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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING HANOI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION CHU VAN TIEM DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY BY USING INTEGRATED THEME TEACHING IN CHEMISTRY AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS Speciality: Reasoning and Teaching Method of Chemistry Classification: 9140111 SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION HA NOI - 2019 Works completed at: Department of Chemistry, Hanoi National University Of Education Supervisor: Reviewer 1: Assoc. Prof. DAO THI VIET ANH Assoc. Prof. NGUYEN THI THANH CHI Assoc. Prof. Dr. HOANG THI CHIEN ThaiNguyen University Of Education Reviewer 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. NGUYEN XUAN TRUONG Hanoi National University Of Education Reviewer 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. PHAM VAN HOAN Hanoi Metropolitan University Dissertation will be defended under the attendance of Board of Dissertation Committee convened at Hanoi National University Of Education at .............am on ...................., 2019 For further information about dissertation, contact: National Library, Ha Noi or Hanoi National University Of Education 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale With the globalization and knowledge booming era all over the world, Vietnam should have possessed a creative, well - adapted and skilled labor force which is able to take action on the foundation of knowledge they have built. In order to meet the demand, Minister of Education is implementing reforming education program in high school (REPHC). The purpose of this program is to develop learners’ ability (LA). In REPHC, general program, ability to solve problem (PSA) is structured in PSA and creativity is one of important abilities essential for high school students (HSS) and secondary school students (SSS). Especially, PSA is the foundation to develop other abilities of science subjects such as: perceive science subjects, understanding science, apply knowledge (AK), obtained skills. Therefore, PSA has important role to students in learning process (LP), working and perceive the world. Developing PSA is an urgent mission of teaching process towards science subjects at SSS nowadays. Integrated - theme learning (ITL) is pedagogy view which was founded on positive ideas about teaching process. This view orients and guides teaching process in order to form and develop certain abilities for students, combine training process with reality. Integrated teaching view is used in constructing new TPAHSL in Vietnam with the goal to consolidate integrated teaching in primary level and secondary schools, draw a distinction and vocational orientation towards high school level. In secondary schools, some subjects are taught by integrated methods such as: Nature science, Geography and History are arranged to be taught in school teaching program. ITL is a modern teaching model, there, contents of more than two subjects are integrated which links with real life problems. Integrated them teaching open opportunities for students to study subjects in relation, logics and interrelation. A survey on program and textbooks of nature science in secondary schools shows that integrated contents were rare and nonsystematic. In teaching, teachers only focused on conveying knowledge of subjects without paying attention to iintegrated learning with knowledge and skills of other subjects in order to form and develop students’ abilities. Through survey result, it is obvious that there has not been any research which studied about developing students PSA through integrated learning systematically. Begin from these reasons, we chose: Developing students’ problem solving ability by using integrated theme teaching in chemistry at secondary schools with the hope to make a contribution to fundamental and complete reformation for education system nowadays. 2. Objective of the study The research studies, constructs and organizes some integrated theme (IT) for NS in secondary schools based on methods and active teaching techniques which aims at developing PSA. 3. Subjects and participants 3.1. Subject of the study The process of teaching chemistry in junior high school. 3.2. Participants Apply problem - solving teaching methods (PST) and project - based teaching (PBT) to organize teaching IT and develop students’ PSA. 4. Scope of the study Developing PSA for students through IT of science subjects, especially Chemistry at SSS. Reseacrh time is from 11/2014 - 12/2018. 5. Research Hypothesis If we can construct IT and apply PST, PBT combined with other methods and Active teaching techniques effectively at secondary schools, it will be able to help develop PSA, contribute to reforming general education oriented a developing learners’ ability. 2 6. Research Mission - Study the theoretical and practical basis of integrated subject teaching to develop problem solving capacity for middle school students: + Theoretical basis of Ability and develop ability for students at lower secondary schools; PSA; Integrated subject teaching, teaching methods and ITL techniques used in ITL. + Study practical background about ITL for NS subjects to develop students’ PSA in lower secondary school. - The study proposes measures to develop problem solving capacity for students through integrated subject teaching in Chemistry in junior high school: - Determine the structure, expression/criteria, levels of student PSA in the integrated ITL organization at the middle school. - Study contents in IT for chemistry in high school and specially for junior high school program. - Study disciplines, constructing process of IT. - Propose solutions to develop PSA in teaching IT in lower secondary school. - Build PSA assessment tools based on proposed solutions. - Experimental research (ER) in order to assess effectiveness and practicality of solutions in research. 7. Research methods Using interchangeably groups of following methods: - Theory research methods group: analyze, summarize, categorize, and systematize,… in general research of related literature. - Practical research methods group: + Survey method: observe teaching process and teaching process of Chemistry, Physics, and Biology at SSS; survey, interview, discuss and consult teachers’ opinions in lower secondary school a; methods ER. + Expert method: Using questionnaire, receive feedbacks and comments from education experts about content of IT in Chemistry. + Experimental research method (ERM): Implement ER in order to verify practicality and effectiveness of suggested methods. - Statistics method: Applying mathematical statistical methods and applied software in applied pedagogical science research to handle pedagogical experiment results. 8. Contribution of dissertation - Conduct surveys and assess current state of developing PSA through science subjects at lower secondary schools. - Propose disciplines and process in constructing IT of NS at secondary schools. - Construct and design 11 IT of NS in teaching chemistry and propose some solutions for ITL at secondary schools in order to develop PSA. - Proposing measures to apply methods of PST and PBT to organize integrated subject teaching in Chemistry in order to develop capacity to PSA in SSS. - Determine criteria, general indications of PSA and build PSA assessment tools through ITL of NS a lower secondary school. 9. Structure of dissertation The thesis has a structure of 3 parts: Introduction (04 page); Content (138 pages); Conclusions and suggestions (02 pages). In which the content consists of 3 chapters: Chapter 1: Rationale and background of integrated themes teaching in order to develop secondary school students’ problem solving ability (43 pages). Chapter 2: Construct and organize teaching integrated themes of science subjects in chemistry at secondary schools (67 pages). Chapter 3: Experimental research (28 pages). References: 07 pages, index (161 pages). 3 CHAPTER 1: RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND OF INTEGRATED THEMES TEACHING IN ORDER TO DEVELOP SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY 1.1. Research background of integrated - theme teaching and developing students’ problem solving ability in the world and in Vietnam 1.1.1. Research on integrated teaching in the world and in Vietnam 1.1.2. Study about integrated - theme teaching in the world and in Vietnam 1.1.3. Research on developing students’ ability in teaching in the world and in Vietnam 1.2. Ability and developing ability for lower secondary school students 1.2.1. Concept of ability Ability is an individual’s property, emerged and developed base on inborn prospects through learning process. It allows humans generalize repertoire, knowledge and skills as well as other property such as interest, beliefs, willing,… implement an activity effectively and achieve expected results in particular condition. 1.2.2. Some indications of ability Ability has some indications: (1) Ability is an individual’s property, emerged and developed base on inborn prospects through learning process, formed due to learning process both in the classroom and outside classroom; (2) Ability is formed, manifested through activities in order to meet certain demands under particular conditions; (3) ‘Effectiveness’ “success” or quality of activities; (4) combine and employ various sources to solve problems in specific context, circumstance and acquire expected results. 1.2.3. Structure of ability Genera l structure of students’ ability comprises of 4 components: Specialized ability, method ability, social ability and individual ability. Earlier four components comply four core tenets of UNESCO (learn to learn, learn to be creative, learn to live and learn to be yourself). 1.2.4. Assessing ability Including: assess through observation, assess through; earning profile, self - assessment, assess through testing. 1.2.5. Important abilities need developing for lower secondary school students 1.2.6. Theoretical background of teaching to develop students’ ability Le Vygotsky‘s development area (1896 - 1934) Ability’s developing line of Robert Glaser (1921 - 2012) Perceiving theory Constructivism theory Answering question theory of Rasch 1.3. Problem solving 1.3.1 Problems, context, circumstances and problem solving Problem is a mission which an individual has to solve, in this; it contains challenge for them for get over directly and easily. A problem often exists in particular circumstance. Problem in learning is a special psychological state which students encounter in learning. It conflicts them between their perception and perceived knowledge. They accept the problem and work out to solve it by their creativity, positive research; from then, they possess knowledge, skills and methods. Problem solving is thinking ability and taking actions in unpredicted situations which have no procedures and rules. Problem solver can determine the objective of action but can not immediately know how to solve it. Understanding about the problem and interpretation about achieving it base on plan and critical thinking ability forms problem solving process. 4 1.3.2. Concept of problem solving ability PSA is the ability in which individuals use their perception, action and attitude, motivation and emotion effectively in order to SP in which there is no rule and procedures for solving it. 1.3.3. Structure of problem solving ability Components of PSA includes: i) Understand problem, ii) Form problem perspective; iii) Form plan and solutions; iv) Assess and reflect solutions. These components of PSA is used to determine criteria, achieving level of PSA of lower SSS through integrated themes teaching of science subjects in chemistry and assessment tools students. 1.4. Rationale of integrated themes teaching 1.4.1. Integration in education Concept of integration Integration is the action or process of integrating. It is combination of many components to form a new entity base on combined characteristics of individuals. It is not a pure math edition. Integration has two basic properties related closely to each other: relatedness and entirety. Integration form of subjects Base on related subjects in learning and research field, it can be categorized integration process into linear integrated and parallel integration. Base on content and association of subjects in teaching program can divide integration into: traditional, blending/combining, integrated subjects, multiple - subject integration, inter - subject integration, cross subject integration. Rationale of integration in education Significance of integrating teaching in education 1.4.2. Integrated teaching Concept of integrated teaching Integrated teaching (IT) is a way of teaching in which teacher guide students to develop their ability to employ their knowledge, skill of many fields in solving a problem in learning and their life effectively. Objective of integrated teaching IT looks into following objectives: develop learners’ ability, signify teaching process, Distinguish core and less important issues; teaching students to use knowledge in certain circumstances; establish links among learned concepts, Knowledge simplification, avoid repeated content. Degrees of Integrated teaching IT can be divided into three degrees from easy to difficult: - Mixing/connecting: Problems reflect social issue, practical issues, relate other subjects into the main subject in teaching lesson. - Apply interdisciplinary knowledge: At this level, learning activity happens around themes, there, leaners need to use their knowledge and skill to solve emerged problems. Those themes are called convergent themes. - Blending: This is the highest level of ITL. At this level, teaching process is considered as no teaching, which means knowledge in lesson cover not one subject but many. Thus, content of IT does need to convey in separate subjects. This integration level will lead to integration of many subjects. 1.4.3. Integrated - theme teaching Definition Integrated theme teaching is a teaching model in which content of two or more than two subjects is integrated and daily life issues are integrated in order to make knowledge related, logic and relevant, suit with students’ learning need and school facilities. 5 Features of integrated theme teaching Integrated teaching employs the following features: integratedness - practicality, collaboration, promote creativity of students. 1.5. Some methods and positive teaching techniques in integrated theme teaching 1.5.1. Some positive teaching methods Project based teaching a) Project - based teaching In this dissertation, we use concept: PBT is a teaching method, there, learners complete their complex study, combine between theory and practice to create high quality products. This type of learning requires learners to have high responsibility in learning process. This way of learning is characterized by following steps from determine the goal, planning, implement PBT, testing and mending, evaluate process and results. Group work is basic form of PBT. b) Characteristics of project - based teaching PBT comprises following properties: Practical Orientation, interest orientation, learners’ self study, action orientation, product orientation, complexity, cooperation, long time lasting, application of IT in project. c) Categorize project - based teaching PBT is categorized base on following ways: content, learners’ participation, time. d) Project - based teaching process PBT is carried out following 5 steps: determine the goal, planning, implement project, display products and assess project. e) Strength and limit of project - based teaching Teaching to solve problem There are many ideas and terminologies towards teaching to SP such as: Teaching from problem, teaching to discover the problem, problem - based teaching. However, the fundamental goal of problem solving is to train problem solving, there, it includes recognizing problem, discovering problem and solving problem. a) Characteristics of problem - solving teaching b) Nature of problem solving teaching c) Problem solving teaching process d) Levels of problem solving e) Strength and limit of problem solving teaching 1.5.2. Some positive teaching techniques Includes: 5WIH technique, mind - mapping, circle technique, KWL technique. 1.6. Reality of integrated theme teaching of science subjects a t secondary school 1.6.1. Purpose, object, time, content of the investigation Investigate essence of developing PSA and status of using positive TM in ITL of science subjects at lower secondary school to develop PSA and 250 teachers of chemistry, physics, biology and geography and 1284 students at 85 secondary school in North, Middle and South of Vietnam. 1.6.2. Findings about teachers Background of teachers- participants surveyed Among 250 teachers surveyed, there was 21,6% male teachers, 78,4 % female teachers, 46% chemistry teachers, 14,8% physics teachers, 28,8 % biology teachers, 1,4% geography teachers, teachers with college degree was 61,2% , B.A was 36,4%, M.A was 2,4 %. 6 Findings about teachers towards significance of developing positive teaching methods to develop students/ problem solving Findings: Very important: 69,6%, important: 28,8%, less important: 1,2%, normal: 0,4%. Findings about teachers‘s using positive teaching methods to develop students’ problem solving ability Findings: research methods: 72,0%; teaching problem solving: 88,0%, PBT: 18,4%; angle based teaching: 20,0%; orixtic dialogue: 48,0% and 100% teachers used to employ ITL. Findings about level of integration teachers use in teaching - Mixing/ connecting: frequent: 40,0%, sometimes: 55,2%; rarely: 4,8%. - Apply interdisciplinary knowledge inter - subject: Frequently: 27,2%, sometimes: 64,4%; rarely: 8,0%; never: 0,4%. - Integrate cross - knowledge and subject in project based teaching: frequently: 1,2%; sometimes: 8,4%; rarely: 8,8%; never: 81,6%. Teachers’ finding about essence of constructing and organizing ITL of science subjects using some positive teaching methods in integrated learning to develop students’ problem solving ability As a result, 100% of teachers said that it is necessary and necessary to build and organize subject teaching to integrate natural sciences in secondary schools. Teaching problem solving: (average: 1,31; standard deviation: 0,46); PBT: (average: 1,65; standard deviation: 0,84), angle based teaching (average: 2,34; standard deviation: 0,67); webquest (average: 2,38; standard deviation: 0,78); handing act (average: 2,22; standard deviation: 0,74); authentic exercise (average: 1,31; standard deviation: 0,46) (coding degree: very essential: 1, essential: 2; less essential: 3, no essential: 4, completely essential: 5). Findings about effectiveness of integrated teaching Teachers’ comments about effectiveness learning through IT: - PSA is developed: Very accurate: 49,6%, accurate: 45,2%, partly accurate: 5,2%, inaccurate 0%. - Students were able to use knowledge of inter - subjects into solving practical issues: very accurate: 48%, accurate: 44,0%, partly accurate: 8,0%. - Students were interested in learning: Very accurate: 48,0%, accurate: 45,2%, partly accurate: 6,8%. - Students mastered knowledge: Very accurate: 1,6%; accurate: 50,4%, partly accurate: 46,4%, inaccurate: 1,6%. Advantages and disadvantages in the process of organizing integrated teaching at secondary schools 1.6.3. Students’ survey result Students’ expectations in science subject lesson: 91% students expects to take part in and tackle real life situations in study process; 75% - expects to have more group work discussion; 95% such as extracurricular activities: visiting, workshop, In addition, 60% students expects not to learn knowledge repeatedly in different subjects such as chemistry and physics. - For experimental exercises and real life problems: 83,5% students agree to have more exercises in teaching NS a lower secondary schools. - For essence to form and train PSA in the classroom and life: 75% was very essential, 20% essential, 4% acceptable and 1% not necessary. - For self- assessment of PSA in learning process of NS: 6% was very good, 28,5% good, 58% not good and 7,5% has not done. - For frequency of apply interdisciplinary knowledge of many subjects to solve problems in learning, unpredicted situations happen in real life: 12% very often, 33% often, 39% sometimes and 16% never. - For students’ approach to real life problem: 12% students did not care; 29,5% often thought and used knowledge of learned subjects; 28% students often discussed with friends to solve or found out answers; 30,5% waited for answers from teachers. 7 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1 In Chapter 1, the results of research on theoretical and practical basis for integrated subject teaching are developed to develop problem solving capacity for junior high school students, specifically: Systemized and analyzed the research on integrated teaching, subject teaching integrated and capacity development for students in the world and in Vietnam; Capacity and capacity development to solve problems for students in junior high schools; Theoretical basis of integrated subject teaching; A number of active teaching methods and techniques are often used in integrated theme teaching organizations. The results show that integrated subject teaching is one of the modern teaching models applied by many countries in the world to develop the ability to apply knowledge, skills,... of many fields. Different learning to solve problems posed in learning and in life for students. In Vietnam, integrated subject teaching is implemented in the current general education program in the direction of developing learners' capacities and in developing new general education programs. Thus, integrated subject teaching opens up opportunities for capacity development, especially the ability to solve problems for students. Structured problem solving capacity in problem solving and creativity is one of the important common competencies that need to be developed for students. However, no work has systematically researched the development of problem solving capabilities for students through integrated subject teaching in Chemistry in junior high school. Through a survey of the situation of organizing subject teaching integrated with natural sciences and developing problem solving capacity for students for junior high school teachers shows: Level of teaching the combination that teachers are currently using in teaching is still low (integration/contact); The development and organization of integrated subject teaching according to active teaching methods to develop problem solving capacity for teachers of teachers is difficult. In addition, the survey results obtained from junior high school students showed that the capacity to solve students' problems in the process of learning natural sciences is not good; The ability to use interdisciplinary knowledge to solve problems in learning and in their life is limited. The results of research on theory and practice have affirmed the construction and organization of integrated subject teaching in Chemistry in order to develop the capacity to solve problems for students is an urgent issue, to meet love current demand for education reform. The theoretical and practical basis mentioned is the basis for us to study and propose the framework of problem solving capacity and measures to develop this capacity for students through integrated subject teaching in Chemistry study at junior high school. 8 CHAPTER 2. CONSTRUCT AND ORGANIZE TEACHING INTEGRATED THEMES OF SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN CHEMISTRY AT SECONDARY SCHOOLS 2.1. Analyze feature of science subjects at secondary schools 2.1.1. Expressing the ability of middle school students to solve problems in integrated subject teaching NS is unified by subjects, concepts and general disciplines. Knowledge of many subjects is repeated; connection of knowledge and skills among NS is not profound. Component ability Searching problem Formulate problems Set up plan and method Evaluate methods and reflect Table 2.1. Indications of PSA of SSS in ITT Expression - Analyze situations, learning mission in ITT. - Propose questions, problems in ITT . - Analyze, determine and gather, select, connect essential inter - subjects in order to complete ITT. - Proposing solutions to solve problems in the integrated theme and selecting appropriate and creative plans. - Set up plan to complete the task. - Complete plan effectively, on time and individual efforts and group cooperation. - Make products, reports the result of research content sufficiently, scientifically and logically. - Display products clearly, logic, scientifically and creatively. - Use criteria in evaluation and self- evaluation. - Adapt in process and apply in solving similar or unexpected situations. 2.1.2. Criteria and degree of evaluation in PSA of students at SSS in ITT 2.2. Analyze goal, content of chemistry at secondary schools Natural sciences are unified by objects, cognitive methods, general concepts and principles; The content of knowledge about the current nature of natural science is presented in many subjects with overlap, the relationship between knowledge, skills,... of natural sciences is not high. 2.3. Analyzing objectives and contents of Chemistry program at secondary school 2.3.1. Objective, content structure of Chemistry program at secondary schools Objective of chemistry program at secondary schools Content structure of chemistry program at secondary schools 2.3.2. Chemistry knowledge content is described in science subjects at secondary schools We carried out a review of program and textbooks of NS a secondary school and determined 13 contents of chemistry described in NS including: material, participles, chemistry elements, compound, material transformation, atmosphere - combustion, water, solution, chemistry fertilizer, carbon and carbon compounds, metal, hydrocarbon, fuel, etylic alcohol, fat, starch and xenlulozo, protein, polime. 2.4. Develop a number of integrated theme in teaching chemistry at secondary schools 2.4.1. Disciplines of establishing integrated themes Discipline 1: Guarantee objective of TPAHSL, form and develop abilities and quality for learners. Discipline 2: Guarantee applicability of research. Discipline 3: Ensuring the specificity of the subject. Discipline 4: Thoroughly grasp the ideology integrated in integrated topic building. Discipline 5: Guarantee validity, reliability and significance for students. 9 Discipline 6: Guarantee educational significance and stable development. Discipline 7: Guarantee application, concerned social issues of local areas. 2.4.2. Procedure of establish integrated themes Step 1: Determine problems and name IT. Step 2: Determine content and knowledge of IT. Step 3: Determine goal of IT. Step 4: Design teaching activities base on IT. Step 5: Establish objective - assessing tools. 2.4.3. Genera structure of integrated themes 2.4.4. Some theme are integrated in Chemistry at junior high school We studied and established 11 programs in IT of NS of different levels in teaching chemistry at secondary schools. Table 2.2. Integrated themes in science subjects No. Theme Integrated form 1 Element - atom - participles and life apply interdisciplinary knowledge 2 Our atmosphere apply interdisciplinary knowledge 3 Water - resources for life apply interdisciplinary knowledge 4 Axit - bazo in life Mixing/connecting 5 Chemistry fertilizer with plants and environment apply interdisciplinary knowledge 6 Carbon - carbon compound - atmosphere transformation apply interdisciplinary knowledge 7 Metan and bioga - green fuel Mixing/applying 8 Etylic acohol and social - economical issue apply interdisciplinary knowledge 9 Fat and human heath Mixing/applying 10 Protein - life source apply interdisciplinary knowledge 11 Polime - recycling festival day Mixing/applying Below, we introduced 02 IT which was established: Integrated theme: Water - Resource for life (class 8) I. Name, topic, duration 1. Title: Water - resource for life 2. Rationale Water is important resource for all creatures on Earth. With knowledge about water property described in chemistry, physics, geography, theme: "Water - resource for life" was established to help students apply their knowledge of inter - subjects in studying the role of water to human life and creatures. Furthermore, it helped students understand the value of fresh water using status in Vietnam and form awareness to use fresh water economically, effectively in life, production and protect water resource. 3. Content of the theme 3.1. Main content of the theme Main content of the theme was illustrated in figure 2.1: Figure 2.1. Water - Resource for life. 10 3.2. Details of the theme Content 1: water composition and properties - Water composition. - Physical property of water. - Chemical property of water. Content 2: Existence of water in nature and water circle - Existence of water in nature. - Water distribution on earth. - Different states of water. - Water evaporation and condensation. - Steam in atmosphere: rain. - Water circle in nature. Content 3: Existence and role of water towards plants Content 4: Existence and role of water towards human body and animals Content 5: Exploit and use water resource - The state of exploiting and using water in Vietnam. - The effect of exploiting fresh water rapidly and cause drought, salutation and effect people in Vietnam. - Environment pollution in Vietnam and resident areas where students live. In the above integrated topic, the basic knowledge of content 2, 3, and 4 students was learned through the subjects of Physics, Biology and Geography in previous classes. Therefore, the process of teaching these contents of the integrated topic is carried out in the direction of helping students apply the knowledge and skills learned of many subjects (knowledge, interdisciplinary skills) to solve some problems in real life. 3.3. Time The integrated topic is done in teaching chapter 5 "Hiro - Water" Chemistry textbook 8 in time: 04 classes in class and 03 weeks at home. 3.4. Problems need tackling in theme Table 2.3. Problems, questions need tackling in Water - Resource for life No.1 1 2 3 4 5 Content Water composition and properties Existence of water and water circle in nature - Problems need tackling - By which atom is water formed? - How to recognize the existence of chemical elements in water molecules ? - What are physical property of water? - How does materials in water dissolve? - What are chemical property of water? How it can be proved? - Where does water exist in nature? - What are states of water in nature? - Is water a renewable resource? What are causes of shortage of water in earth now? Existence and role - Which parts of plants contain water? of water to plants - What are the roles of water in plant growth and fertility? - Why does it produce well if we provide enough water on time for plants? Existence and role - In which form does water exist in human body and animals? of water to human - How does water play important role in human body and animals? and creatures Exploit and use - From which resource is water exploited? water resource 11 - How is water used in real life (life provision, agriculture and hydroelectricity? How is the effect of exploiting water leading to drought, salutation and human life? What is environmental pollution state in resident area where students live? 3.5. Knowledge, skill of different subjects used in theme Apply knowledge, skills of some subjects: chemistry 8 (unit 36: water); Biology 6: unit 21; photosynthesis; unit 24: where is water transported in plants? Unit 35: Conditions for plants to germinate. Physics 6: unit 26 + 27: evaporation and condensation; unit 28 + 29: boiling; Geography 6: unit 20: water steam in atmosphere: rain. unit 23: river and lake, unit 24: Beach and ocean; Geography 8: unit 33: River features in Vietnam. II. Objective of theme 1. Knowledge Students were able to determine: + Qualitative and quantitative components of water. + Physical and chemical properties of water. + Different states of water in nature. Water is renewable resource, however, we need to use and protect it effectively. + Water circle in nature, desalination phenomenon when exploiting water ineffectively. + Role of water towards human and creatures, production and economy of a country. + Vietnam may be one of the nations which suffers from lack of water. Students were able to explain: + Some natural phenomenon relate to water evaporation and condensation, atmosphere humidity. + Effects of exploiting water unsuitably lead to dry, desalination and agriculture practice of Vietnamese. + Analyze solutions to protect fresh water in resident area where students live. 2. Skill Help students develop some skills such as: conduct experiments about water property, gather and process information, address and present in front of crowd, use Mind map to develop individuals’ ideas; use Information Technology in study, study documents and report products. 3. Attitude Students understood that our fresh water resource is very important but it has become rare due to pollution from global, national and local level; students have formed attitude to protect, use and propagate to public significance of water resource; it also encouraged students to learn and study. 4. Aim to develop students’ ability Develop PSA, provide opportunities for students to generalize knowledge, skill,… of different subjects (physics, chemistry, biology, geography…) to tackle learning tasks and real life problems related to water and water preservation effectively. Particularly: - Analyze and identify learning situations and tasks associated with each content: Composition and properties of water; The existence of water in nature and the water cycle; The existence and role of water in plants, animals and people; Exploiting and using water resources in integrated theme. - Propose problems/questions need tackling related to certain content in theme: Water - resource for life” of IT. 12 - Gather, analyze, connect inter - subjects to solve mooted problems or questions related to certain content in PBT” Exploit and use water resource” of IT. - Propose, select solutions for problems properly and creatively. - Make up a plan to implement the mission. - Implement the mission effectively. - Create products, report the results, show research content sufficiently, scientifically and creatively. - Display the products in class engagingly, logically and creatively. - Use assessment criteria and self - assessment. - Make adjustment during implementation process; apply knowledge and skill in solving similar and new problems. III. Final products of the theme Content Water composition and property Students’ way of doing Individual and group work Criteria of successful products - KWL sheet for water. - Results of problem solving presented in sheets (1, 2). Existence and circle of water in Group work at home and Report result of groups (sheet 3). nature report result in class Existence and circle of water to Group work a home and report Report results of groups (sheet human body and animals results to class 4). Existence and circle of water to plants Exploit and use water resource Group work (4 groups) - Pictures, posters, articles about conduct a project (PBT) exploiting and using water “exploit and use water resource. resource” (1 week outside - Reports of the product. classroom). IV. Methods, forms of integrated teaching 1. Forms of teaching activities: Teaching in class, paying visits. 2. Teaching methods: Use mixing different teaching methods: Teaching to PS, PBT, group work. 3. Process of teaching (index V. Testing and assessment Integrated theme: Etylic alcohol and socioeconomic issues (class 9) 2.4.5. Design set of questions, exercises whose contents related to real life problems targeted at developing students’ problem solving ability at secondary schools Concept of capacity-oriented exercises Characteristics of capacity - oriented exercises Classify capacity-oriented exercises The principle of assigning exercises has a content associated with practice in the direction of developing capacity to solve problems for students The process of developing exercises has content attached to practice in the direction of developing capacity to solve problems for students The exercise system has content attached to practice oriented to develop problem solving capacity for students We researched and built a set of 50 questions and exercises whose contents related to real life, these were used in IL of NS to develop PSA at secondary schools. 13 2.5. Procedure of apply teaching to solve problems and project - based teaching in order to teach integrated themes to develop students’ problem solving ability a secondary schools 2.5.1. Procedure of applying method teaching to solve problem to teach integrated themes Step 1: Exchange mission, create conflict in perception and express problems. Step 2: Guide students, discuss and find out solutions. Step 3: Argue, defend, state conclusion and apply new knowledge. 2.5.2. Procedure of applying project - based teaching in integrated teaching Step 1: Determine the goal (brainstorm). Step 2: Plan. Step 3: Implement Project. Step 4: Display Project’s product. Step 5: Evaluate Project. 2.5.3. Design integrated teaching activities in order to develop secondary school students’ problem solving ability We designed 5 teaching plans for 5 IT in ITL of NS to develop PSA at secondary schools. Design teaching plan: Water - resource for life I. Objectives (presented in II. Teaching methods: Using a combination of teaching methods: Solving problems; Project teaching; Group collaboration. III. Students and teachers’ preparation 1. Teacher’s preparation: Laptop, A0 paper, colored pens, sheets, water molecule model, videos about water dissolution by electricity and synthesis of water; chemicals: Na, P2O5, H2O, dried CuSO4, violet sheets, beans; tools: filtering sheet, glass cup, cotton, test - tube, ceramic bowl, ceramic cup, funnel, alcohol lamp, knife, clamp. 2. Students’ preparation: Review previous lessons and discuss assigned tasks in groups. IV. Teaching activities Period 1+2: WATER COMPOSITION AND PROPERTY Activity 1: Warm - up (5 mins) Teacher’s activity - Teacher introduced theme, theme objective, use teaching techniques "KWL", require students complete content in column K and W. - Teacher summarized and commented on students’ knowledge and preparation. - Teacher asked: in your opinion, What is role of water to life? - Teacher comments and concludes: Water is precious resource, has important role to life of creatures on Earth, we will comprehend role of water “Water - Resource for life”. Students’ activities - Students complete content in column K and W in study sheets under teacher’s guide. - Students thought and gave different answers. - Students: Contemplated and got ready to learn. Indications of PSA - Analyze situations, learning missions in IT. - Propose questions/problems need tackling in IT. Activity 2: Determine water composition (30 mins) Teacher’s activity Students’ activity Indications of PSA Teacher: Divide class into 4 Students: Divided into groups. - Analyze situations and group, these groups discuss water Students: Work in group, study data, study duty. composition. discuss and complete answer sheet 1. 14 Teacher: Ask students to study documents (textbooks, videos illustrate water breaking - up and water synthesis, pictures and data about water composition and property to answer questions in learning answer sheet 1 (Notice: can let students conduct experiment if possible). Teacher: Ask one group of student report their result. Teacher: Comments, gives feedback and concludes. Water is a composition of two elements hidro and oxygene. They are combined in proportion 2 : 1 (volume) and 1 : 8 (weight). Teacher: Ask students to repeat existence of water, give illustration. Teacher: give a real life problem: in summer, the weather is hot, Long usually freeze water in plastic cups, after many time observing water volume in the cups before and after freezing it, Long saw that water volume increased in comparison with original water, Long did not add more water in freezing process and very curious about this? Can you explain for Long? Teacher comments and concludes. Students: + Each water element comprised by 2 atom H and 1 atom O. + By water breaking - up experiment, people know existence of elements in water: H and O Equation: 2H2O   2H2 + O2 + When mixing H and O with proportion in term of volume we got + MH2O = 2.1 + 1.6 = 18 (g) + Weight proportion: mH : mO = 2.1 : 16 = 1:8. + Weight components of H and O: %H= (2.1)/18 = 11,1%; %O = 16/18 = 88,9%. - Students: Group leader reported the result of group - Students’ answer: water exists in 3 states: drinking water (liquid), freezing water (solid) and steam (atmosphere). - Students work in group, discuss and form hypothesis. Hypothesis: Due to empty arrangement of freezing water atoms compared to soft water, (Distance of freezing water atoms is longer than soft). - Method of activity: Students studied documents to understand about distance of water atoms at different states to confirm hypothesis and PS). - Gather, analyze, connect important knowledge to complete the duty. - Build products, report the result precisely and sufficiently. Display products scientifically, logically and creatively. - Analyze situations and study duty. - Gather, analyze and connect important intersubjects to complete IT’s mission. - Propose, select solutions to solve problems in IT properly and creatively. Activity 3: Understanding physical property of water (5 mins) Teacher’s activity Students’ activity Indications of PSA - Teacher: Ask students to study documents and use their knowledge about water, present physical property of water. - Teacher calls students to answer questions and other students listen and comment. - Teacher: Comments and conclude physical property of water. - Students: Water is colorless liquid (Thick layer of water can be blue), no smell and tasteless, boil a 1000C (P = 760 mmHg), become solid at 00C when freezing water and snow, d(H2O = 1g/ml (at 40C). Water can dissolve many sold materials ( sugar, salt,...) liquid (alcohol, axit), gas (HCI, NH3). Analyze situations and study mission. Gather, analyze and connect data to complete the mission. 15 Activity 4. Instructions for students to self - study at home (5 mins) Teacher’s activity - Teacher introduces next study (Learning slip No. 2) task for students (objective, methods, data collection instruments and time allowance). Ask students to read requirements, discuss to understand the task. - Teacher asks students to arrange time to meet each other to complete task at home (1 week). During the process of working on the task, teacher always gets ready to support students. Students’ activity - Students work in group, receive assignment, meet each other, read the duty, discuss to understand task. - Groups plan to complete task, assign tasks for other members and report the result after 1 week. Criteria for products Students present 0 products on A paper or word software to report. Encourage students to Mindmap to present result of group. Activity 5. Study chemical property of water (40 mins) Teacher’s activity Students’ activity Indications of PSA - Teacher organize students into groups to discuss chemical property of water. - Teachers guide students to conduct each experiment of water in effect with Na and Cu; CaO and CuO, P2O5 and SiO2 (Can be replaced by experimental videos). Ask students to observe and complete the task in the worksheet No. 3 (20'). - Teachers: Observe, support students’ group work activity. - Teacher: Ask students to stick their products on the board and each group takes turn to present. - Teacher: Let groups discuss , comment each other - Teacher: Answer students’ questions during discussion and give feedbacks to each group. - Teacher concludes chemical property of water. Water reacts to some metals a normal temperature such as (Na, K, Ca..) formed oxit bazo such as NaOH, KOH, Ca (OH)2; react with oxit axit. - Teacher: Use groups’ assessment to evaluate the results of every group. - Students: Work in group, observe teacher’s experiments and study textbooks to complete study duty in assessment sheet 3 (on A0 paper). - Prepare to present products. - Students: Take turn to present products. Students comment other group’s, give questions. Students: Discuss and exchange concerned issues. Students write down chemical property of water in notebook. Student take part in assessment process and give feedback. - Analyze situations, study mission. - Gather, analyze, connect important inter - subjects to complete duty. - Build products, report results of research process. - Present products clearly, scientifically and creatively. - Use criteria in assessment and self study. Activity 6. Instructions for students to self - study at home (5 mins) Teacher’s activity - Teacher introduces next study (Learning slip No. 4) task for students (objective, methods, data collection instruments and time allowance). Ask students to read requirements, discuss to understand the task. - Teacher asks students to arrange time to meet each other to complete task at home (1 week). During the process of working on the task, teacher always gets ready to support students. Students’ activity - Students work in group, receive assignment, meet each other, read the duty, discuss to understand task. - Groups plan to complete task, assign tasks for other members and report the result after 1 week. Criteria for products Students present 0 products on A paper or word software to report. Encourage students to Mindmap to present result of group. 16 WORK SHEET 1 Study documents (textbooks, videos about “water breaking - up” and “synthesis of water”, pictures and data about water components and structure) and complete the following exercise. 1. From the experiment of breaking water up - Let one - way electricity go through water, on the two side electrode appear ……. test - tube A’s gas volume is …........................... times higher than that in test - tube B. - Burn gas in test - tube A, there appears a phenomenon:................................................................... - Which makes match in the test- tube B burn into flame is............................................................... - PTHH of water breaking - up is:....................................................................................................... 2. From the experiment of synthesizing water:.................................................................................. - After reaction, .................................................................................................................................. - Hidro and oxi was chemicalized in proportion of volume: ............................................................ 3. Calculate water weight, proportion and element component of water’s atoms ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. WORKSHEET 2 1. Implement experiment Pour 150 ml water into 250ml - water cup, drop some freezing ice to make water in the cup cool. Put the cup of water in the air for some minutes. Observe and describe what happen. 2. Use your knowledge and documents from newspapers, articles and internet to answer following questions - Why atmosphere has humidity, what does it mean? - How to determine humidity of atmosphere (%)? - State effect of atmosphere humidity to human life and health (a local level, what time of year does atmosphere has highest and lowest humidity rate, your opinion about that humidity disparity? - Observe the images from weather broadcast and tell humidity of Lai Chau province, Ha Giang and Ha Noi, explain those figures’ meanings? 3. Vietnam enjoys monsoon - tropical climate and has high amount of precipitation. Using your knowledge and experience from reality, answer these questions a) What time of the year is the rainy reason in Norh, Middle and South? b) Explain process forming rain. 4. Observe the picture below and answer the following questions a) Describe circle of water in nature. b) A student’ opinion is that water is renewable resource so we can use it limitlessly without worrying about lacking and protecting it. What is your opinion? (Each student present his or her idea about that statement and state of water pollution where you live (500 words), after that discuss in group, summarize and write report for the group. 17 WORK SHEET 3 Observe experiment and study textbook, complete the following table: Chemical properties of water Effect on metal Effect with some basic oxygen Effect with some acid oxides Experiment H2O + Na H2O + Cu H2O + CaO H2O + CuO H2O + P2O5 H2O + SiO2 Phenomena Chemical equation Conclude WORKSHEET 4 Objective: Help students know how to recognize existence of water in plants, significance of water to existence, growth and prosperity of plants. Preparation: about 30 healthy, green beans, 3 cups numbered 1, 2, 3 and some cotton. Study documents and conduct experiments to answer questions 1. + Where does water exist on plants? Can we use dried CuSO4 to recognize water in plants? Why? + Procedure of experiment: Put 10 green beans into one cup, and 10 green beans in second cup and pour water full of these beans. Put some cotton into the third cup and add 10 green beans in these beans. Put three cups in cool place, after 3 - 4 days, observe germination of these beans and determine number of germinating beans, explain and comment the role of water towards germination of beans. 2. How many percentages does water account for in human body? What is the role of water towards human body? What happen if our body lack water? 3. Is the proportion of water in each individual the same? Why (the amount of water necessary for water is 40ml/kg weight? Calculate amount of water needed for body each day? 4. Present the way of drinking water scientifically, suitably and effect towards human body? PERIOD 3: THE PRESENT OF THE WATER IN NATURAL AND NATURAL PROCESS OF THE WATER. ROLE OF WATER IN BIOLOGY Activity 1: Warm - up (2 mins) Teacher: State objective of the lesson, lead in friendly atmosphere, take responsibility and supervise students’ preparation. Activity 2. Report the result of learning task (work sheet 2 and 4) of group (25 mins) Teacher’s activity - Teacher: Ask student groups to paste the active product at home (learning card number 2) on the board. - Teacher: Request a representative of a group of students to report on the results of the task 2 (5'). The remaining groups listen, prepare questions to exchange, comment and discuss. - Teacher: Ask the discussion groups. - Teacher: The organization reports the results of the task 4 and discusses with the groups according to the same process as above. - Teacher can provide more support, and make questions to clarify the presentation. - Teacher: Ask other groups to evaluate presenting groups. Students’ activity - Groups stick their products to the board. - The representative of each group will present the result, other groups has to listen and give comments. - Other group members support by illustration and supplement. - The secretary of group write down comments. - Answer other group’s questions, raise Indications of PSA - Build products, report the result effectively, logically and creatively. - Present products logically, scientifically, creatively. - Use assessment criteria and self assessment. 18 - Teacher: Combine the evaluation of students and questions teachers, concluding the learning outcomes of student groups. groups. - Teacher: Comments and conclusions about the existence of water in nature and the role of water in organisms. for other Activity 3: Planning a project (18 mins) General question: How to use natural resource effectively for stable prosperity of human? Teacher sets up problem and set questions for the lesson: Water has important role to life and renewable resource. However, with the ineffective use of water nowadays, fresh water is seriously polluted and become rare. The state of lacking fresh water for use in daily life, desertification, desalination are happening quickly and seriously in the world and in Vietnam. What are good methods to use water properly and preserve it? Students take part in analysis process, study and agree on study proposal and implement the project "Exploit and use water resource". Content questions: Imagine you are environmentalist, study and gather information and address these problems. 1. Where can we exploit fresh water? 2. How is water used in reality? 3. How does dry, lack of water for daily use, desalination due to improper exploitation of fresh water affect to manufacturing and people’ lives in Vietnam? 4. What is the state of water use in your local area? 5. How can we propagate people to be aware and protect our water resource? (requirements: drawing, designing journals, making videos about protecting water). Teacher’s activity Teacher: Using your knowledge about water and role of water in our life, propose study projects relate to social and life problems which are concerned nowadays. - Based on students’ opinions, students lead students into life meaningful projects and agree to use "Exploit and use water resource ". - Teacher divides class into 4 groups and complete a project. - Ask groups determine the goal of project and Mindmap for project, make plan to implement project. - Supervise, support groups, propose research questions, use teaching techniques, search information and report products. - Comments, give advice for project. Students’ activity - Base on knowledge about water, students propose some ideas for setting up projects (use Mindmap). - Students agree to use project “exploit and use water resource”. - Groups’ leader organize and supervise group discussion to complete these tasks. + Determine goal and mission of project. + Propose and discuss research questions for project. + Make and plan Mindmap about project completion. + Discuss with teachers to complete projects. + Assign need - to - do tasks for group members, discuss to understand tasks and need - to - complete products. + Groups discuss to understand assessment criteria of project’ products. Indications of PSA Analyze situations and study duty. + Propose questions/ problems need tackling in projects. + Gather, analyze intersubjects to complete project. + Propose, select solutions for problems in project properly and creatively. + Make plan to complete duty.
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