, but the crafts village today still have many difficulties, not to promote their potential. To develop handicraft villages in Vietnam in terms of international economic integration, businesses and individual households can not be effectively implemented for production and business activities in villages requires high community. Moreover, the village is vulnerable subjects, should be protected in this integration process. Therefore, government policies have an important role for the overall development of villages and handicraft villages in particular and the improvement of state policy on the development of handicraft villages of Vietnam is essential and practical significance. From the above reasons, Candicate PhD chosen issue "State policy on the development of handicraft villages in Vietnam " as doctoral thesis. 2. The objectives of the research Overall objective: research to improve public policy in developing Vietnam handicrafts village. Specific objectives: (1) Clarify the concept, nature and role development of villages and state policy for handicraft villages, creating a theoretical framework for the thesis; (2) Assessment of the status of state policy on the development of handicraft villages in Vietnam. Thereby indicates the achievements, limitations, and their causes;(3) Recommend perspective, solutions to improve policies to develop handicraft village Vietnam. 3 4.2. Data collection method: The thesis used a combination of methods to collect secondary data and primary research methods of quantitative and qualitative research methods to get the information. 4.3. Processing methods, data analysis: The thesis has used statistical techniques and econometrics, SPSS software applications to process data collected. 5. The new contributions of the thesis - Clarification of the factors affecting the development of the village, which analyzes the role of public policy factors in the development of handicraft villages. - Selection criteria for evaluating development policies handicrafts villages including: transparency of policy, relevant of policy, stability/ sustainability of policy, consistency of policy, effectiveness of policy and efficiency of policy. - Assessment of the status of state policy on the development of village handicrafts Vietnam today include: policy on planned villages, products in villages; policy on investment and credit; policy on science, technology and environment; human resources policy and trade policy. The evaluation based policy evaluation criteria and indicate achievements, limitations and causes. - From the assessment of the above policies, the thesis proposes five solutions in order to improve state policy to develop handicraft villages in Vietnam, while providing the necessary conditions to improve the policy system. 6. Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction, conclusion, list of references and appendices, the thesis includes the following chapters: - Chapter 1. Overview of research related to the topic. - Chapter 2. Background theory and practical experience related to state policy to develop handicraft village. - Chapter 3. Situations of state policy to develop the handicraft villages in Vietnam. - Chapter 4. The views and complete solution state policy to develop handicraft village Vietnam up to 2020. 4 CHAPTER 1. Overview of research related to the topic 1.1. Total research and development of village handicraft villages Some national research have studied the the content related to the village and the village development include: Assoc. Prof. Tran Van Chu - HCM National Political Academy completed research in 2004 - 2005 with the contents of "Developing markets for handicraft villages along the Red River Delta in the current period", analyzed the situation clearly consumer market products and solutions to market development; Tran Doan Kim (2002), "Marketing strategy for handicraft products of craft villages in Vietnam up to 2010", PhD thesis: stated to be the system of enterprise marketing strategy for handicraft goods; Tran Minh Yen (2003), "Development of traditional villages in rural Vietnam in the process of industrialization and modernization" (Institute of Economics), has evaluated the traditional craft villages in rural Vietnam, and on that basis determine the views and solutions to promote the development of traditional craft villages; thesis of Mai The Hon (2000) with The content "traditional village development during industrialization and modernization in coastal Hanoi" has analyzed the status of the development of traditional craft villages, which focuses on guidelines, policies and laws, capital market…; Trademarks mentioned in the "Brand of handicrafts and traditional arts" by Assoc. Prof. Nguyen Huu Khai (2006) analyzed the status item Vietnam handicrafts and focus on branding for this item; Content research on village characteristics are also presented in the book "Handicraft Villages North" by author Truong Minh Hang (2006) compiled; Bach Thi Lan Anh (2010), "Sustainable Development of the traditional villages in the northern key economic regions", PhD thesis (National Economics University) focused on the theoretical issues and practical on sustainable village development area north of the key economic regions. One of the research projects are invested and interested in the recent time is "planning study developed handicraft industry towards industrialization in rural Vietnam" funded by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA ) and the Ministry of Agriculture and rural Development in collaboration (2004). Content on workforce training in the village play an important role and has been presented in "Orientation 5 6 training for the labor force in the traditional village" by the Institute for scientific research training (2010) . Besides the research in the country, a number of overseas studies have also researched topics related to the development of villages such as "One Village One Product" Morihiko Hiramatsu-Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan): stated goals and principles of implementation, the results of the implementation of the movement "every village one product" and its effects to the development of the village. The other experience in the development of the country villages such as China, Thailand, Japan, India ... 1.2. Overview of research on state policy for village development and village crafts The domestic research. According to the textbook "Socio-economic policy", NEU, policy is understood in different meanings. According to Le Chi Mai (2001) and documentation of the National Academy of Public Administration (2000), the construction of policy evaluation criteria mentioned and focused on the following criteria: (i) towards targets common development; (ii) create a strong incentive; (iii) in accordance with the actual situation; (iv) feasibility; (v) the reasonableness; (vi) effective for society. Some of the other topics mentioned policies related to village development as research subjects "Some policies on rural industries development" by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development chaired, was introduced policies of the Party and State on agricultural modernization in rural areas 2001-2010 period and some specific policy development of rural industries, development of villages. Policy villages by Nguyen Nhu Chung analysis of PhD thesis (NEU) with the topic "The process of completing the development of policies to promote trade villages in Bac Ninh province between 1997 and 2003 - situation experiences and solutions ". Reporting scientific research "Policy Research and development solutions villages in Vietnam" (2012), The Institute of Planning and design of agricultural - Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, has studied the general status quo of development of villages, the current policy of developing trade villages. The research project of the Institute for Policy and Strategic development of rural agriculture - MARD is "Proposing policies and solutions to promote public- private partnerships in the development of craft villages in the Red River Delta" (2013 ) has given a theoretical framework as well as the status implementation public-private partnership (PPP) in the development of the village. The abroad research. Yared Awgichew works "Policy and Measures to Occupational villiages pratical in Ethiopia" - by Yared Awgichew, Agriculture Technology Transfer Expert, August 2010) reported the experience of the Government of Ethiopia in creating infrastructure, social services , investment planning to develop rural villages. For policy research and policy evaluation, and related research including: Policy in the "Assess the impact of public policy: challenges, methods and results" by Jean Pierre Cling, Mireille Razrfindrakoto Francois Roubaud -IRD-DIAL (2008) focused on the impact of public policy through the policy review; The study evaluated the impact of policies on the economy - society in general are discussed in detail in "Handbook on Impact Evaluation-Quantitative methods and practices" by Shahidur R.Khandker, Gayatri B.Koolwal, Hussain A. Samad synthesis. 1.3. Conclusions from literature review First is the research content related to the village and solutions to develop craft villages. Solutions such as market development, branding, marketing, training, career development planning...to develop handicraft village. Or a system solution development to village development is focused on deep in an area, certain provinces. Second is the content related to policy evaluation and policy villages. Theoretical framework of policies, characteristics of policies and policy evaluation criteria are expressed in detail in the content of this study. 7 8 CHAPTER 2. Background theory and practical experience related to state policy to develop handicraft villages 2.1. Craft village and development of handicraft villages 2.1.1. Craft village and handicraft villages 2.1.1.1. Definition and classification of villages Craft village is one or more residential areas, rural or residential in a commune or township where the activities of rural industries, which produce one or more different types of products. 2.1.1.2. The role of arts and crafts village - To create jobs, contribute to the development socio - economic rural. - Rural industrialization and development of non-agricultural occupations. - To preserve and develop traditional occupations. - Contribute to the effective use of resources in manufacturing, engineering, worker skills or job transfer. - Creating a workforce capable of adapting to the process of modernization of agriculture and rural development. 2.1.2. Development of handicraft villages 2.1.2.1. Definition Development of village is the increase in both quantity and quality, the organizational structure of the villages from low level to high level reflected in the expansion of production scale, the increase in the contribution budget and per capita income, ensuring social security and environmental protection villages. 2.1.2.2. Evaluation criteria developed handicraft village - Indicators of economic sectors - Indicators of social sector - Indicators of environmental 2.1.2.3. Factors affecting the development of handicraft village - Subjective factors including: level of equipped technical facilities, capital and financial capacity, the number and qualifications of employees, level of organization and management, operations marketitng. - Objective factors include: legal and political, economic - technological, population - natural and cultural - social. 2.2. State policy on the development of handicraft village - the basic theoretical 2.2.1. The definition and role of government policy in developing handicraft villages 2.2.1.1. Definition State policy on the development of handicraft village are understood as follows: the state policy on the development of village handicrafts are overall views, thoughts, solutions and tools that the state uses to impact on handicrafts villages to grow in number and growth of economies of scale and logical structure to efficiently use all resources in the villages, creating jobs, improving incomes and improving people who live and perform certain goal oriented overall objectives of the country. 2.2.1.1. The role of state policy on the development of handicraft village - Orientation and regulate the activities of the village. - Stimulating the development of trade villages. - Creating a favorable business environment for the development of villages. 2.2.2. System of state policy on the development of handicraft village Policy on the development of handicraft village is system policies closely ties together, as a system of policies on agricultural development and rural (including village) as: policy on planned villages, products in villages; policy on investment and credit; policy on science, technology and environment; policy on human resources and policy on trade. 2.2.3. Criteria for evaluating government policy in developing handicraft villages To be consistent with the assessment of state policy on the development of village handicrafts, the author focuses on a number of criteria such as: transparency of policy, relevant of policy, stability/ sustainability of policy, consistency of policy, effectiveness of policy and efficiency of policy. 2.3. These factors influence state policy on the development of handicraft villages - The human element construction and implementation of policies - Elements of the organizational structure of the building and policy implementation - Elements of resources invested in the construction and implementation of policies - Factor of administrative institutions, measures to control policy implementation and policy evaluation 2.4. Experience in public policy development in villages and lessons for Vietnam - First, the policy of developing the villages associated with modernization of the countryside. - Second, respect the training and retraining of personnel. - Third, a policy of financial support for the village. - Fourth, the encourage to create a combination of travel companies with traditional villages. 9 10 CHAPTER 3. Situations of state policy to develop the handicraft villages in Vietnam. 3.2.1. Status of department policy development of Vietnam handicraft villages 3.2.2.1. Policy on planned villages, products in villages * About recognizable content, the text of the policy Table 3:11: Review the knowledge content of policy on planned villages, products in villages Percentage of firms interested or know the contents (%) Contents Yes No Policy planning and development of 70,75 29,25 infrastructure to develop villages Conservation programs, development of craft 85,85 14,15 villages including traditional villages, villages with tourism Funding support relocation, rent incentives and 56,60 43,40 land use on the location of planning Businesses to invest in the village will be 57,55 42,45 incentives for land * Evaluation of policy on planned villages, products in villages based on criteria Table 3.12: Evaluating policy on planned villages, products in villages Statistics N Transparency of policy Relevant of policy Consistency of policy Stability of policy Effectiveness of policy Efficiency of policy 103 104 106 103 106 105 Mean Valid 3,17 2,47 2,89 3,30 2,67 2,81 Std. Deviation .743 .897 .999 .987 .987 1.058 Variance .552 .804 .998 .975 .974 1.119 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 5. Totally agree 4. Agree 3. Neutral 2. Disagree 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% cy ci e n nes cti v e Effe Ef fi s y bil it St a cy ten ns is Co l ev an t Re nsp ar e nc y 1. Totally disagree T ra 3.1. Overview of the development of Vietnam handicrafts villages last time 3.1.1. An overview There are over 2900 villages / craft villages, including the village handicrafts accounted for nearly 40% of the total villages. 3.1.2. Achievements and limitations and cause in the development of villages 3.1.2.1. The achievements - First, create jobs contributing to economic restructuring. - Second, to preserve and promote the cultural values of the long tradition and originality of each locality. - Third, the development of trade and tourism. 3.1.2.2. The limitations - First, businesses in villages are largely small scale. - Second, a large part of the craft in the village today is a simple job. Products created with low economic value, lacking of key items. - Third, the limited of capital of households and establishments rural industries - Fourth, the pollution in craft villages is very serious. - Fifth, workers at the village is more limited in education, the majority did not pass basic training so difficult to absorb new technologies. - Sixth, the preservation of traditional culture of the villages have not been focused and interested. - Seventh, lack of information on market 3.1.2.3. The cause of the limitations - Formed mostly spontaneous, unplanned oriented state. - The management of the state for the village is limited, the forecast of development of villages virtually none. - The policies and regulations of the State are now often no or only indirectly related to the village. 3.2. Situations of state policy systems in developing Vietnam handicraft villages 3.2.1. An overview of government policy on the development of handicraft villages in Vietnam Some basic policies: policy on planned villages, products in villages; policy on investment and credit; policy on science, technology and environment; policy on human resources and policy on trade. Figure 3.2: Chart evaluating policy on planned villages, products in villages Source: [Result of survey] 11 12 * Evaluating the satisfication of policy * Evaluation of policy on investment and credit based on criteria Table 3.14: Evaluating the satisfication of policy on planned villages, products in villages Table 3.16: Evaluating policy on investment and credit Statistics Statistics Transparency of policy Relevant of policy Consistency of policy Stability of policy Effectiveness of policy Efficiency of policy 99 102 100 102 104 105 Contents Frequency Percent 1. Completely dissatisfied 14 13,2 Mean 2,38 N 2. Dissatisfied 45 42,5 Median 2.00 Mean 2,55 3,75 3,24 3,55 2,60 2,81 3. Neutral 42 39,6 Mode Std. Deviation .907 .817 .793 .669 .950 .942 4. Satisfied Variance .822 .667 .629 .448 .903 .886 3 2,8 Std. Deviation .822 5. Completely satisfied 2 1,9 Variance .675 2 Valid 100% 5. Totally agree 90% Source: [Result of survey] 3. Neutral 70% 60% 2. Disagree 1. Totally disagree 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% y s nc es ct iv Ef f ic ie en ilit Ef fe St ab is ns y cy te n va le Co Re an sp ar en nt cy 0% Tr The general assessment of the level of satisfaction of the village planning policies are shown in table above shows that the level of satisfaction of this policy is assessed at a lower level, the point is 2,38 (Mean 2,38). The percentage of "completely dissatisfied", "dissatisfied" or "normal" of this policy is quite high, about 95%; number of enterprises "satisfied" very low percentage (about 2.8%) This shows, village planning policy is inadequate and has not been appreciated enterprises. 4. Agree 80% Figure 3.3: Chart evaluating policy on investment and credit Source: [Result of survey] 3.2.2.2. Policy on investment and credit * About recognizable content, the text of the policy * Evaluating the satisfication of policy Table 3.15: Review the knowledge content of policy on investment and credit Table 3.18: Evaluating the satisfication of policy on investment and credit Contents Field of handicrafts and village are funded from the state budget Investment incentives, guaranteed loans at credit institutions and policy beneficiaries of investment credit of the state Credit policy for businesses in the village to get loans Enterprises invest in the village will be supported: training human resources, market development, applied science and technology, transport charges Percentage of firms interested or know the contents (%) Yes No 71,70 80,19 85,85 Contents Frequency Percent 1. Completely dissatisfied 3 2,8 Mean 2,92 2. Dissatisfied 31 29,2 Median 3.00 3. Neutral 44 41,5 Mode 4. Satisfied 28 26,4 Std. Deviation .818 5. Completely satisfied 0 0 Variance .669 106 100.0 28,30 19,81 14,15 Tổng Statistics 3 Source: [Result of survey] 78,30 21,70 Overall, satisfaction levels of investment credit policies were evaluated at an average of 2.92 (Mean 2.92). That shows businesses surveyed rated the satisfaction of this policy is below normal (rated "dissatisfied" occupy 13 14 29.2%, "normal" accounted for 41.5% and no businesses "Completely satisfied" with this policy). 3.2.2.3. Policy on science, technology and environment * About recognizable content, the text of the policy * Evaluation of policy on science, technology and environment based on criteria Table 3.19: Review the knowledge content of Policy on science, technology and environment Yes No The program supports the application and transfer of science and technology for socio-economic development in rural and mountainous areas in 2011-2015 4,.45 57,55 Fund established to support scientific and technological research applied science and technology advances, technology transfer 37,74 62,26 Financial support and technology transfer waste treatment, solve environmental pollution villages 70,75 29,25 Financial support for research, technological innovation to improve productivity, enhance product value 66,04 33,96 Support application of new technologies, new materials, pollution control technology ... 65,09 34,91 Support for science and technology activities to develop products villages 59,43 40,57 Support investment, infrastructure construction and environmental remediation villages 72,64 27,36 Funding support for science and technology in order to reduce environmental pollution 80,19 19,81 Technological innovation and application of techniques to minimize environmental pollution 84,91 15,09 Communication and education, raise awareness about the environment in the village 83,02 16,98 Statistics Transparency of policy Relevant of policy Consistency of policy Stability of policy Effectiveness of policy Efficiency of policy 106 106 106 106 106 106 Mean 3,78 3,81 3,22 2,83 2,82 2,85 Std. Deviation .926 .782 .926 .878 .924 .766 Variance .857 .612 .857 .771 .853 .587 N Valid 5. Totally agree 4. Agree 3. Neutral 2. Disagree nc y ss Ef fe Ef ct fi c i ve ie ne il it y ab St ns is t le en va cy nt 1. Totally disagree Co Tr an sp ar en cy 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Re Contents Percentage of firms interested or know the contents (%) Table 3.20: Evaluating policy on science, technology and environment Figure 3.4: Chart evaluating policy on science, technology and environment Source: [Result of survey] * Evaluating the satisfication of policy Table 3.22: Evaluating the satisfication of policy on science, technology and environment Contents Frequency Percent 1. Completely dissatisfied 1 0,9 Mean 2. Dissatisfied 44 41,5 Median 3 3. Neutral 46 43,4 Mode 3 4. Satisfied 15 14,2 Std. Deviation .716 5. Completely satisfied 0 0 Variance .513 106 100 Tổng Statistics 2,7 Source: [Result of survey] 15 The general assessment of the level of satisfaction of Science, Technology and Environmental Policy is shown in the table above shows that the level of satisfaction of this policy is assessed at low level, with an average score of 2.7 (Mean 2.7). The percentage of "completely dissatisfied", "dissatisfied" or "normal" policy occupies quite high, about 85%; number of enterprises "satisfied" low proportion (approximately 14.2%). This suggests that policies on Science, Technology and Environment is not appreciated. 3.2.2.4. Policy on human resources * About recognizable content, the text of the policy Table 3.23: Review the knowledge content of Policy on human resources Percentage of firms interested or know the Contents contents (%) Yes No Financial support for training, job transfer, open 94,34 5,66 class, handing in villages Support for vocational training for students 92,45 7,55 Development of teachers, training managers and 42,45 57,55 civil servants Development of the network of vocational training 28,30 71,70 for rural workers Support investment in the development of vocational secondary schools in the province have 56,60 43,40 many handicrafts villages Support for investment in infrastructure, equipment for vocational training centers for 71,70 28,30 workers from other provinces Artisans are organized directly handing and tuition revenue, are exempt from taxes 95,28 4,72 vocational Encourage artisans, cooperatives, organizations and associations 91,51 8,49 open class handing, vocational training for workers State policies to honor the artisans, skilled workers have the training, preserving artisans and 84,91 15,09 handing Source: [Result of survey] 16 * Evaluation of policy on human resources based on criteria Table 3.24: Evaluating policy on human resources Statistics Transparency of policy N Hợp lệ Relevant of policy Consistency of policy Stability of policy Effectiveness of policy Efficiency of policy 104 105 102 105 106 105 Mean 3,48 3,43 3,45 3,45 3,13 3,20 Std. Deviation .892 .830 .698 .877 .927 .903 Variance .796 .690 .488 .769 .859 .815 100% 5. Totally agree 90% 4. Agree 80% 3. Neutral 70% 2. Dis agree 60% 1. Totally dis agree 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% y nc re pa s an Tr nt va le Re y nc te sis n Co y ilit ab St s es en tiv c fe Ef y nc ie fic Ef Figure 3.4: Chart evaluating policy on human resources Source: [Result of survey] * Evaluating the satisfication of policy Table 3.26: Evaluating the satisfication of policy on human resources Frequency Percent 1. Completely dissatisfied Contents Statistics 3 2,8 Mean 3,28 2. Dissatisfied 13 12,3 Median 3.00 3. Neutral 44 41,5 Mode 4. Satisfied 43 40,6 Std. Deviation .825 5. Completely satisfied 3 2,8 Variance .681 3 In general, satisfaction of this policy is appreciated, at the level of an average score of 3.28 (Mean 3.28). Businesses surveyed feel "satisfied" or "normal" in this policy (80%); number of businesses "not satisfied" low proportion (approximately 12.3%). This suggests that policies of human 17 18 resources are interested in business and policy actually went into production and business activities in the village. 3.2.2.5. Policy on trade * About recognizable content, the text of the policy Table 3.27: Review the knowledge content of policy on trade Percentage of firms interested or know the contents (%) Contents Yes No Rural commercial development in 201044,34 55,66 2015 and orientation to 2020 Increase knowledge of trade for chairman of 85,85 14,15 cooperative Training and knowledge of trade for 88,68 11,32 businesses in the village Financial support for trade promotion 71,70 28,30 programs in the domestic market Financial support for trade promotion 84,91 15,09 programs oriented export * Evaluation of policy on trade based on criteria Statistics Transparency of policy Relevant of policy Consistency of policy Stability of policy Effectiveness of policy Efficiency of policy 106 106 106 106 106 106 Mean 3.66 3.75 3.14 2.70 3.57 3.02 Std. Deviation .985 .778 .930 .864 .817 .717 Variance .969 .606 .865 .746 .667 .514 N Hợp lệ 100% 5. Totally agree 4. Agree 80% 3. Neutral 2. Dis agree 60% 1. Totally dis agree 40% 20% 0% cy en ar sp n a Tr nt va le Re cy en ist ns Co y ilit ab St ss ne ive ct e f Ef y nc ie fic Ef Figure 3.6: Chart evaluating policy on trade Source: [Result of survey] * Evaluating the satisfication of policy Table 3.30: Evaluating the satisfication of policy on trade Contents Frequency Percent 1. Completely dissatisfied 1 0,9 Mean 3,45 2. Dissatisfied 14 13,2 Median 4.00 3. Neutral 31 29,2 Mode 4. Satisfied 56 52,8 Std. Deviation .806 5. Completely satisfied 4 3,8 Variance .650 106 100 Tổng Statistics 4 The general assessment of the satisfaction level of trade policy in the table above shows: Satisfaction of this policy is assessed at a high level, with an average score of 3.45. Overall, the surveyed enterprises "satisfied" and "completely satisfied" in this policy (about 56%). That shows, trade policy plays an important role for the development of handicrafts villages, are now really interested and appreciated. 3.3. General assessment of system state policy on the development of Vietnam handicrafts villages 3.3.1. Positive, progressive - First, the formulation and promulgation and enforcement of the legal documents, policies have created a legal framework for village activities and development. - Second, the planning of villages and products of the villages has been focused, provide the basis for village operations and development, in order to develop the strength, specific characteristics of the village - Third, the policy department in different areas each have many practical solutions for the development of villages such as investment, credit, Science Technology and Environment, human resources, commercial market ... - Fourth, there is the interest and support of many ministries in formulating and implementing policies in developing trade villages. - Fifth, the survey results, a number of policy criteria to be appreciated through each different policies. 3.3.2. The limitations and weaknesses - First, the state's policy villages for missing, incomplete. 19 20 - Second, the documents specified, the relevant procedural guidelines have not materialized, forms; policy documents lack convincing, there are clearances. - Third, a number of village development policies in different fields is problematic gaps. - Fourth, some criteria are many limitations, not highly evaluated through surveys. 3.3.3. Cause 3.3.3.1. The cause of the policy itself - For planning policies villages, the villages: The materials for the village has not been focused in the overall planning strategy; Planning the village in the direction of each village a profession based on the experiences of Japan and other countries are not really effective; Strategic planning is not holistic lead to the development of the village spontaneous and should cause environmental pollution villages today. - For policy investment and credit policy: Mechanisms to attract and mobilize funds for development of villages is not really effective; Procedures for loans from banks, credit providers today are more troublesome, time-consuming; Policy on interest rates, credit incentives have not really encourage investors to join .. - For science policy, technology and the environment: Support for scientific research and technological application of new technologies for the production of handicrafts villages is limited; The management, direction and administration of environmental protection work in the village is inadequate; The system of legal documents on environmental protection for villages lacking, inconsistent and overlapping. Writing system, although relatively slow, but progress issued. - For human resource policies: The policy on the management of labor resources in the villages is inadequate, the labor situation in the village unwillingness of occupation, labor shortages stable; Policy for artisans also formal, not real artists are respected, not rational treatment. - For trade policy: The support and provide trade information market is limited, not updated regularly; Support for the development of the domestic market, to encourage domestic consumption has not really focused; Policy on expanding tourism market with the development of villages ineffective; Promotion policy for the export market has not been interested. 3.3.3.1. The cause of the conditions to ensure - The staff build and implement organizational policies - The apparatus constructed and organized policy implementation. - The resources for the formulation and implementation of policies. - Sanctions and measures to control the formulation and implementation of policies. Chapter 4. The views and solutions to improve state policy to develop villages handicraft village Vietnam up to 2020. 4.1. Views on the development of Vietnam handicrafts villages - Policy on the development of handicrafts villages attached to the planning of the input, output, infrastructure, with the successor to plan local economic development. - Policy on the development of handicrafts villages must be associated with the development of agricultural production; associated with the characteristics and natural conditions, the level of socio-economic development and infrastructure of each locality. - Policy on the development of handicrafts villages and rural services is the driving force to reduce poverty, create jobs and stabilize the lives of local people. - Policy on the development of handicrafts villages must be associated with the preservation and development of national cultural identity; preserve and maintain the cultural heritage of the local tradition; must be associated with the development of tourism, attracting tourists from home and abroad come to the village and use the products and services of the village. - Science and technology policy to develop handicrafts villages must focus on combining traditional know-how with the application of advanced science and technology. - Policy on the development of handicrafts villages must be associated with the protection and handling of environmental pollution. - Policy on the development of handicrafts villages must be linked to clear division of functions and tasks of state management of the concerned agencies. 21 22 4.2. The solutions to improve state policy on the development of Vietnam handicraft villages 4.2.1. Solutions related to planning handicrafts villages, the villages - Planning the materials for handicrafts village. Planning material areas including the national and regional material areas; implemented formulate plannings and planning of investment, planting seeds of high quality supply for the village. - Planning the village in the direction of each village a profession. - Planning village associated with tourism development. - Planning village associated with environmental protection. Need to organize the relocation of production facilities caused serious environmental pollution from residential areas; synchronous construction of infrastructure, creating conditions for economic zones focused on developing villages effective. - Solutions to support the land. 4.2.2. Solutions related to encourage investment, capital support, incentives credit for the development of villages - Improving the investment environment in the village. - Diversifying forms of capital mobilization. - Improving and diversifying the lending practices. - The support to enhance the efficiency of capital investments. - Reforming administrative procedures, avoiding complicated and cumbersome for access to capital. 4.2.3. Solutions related to science, technology and environment in craft villages - Policy on science and technology: Developing the technology market; Strengthening research and application of science and technology for traditional handicrafts villages; Strengthening research and application of new technologies for the production of the village to be considered as one of the top priority tasks; Strengthening the workforce with technical and raise educational levels and professional qualifications of employees; Choice of technology of environmental treatment in villages. - Policy on investment in infrastructure and of environmental treatment villages: (1) Investment in infrastructure: Support development of the transport system in the village; Support the development of communication systems; Support construction of water supply and drainage; (2) Policy on environment: Build, perfecting mechanisms and policies to improve the efficiency of the State management of the environment; Need a specialized department is responsible for inspecting the implementation of environmental protection, there are provisions sanctioned for businesses and households produce violations of environmental protection laws; Organize the long-term training focus for managers, technicians environmental protection from the commune to the central level; Agencies and departments related to environmental pollution treatment villages coordinated implementation. 4.2.4. Solutions related to human resources to develop villages - The policy of the employer: (1) Policy for employees; (2) Policy for artisans: State policies should be rewarded and appropriate incentives for artisans, encourage them to handing down for vocational training and youth; organizations to consider, recognition and honors awarded to those skilled craftsmen, talented entrepreneurs make a lot of high quality products, export and those inventions, improvements advanced machinery, equipment and technology. - Policy on workforce training: (1) For business owners should have their own training programs; (2) Vocational traditional method: organized and invited artisans or skilled workers in place to vocational training; (3) To diversify forms of vocational training in various sectors at different levels, based on the planning of labor needs to be trained in each sector; (4) Development of vocational training centers of private and state; (5) In conjunction with the school, the Institute offers courses for students who work in the village to raise the level of technical and artistic level; (6) Through the associations, foundations developed as industrial promotion fund to create classes and training funds; (7) To raise the level of culture and education for the residents of the village; (8) The State shall encourage, support for social organizations to participate, develop human resources villages; (9) Policies to encourage appropriate and mobilize maximum participation of business enterprises, production of handicrafts join vocational training; (10) The concerned ministries and branches should develop training standards of traditional craftsmanship, building systems programs and curricula in accordance with the method of flexible vocational training according to the different levels; (11) To invest in building infrastructure for the vocational training institutions, the construction and procurement of equipment and training; (12) The state should have policies to support employment after training, policy development labor market, labor supply and demand mounts; support for self-employment and creating more jobs for workers place after training. 23 24 4.2.5. Solutions related information, trade and market - Complete the development policies, promote key products and branding for the village - Completing policies on domestic institutions - Completing policies on information and marketing. - Innovation policy import, export and international economic integration. - Develop appropriate policies to develop close relationships between tourism companies with the village. - Develop policies active support to enhance trade promotion. 4.3. The other solution to ensure conditions to improve state policy on the development of Vietnam handicrafts villages - Solution of the policy makers and policy implementation: building a team of consultants, professional strategic thinking in the sector, the sector of economic life - society, from middle local level, agencies and units; Working arrangements in accordance with the qualifications, competence, quality of staff; Attract intellectual resources in the formulation and implementation of policies; Retraining and restructuring of staff policy towards improving quality, ensuring consistency, inheritance and development; Expand co-operation and exchange of experience with a team of consultants strategic countries in the region and internationally. - Solutions to organize system construction and implementation of policies: creating active collaboration of the authorities from central to local levels; there should be coordination between the units and the organization of the State; needs the active participation of the members of the policy relating to participation in the formulation of policy. - Solutions to invest resources to construction and implement policy: aside adequate funds for the construction, implementation and policy evaluation; Increasing resources for the formulation and implementation of policies such as the cost of building infrastructure for the implementation of the policy; procurement of equipment, supplies, technical equipment and other material costs. - The sanctions and other measures. CONCLUSION - The thesis has analyzed the role of Vietnam handicraft villages today and clarify the factors affecting the development of the village, which analyzes the role of public policy factors in the development of handicraft villages. In addition, the thesis also studies, learn the experience of village development policies of countries around the world and draws lessons for Vietnam. - The thesis has been codified a theoretical basis for government policy to develop handicraft village in Vietnam. On the basis of the theoretical that the thesis has selected the criteria for evaluating development policies handicrafts villages including: transparency of policy, relevant of policy, stability/ sustainability of policy, consistency of policy, effectiveness of policy and efficiency of policy. Also, the thesis also system some current government policies to develop handicraft village and assessment of these policies, including: policy on planned villages, products in villages; policy on investment and credit; policy on science, technology and environment; policy on human resources and policy on trade. The evaluation based policy evaluation criteria and indicate achievements, limitations and causes. - Based on theoretical analysis, the status of the policy and the lessons to be drawn, the thesis proposes five solutions in order to improve public policy in the development of Vietnam handicraft villages, while providing the necessary conditions to improve the policy system. Besides the achievements of the thesis, the authors found that while some of the content needs to be more complete. This is also the further research orientation of the author in the future. Some research directions are: - First, the synthesis and review of the text of each policy to specify appropriate points or disappropriate points, necessary changes and supplements. - Second, study in depth a specific policy group to evaluate the policies of the stages of the policy process (policy making, policy implementation and policy analysis).
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