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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE UNIVERSITY OF DANANG TRẦN THỊ THÙY OANH A COGNITIVE STUDY OF METAPHORS BASED ON HUMAN SENSES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE DOCTORAL THESIS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES Danang - 2018 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE UNIVERSITY OF DANANG TRẦN THỊ THÙY OANH A COGNITIVE STUDY OF METAPHORS BASED ON HUMAN SENSES IN ENGLISH AND VIETNAMESE Major: English Linguistics Code: 62.22.02.01 DOCTORAL THESIS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES Supervisors: 1. Dr. Trần Quang Hải 2. Prof. Dr. Nguyễn Văn Hiệp Danang - 2018 i STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP Except where reference is made in the text of the thesis, this thesis contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a thesis by which I have qualified for or been awarded another degree or diploma. This thesis has not been submitted for the award of any degree or diploma in any other tertiary institution. Danang, January 2018 Tran Thi Thuy Oanh ii ABSTRACT The thesis studies English and Vietnamese conceptual metaphors based on the five basic human senses namely vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The study uses the descriptive, analytic, synthetic, qualitative, quantitative, comparative, contrastive, deductive and inductive methods. The research finds out 19 conceptual metaphors from setting up the mappings or sets of correspondences between the source domains and target domains for each sense with the explanation in each situation. At the same time, this work points out the similarities and differences between the two languages. Most of conceptual metaphors can be found in both languages, but some are unique to Vietnamese or English. The study also examines source domains sharing target domains. Moreover, the “cross-expressions” between human senses in expressing language are also clarified. The study suggests the implications for teaching, learning and translating English in the view of cognitive linguistics in general and conceptual metaphor theory in particular. . iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CD conceptual domain CL Cognitive Linguistics CM conceptual metaphor CMs conceptual metaphors CMT conceptual metaphor theory HSs human senses ME metaphorical expression SD source domain OALD The Oxford Advanced Learning Dictionary TD target domain VD The Vietnamese Dictionary iv TABLE OF CONTENTS STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP............................................................................ i ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. ii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................................................................................... iv LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….viii LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................... x CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 1 1.1. Rationale ....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Aims of the Study ......................................................................................................... 3 1.3. Objectives of the Study ................................................................................................. 4 1.4. Research Questions ....................................................................................................... 4 1.5. Scope of the Study ........................................................................................................ 4 1.6. Significance of the Study .............................................................................................. 6 1.7. Organization of the Study ............................................................................................. 6 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................. 8 2.1. Cognitive Linguistics .................................................................................................... 8 2.1.1. The concepts of Cognitive Linguistics ................................................................... 8 2.1.2. Main tenets in Cognitive Linguistics .................................................................... 10 2.2. Conceptual Metaphor .................................................................................................. 11 2.2.1. The views of Conceptual Metaphor ...................................................................... 11 2.2.2. Related concepts ................................................................................................... 15 2.2.2.1. Conceptual domain .......................................................................................... 15 2.2.2.2. Source domain ................................................................................................. 16 2.2.2.3. Target domain .................................................................................................. 16 2.2.2.4. Mappings.......................................................................................................... 16 2.2.2.5. Conceptualization ............................................................................................ 18 2.3. Human senses.............................................................................................................. 19 2.3.1. The concepts of human senses ............................................................................... 19 2.3.2. Vision ..................................................................................................................... 20 v 2.3.3. Hearing .................................................................................................................. 21 2.3.4. Touch ..................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.5. Smell ...................................................................................................................... 23 2.3.6. Taste ....................................................................................................................... 23 2.4. Metaphor in literature ................................................................................................. 24 2.5. Related research .......................................................................................................... 25 2.5.1. A general review .................................................................................................... 25 2.5.2. The typical related works in English ..................................................................... 28 2.5.2.1. The work of Lakoff and Johnson...................................................................... 28 2.5.2.2. The work of Sweetser ....................................................................................... 29 2.5.2.3. The work of Ibarretxe-Antuñano ...................................................................... 30 2.5.2.4. The work of Kövecses ...................................................................................... 31 2.5.3. The typical related works in Vietnamese ................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY .......................................................................... 36 3.1. Data collection and analysis ....................................................................................... 36 3.1.1. Data collection ....................................................................................................... 36 3.1.2. Data analysis .......................................................................................................... 41 3.2. Metaphor identification……………………………………………………...………43 3.3. Methods of the Study .................................................................................................. 45 3.3.1. Descriptive method ................................................................................................ 45 3.3.2. Analytic and synthetic methods ............................................................................. 45 3.3.3. Qualitative and quantitative methods .................................................................... 46 3.3.4. Comparative and contrastive methods ................................................................... 46 3.3.5. Deductive and inductive methods .......................................................................... 46 3.4. Summary ..................................................................................................................... 47 CHAPTER 4. CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS BASED ON HUMAN SENSES IN ENGLISH ................................................................................................................ 49 4.1. Conceptual metaphors based on vision ....................................................................... 49 4.1.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS VISION .................................................... 49 4.1.2. HUMAN EMOTION IS VISION .......................................................................... 53 4.1.3. MEETING IS VISION .......................................................................................... 56 4.1.4. JUDGMENT IS VISION ....................................................................................... 57 vi 4.2. Conceptual metaphors based on hearing .................................................................... 59 4.2.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS HEARING ............................................... 59 4.2.2. GETTING INFORMATION IS HEARING ......................................................... 62 4.2.3. HUMAN EMOTION IS HEARING ..................................................................... 63 4.3. Conceptual metaphors based on touch........................................................................ 65 4.3.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS TOUCH ................................................... 65 4.3.2. HUMAN EMOTION IS TOUCH ......................................................................... 67 4.4. Conceptual metaphors based on smell ........................................................................ 69 4.4.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS SMELL .................................................... 69 4.4.2. INTEREST IS SMELL .......................................................................................... 71 4.4.3. EXPERIENCE IS SMELL .................................................................................... 73 4.5. Conceptual metaphors based on taste ......................................................................... 74 4.5.1. LANGUAGE IS TASTE ....................................................................................... 75 4.5.2. EXPERIENCE IS TASTE ..................................................................................... 75 4.6. Summary ..................................................................................................................... 76 CHAPTER 5. CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS BASED ON HUMAN SENSES IN VIETNAMESE ....................................................................................................... 79 5.1. Conceptual metaphors based on vision ....................................................................... 79 5.1.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS VISION .................................................... 80 5.1.2. HUMAN EMOTION IS VISION .......................................................................... 86 5.1.3. MEETING IS VISION .......................................................................................... 91 5.1.4. JUDGMENT IS VISION ....................................................................................... 92 5.2. Conceptual metaphors based on hearing .................................................................... 94 5.2.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS HEARING ............................................... 95 5.2.2. GETTING INFORMATION IS HEARING ......................................................... 97 5.2.3. HUMAN EMOTION IS HEARING ..................................................................... 99 5.3. Conceptual metaphors based on touch...................................................................... 101 5.3.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS TOUCH ................................................. 101 5.3.2. HUMAN EMOTION IS TOUCH ....................................................................... 104 5.4. Conceptual metaphors based on smell ...................................................................... 105 5.4.1. AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS SMELL .................................................. 105 5.4.2. EXPERIENCE IS SMELL .................................................................................. 106 vii 5.4.3. HUMAN EMOTION IS SMELL ........................................................................ 107 5.4.4. JUDGMENT IS SMELL ..................................................................................... 108 5.5. Conceptual metaphors based on taste ....................................................................... 109 5.5.1. LANGUAGE IS TASTE ..................................................................................... 110 5.5.2. EXPERIENCE IS TASTE ................................................................................... 111 5.5.3. HUMAN EMOTION IS TASTE ......................................................................... 111 5.5.4. THING IS TASTE ............................................................................................... 113 5.5.5. HUMAN IS TASTE ............................................................................................ 113 5.6. Summary ................................................................................................................... 115 CHAPTER 6. A CROSS-LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS .......................................... 118 6.1. Comparison and contrast between conceptual metaphors based on human senses in English and Vietnamese. .................................................................................................. 118 6.1.1. Vision ................................................................................................................... 118 6.1.2. Hearing ................................................................................................................ 120 6.1.3. Touch ................................................................................................................... 121 6.1.4. Smell .................................................................................................................... 122 6.1.5. Taste ..................................................................................................................... 123 6.1.6. “Cross-expressions” between human senses ....................................................... 124 6.1.7. Summary .............................................................................................................. 126 6.2. Source domains sharing target domains.……………………..………………………..128 6.2.1. Vision, Hearing, Touch, Smell - An Intellectual Activity ................................... 128 6.2.2. Vision, Hearing, Touch, Smell, Taste - Human Emotion ................................... 131 6.2.3. Vision, Hearing - Judgment ................................................................................. 133 6.2.4. Summary .............................................................................................................. 134 6.3. Chapter summary ...................................................................................................... 134 CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSION .............................................................................. 141 7.1. Concluding remarks .................................................................................................. 141 7.2. Implications from the results .................................................................................... 143 7.3. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research .................................. 144 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ SOURCES OF DATA ................................................................................................. viii LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1: The entities and sensory activities of the five basic HSs in English and Vietnamese ...........................................................................................................................5 Table 2.1: Mappings for the LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphor .........................................17 Table 2.2: Extremities of the five basic human senses ......................................................19 Table 4.1: Mappings for the AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS VISION conceptual metaphor ............................................................................................................................ 49 Table 4.2: Mappings for the HUMAN EMOTION IS VISION conceptual metaphor .....54 Table 4.3: Mappings for the MEETING IS VISION conceptual metaphor ......................56 Table 4.4: Mappings for the JUDGMENT IS VISION conceptual metaphor ..................57 Table 4.5: Distribution of CMs based on vision in English ..............................................58 Table 4.6: Mappings for the AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS HEARING conceptual metaphor…………………………………………………………………………..60 Table 4.7: Mappings for the GETTING INFORMATION IS HEARING conceptual metaphor ............................................................................................................................ 62 Table 4.8: Mappings for the HUMAN EMOTION IS HEARING conceptual metaphor .63 Table 4.9: Distribution of CMs based on hearing in English ............................................64 Table 4.10: Mappings for the AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS TOUCH conceptual metaphor ............................................................................................................................ 65 Table 4.11: Mapping for the HUMAN EMOTION IS TOUCH conceptual metaphor .....68 Table 4.12: Distribution of CMs based on touch in English .............................................69 Table 4.13: Mappings for the AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IS SMELL conceptual metaphor ............................................................................................................................ 70 Table 4.14: Mapping for the INTEREST IS SMELL conceptual metaphor .....................72 Table 4.15: Mapping for the EXPERIENCE IS SMELL conceptual metaphor ...............73 Table 4.16: Distribution of CMs based on smell in English..............................................74 Table 4.17: Mappings for the LANGUAGE IS TASTE conceptual metaphor .................75 Table 4.18: Mappings for the EXPERIENCE IS TASTE conceptual metaphor ...............76 Table 4.19: Distribution of CMs based on taste in English ...............................................76 Table 4.20: Distribution of CMs based on HSs in English ................................................77 ix Table 5.1: Distribution of CMs based on vision in Vietnamese ........................................94 Table 5.2: Distribution of CMs based on hearing in Vietnamese ....................................100 Table 5.3: Distribution of conceptual metaphors based on touch in Vietnamese ...........104 Table 5.4: Mapping for the HUMAN EMOTION IS SMELL conceptual metaphor .....107 Table 5.5: Mapping for the JUDGMENT IS SMELL conceptual metaphor ..................108 Table 5.6: Distribution of CMs based on smell in Vietnamese .......................................109 Table 5.7: Mapping for the HUMAN EMOTION IS TASTE conceptual metaphor ......112 Table 5.8: Mapping for the THING IS TASTE conceptual metaphor ............................113 Table 5.9: Mapping for the HUMAN IS TASTE conceptual metaphor..........................113 Table 5.10: Distribution of CMs based on taste in Vietnamese ......................................114 Table 5.11: Distribution of CMs based on HSs in Vietnamese .......................................115 Table 6.1: Comparison and contrast between CMs based on vision in English and Vietnamese .......................................................................................................................119 Table 6.2: Comparison and contrast between CMs based on hearing in English and Vietnamese .......................................................................................................................120 Table 6.3: Comparison and contrast between CMs based on touch in English and Vietnamese .......................................................................................................................121 Table 6.4: Comparison and contrast between CMs based on smell in English and Vietnamese .......................................................................................................................122 Table 6.5: Comparison and contrast between CMs based on taste in English and Vietnamese .......................................................................................................................123 Table 6.6: Comparison and contrast between CMs based on HSs in English and Vietnamese……………………………………………………………………………...127 Table 6.7: Source domains share the target domain AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY ..........................................................................................................................................130 Table 6.8: Source domains share the target domain HUMAN EMOTION ....................133 Table 6.9: Source domains share the target domain JUDGMENT .................................134 Table 6.10: Comparison and contrast between CM based on HSs in English and Vietnamese .......................................................................................................................137 x LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1: The structure of perception metaphors ........................................................... 30 Figure 2.2: A new model for perception verbs .....................................................................31 Figure 3.1: Accounting the expressions by the function of the excel software ................40 Figure 3.2: The folder of expressions based on vision .....................................................41 Figure 3.3: Extract of the OALD for the word ‘see’ ........................................................41 Figure 3.4: Extract of the VD for the word ‘ngo ̣t ngào’ ....................................................62 Figure 6.1: “Cross-expressions” between human senses in Vietnamese ........................126 Figure 6.2: Source domains share the target domain AN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY ..........................................................................................................................................128 Figure 6.3: Source domains share the target domain HUMAN EMOTION ..................131 Figure 6.4: Source domains share the target domain JUDGMENT ...............................133 Figure 6.5: Distribution of ME based on HSs in English ...............................................135 Figure 6.6: Distribution of ME based on HSs in Vietnamese ........................................135 Figure 6.7: Distribution of CM based on HSs in English and Vietnamese ....................136 Figure 6.8: Distribution of similarity and difference of CMs of HSs in English and Vietnamese ......................................................................................................................139 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rationale Cognitive linguistics (CL) originally emerged in the early 1970s attracting many linguists’ interests such as G. Lakoff, M. Johnson, R. Langacker, L. Talmy, W. Chafe, R. Jackendoff, G. Fauconnier, Ch. Fillmore, U. Neisser, E. Rosch, A. Wierzbicka, Yu. Stepanov, N. Aruchiunova, V. Demiankov, E. Kubriakova, V. Maxlova, A. Parchin, I. Protopopova, E. Iakovleva, etc. According to the cognitive approach, linguistic knowledge is considered cognition and thinking. Human beings use knowledge and experience of things and events they have and know well to transfer to those other ones in so unfamiliar or abstract concepts, especially in the case of metaphors. Notably, in 1980, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson first extensively explored this theory by atypical work Metaphors We Live By (revised in 2003) which has become popular with linguistic works around the world in recent years. It is said that the human conceptual system is “fundamentally metaphorical in nature” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 3). In the view of traditional concepts, metaphor is a linguistic phenomenon with artistic and rhetoric purpose, based the similarities between two objects, used by talented people or for special effects (Kövecses, 2010). However, it has been challenged deeply in the light of CL. According to Lakoff and Johnson (1980), “metaphor is a property of concepts, and not of words; the function of metaphor is to better understand certain concepts, and not just some artistic or esthetic purpose” (cited in Kövecses, 2010, p. 10). Lakoff and Johnson (1980) also defined that “metaphor is often not based on similarity; metaphor is used effortlessly in everyday life by ordinary people, not just by special talented people; and metaphor, far from being a superfluous though pleasing linguistic ornament, is an inevitable process of human thought and reasoning” (cited by Kövecses, 2010, p. 10). In fact, 2 “metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain” and called “conceptual metaphor” (Kövecses, 2010, p. 4). Our conceptual system is highly metaphorical, “the way we think, what we experience, and what we do everyday is very much a matter of metaphor” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 4). In other words, in the view of CL, “metaphor is fundamental to language and cognition in that it represents and records how people conceptualize their experiences, attitudes and practices” (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 3). Lakoff (1987) shows that metaphor is conceptual in nature, and its mappings are regarded as conventional mental mechanisms and experientially motivated. It allows us to “understand ourselves and our world in ways that no other modes of thought can” (Lakoff & Turner, 1989, p. xi). Our own bodies are used as an ideal reference point to describe or refer to something related. Kövecses (2002) defines that “although our thoughts have to be done by systematic metaphorical mapping, a common target domain is the human mind and “being such an abstract concept, it is not surprising we employ metaphors for better comprehension” (p. 21). Generally speaking, there have been many cognitive linguistic researches on metaphors based on human body parts in the world. This is understandable; because human body parts are very specific, very close to our lives and our understanding. We take ourselves to imagine the world, reflect the development path of our awareness by expressing ideas from concrete to abstract. By talking, working, and getting feelings with the changes we experience, we receive knowledge of parts of our body. According to Kövecses (2010), “the human body is an ideal source domain, since, for us, it is clearly delineated and (we believe) we know it well. This does not mean that we make use of all aspects of this domain in metaphorically understanding abstract targets” (p. 18). Thus, many researches focus on conceptual metaphors based on body parts such as the head, hands, stomach or conceptual metaphors of emotion, love and so on. However, there are still not any works of conceptual metaphors based on human senses in detail, especially in English compared and contrasted with Vietnamese. Actually, every 3 day we have to look with our eyes, hear with our ears, smell through our nose, taste with our tongue, and touch things around us by hand. Through the five basic human senses of vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste, we experience the world surrounding us and express what we get with language. For instance, the SEEING IS TOUCHING metaphor, one of examples described in Kövecses’s (2010) work, is based on the set of correspondences like ‘take someone’s eyes off of someone’, ‘avoiding eye contact’, ‘undressing someone with one’s eyes’. Obviously, these expressions include a context. For example, the expression ‘take someone’s eyes off of someone’ in “He couldn’t take his eyes off of her” is expressed at work. It generates the social practice. Thus, according to Kövecses’s (2010), this is “a conceptual metaphor “real” in everyday social practice” (p. 71). Actually, using human senses for expressing language is extremely various that can cause the misunderstanding for language users, especially people using English as a second language in Vietnam. Consequently, we would like to conduct a study entitled “A cognitive study of metaphors based on human senses in English and Vietnamese” by doing a comparative and contrastive analysis with the aim of being an essential study and significance in linguistics. 1.2. Aims of the Study This thesis aims to extend the later semantic concepts of conceptual metaphors drawing from cognitive linguistic concepts that are relevant and viable to the study through tracking its history and development. Specifically, by analysing the metaphorical expressions based on the five basic human senses in English and Vietnamese, this thesis will find out the mappings between concrete domains and more abstract conceptual domains for setting up the conceptual metaphors. The study will also be an examination of the cross-linguistic potential through comparing and contrasting them. At the same time, the study has a goal to have a closer look on the universality of such models within the source domain of the five basic human senses of vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste as well as to 4 find which patterns are unique for conceptual metaphors in each language. In particular, the study will point out which source domains share target domains and the “cross-expressions” between these senses. 1.3. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study are identifying conceptual metaphors based on the five basic human senses in English and Vietnamese in the view of conceptual metaphor theory to find out the similarities and differences between them through the data collected from the later novels and short stories in these two languages. In addition, by approaching the concepts of human senses, the embodied experience of individuals is expressed clearly. Additionally, a wide range of metaphors, largely of equivalent meanings are found in both languages. 1.4. Research Questions The study aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Which conceptual metaphors based on the five basic human senses are constructed in English and Vietnamese? (2) In what aspects do English and Vietnamese share the same or different conceptual metaphors based on the five basic human senses? (3) Which source domains share target domains in English and Vietnamese? (4) What are the “cross-expressions” between the five basic human senses? 1.5. Scope of the Study For the sake of the thesis, we deliberately limit the study to the basic and primary senses of human: vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste through metaphorical expressions which are derived from English and Vietnamese novels and short stories published during the year 2000 to the present. Because of time, space as well as knowledge limitations, this analysis focuses on the semantic features in details in terms of these five basic human senses, which are considered as source domains, with their entities and activities listed in the table 1.1 below. 5 Table 1.1: The entities and sensory activities of the five basic HSs in English and Vietnamese In English Human Entities In Vietnamese Sensory activities Entities Sensory activities senses Vision eyes seeing, looking, mắt watching thấy, nhìn, nhìn thấy, liếc, liếc nhìn, and ngắm, glancing trông and xem Hearing ear voice and hearing, listening tai and nghe, giọng and sounding nghe thấy, lắng nghe and nghe có vẻ Touch hand skin and touching and tay and da sờ, sờ thấy, sờ nắn, sờ nắm, cảm thấy, feeling cảm nhận, giác, chạm cảm and đụng chạm Smell nose smelling and mũi sniffing Taste mùi, ngửi, ngửi thấy and hít (hít hà) mouth and tasting and feeling miệng tongue lưỡi and nếm, nếm thấy and cảm thấy Notably, these terms are used as the specificities of the five basic human senses. Therefore, we do not consider the meanings of these single words, but focus our interest in their underlying semantic content. The data of the study consist of language containing words of senses (e.g. eye, nose, smell, taste, thấy and nghe). To avoid misunderstanding source domains with their sensory words, in the view of CL, they are capitalized: VISION, HEARING, TOUCH, SMELL, TASTE and are discussed in the such same order in the analysis chapters four, five and six. 6 1.6. Significance of the Study Theoretically, the study supplements some more illustrative evidence from English and Vietnamese to the original theory of metaphors in the view of Cognitive Linguistics. Practically, the study provides a systematic description, analysis, comparison and contrast of the conceptual metaphors based on the five classical human senses in English and Vietnamese in the light of Conceptual Metaphor Theory. The study has found 19 conceptual metaphors constructed in both languages. The study has also proved the share of the conceptual metaphors based on the five basic human senses between English and Vietnamese conclusively. Notably, the thesis has found out the source domains which share the target domains in the conceptual metaphors as well as the “cross-expressions” of the five basic human senses in expressing language. In addition, the explanations for those situations have been given to make clear the determining elements of linguistics. Generally, the study surely assists teachers, students and translators of English and Vietnamese in teaching and learning languages as well as in their works. 1.7. Organization of the Study The thesis consists of seven chapters: Chapter 1 – Introduction - briefly introduces what would be done in the thesis, giving readers an overview of the study in stating the rationale, aims, objectives, scope, research questions, significance and organization of the study. Chapter 2 – Literature review - This chapter first presents the related concepts about cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor and definitions of conceptual domain, source domain, target domain, mapping, conceptualization used in the study. Besides, the concepts of five human senses: vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste are also shown. Next, the related research in English and Vietnamese will be reviewed to end the chapter. 7 Chapter 3 – Research Methodology - This chapter presents the methodology to study, to collect the data and explains the frame to analyse the data as well the identification of metaphor. Chapter 4 – Conceptual metaphors based on human senses in English This chapter focuses on the present and analysis of conceptual metaphors based on five human senses in English from finding the mappings set up from these metaphorical expressions. Chapter 5 – Conceptual metaphors based on human senses in Vietnamese - This chapter focuses on the present and analysis of conceptual metaphors based on five human senses in Vietnamese from finding the mappings set up from these metaphorical expressions. Chapter 6 – A cross-linguistic analysis - This chapter focuses on the comparative and contrastive analysis of conceptual metaphors based on the five basic human senses in English and Vietnamese. It intends to formulate explanations for the similarities and differences found. This chapter also clarifies the aspects in sharing the conceptual metaphors, the source domains sharing target domains, and the “cross-expressions” of these five senses. Chapter 7 – Conclusion - This part synthesizes the findings of the study, gives implications for teaching, learning and translating English for Vietnamese teachers, learners and translators as well as a suggestion for further researches. 8 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW To give a theoretical context to the historical discussion as well as review related research to metaphors in the view of CL, this chapter first overviews Cognitive Linguistics and Conceptual Metaphor Theory for a relevant and viable basement forming the basis of the theoretical framework adopted in the present study. The concepts of metaphors in the view of cognitive perspectives are presented, including concepts and definitions drawn from cognitive perspective and conceptual metaphor frameworks such as source domain, target domain, mapping, and conceptualization. Next, we will make clear the concepts of the five basic human senses typically concentrating on vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste considered as five source domains in this study for emphasizing the various aspects of sensory experience. The chapter ends with the recent related research on conceptual metaphors, especially on conceptual metaphors based on body parts. 2.1. Cognitive Linguistics 2.1.1. The concepts of Cognitive Linguistics Having emerged in the early 1970s, “Cognitive linguistics (CL) is the school of linguistics within cognitive science that conceives language creation, learning and usage as a part of a larger psychological theory of how humans understand the world” (Jackendoff, 2007 p. 192). According to Evans and Green (2006), “CL is a modern school of linguistic thought with formal approaches to language” (p. 5). It advocates three principal positions: It denies the existence of an autonomous linguistic faculty in the mind; It understands linguistic phenomena in terms of conceptualization; It claims that language knowledge arises out of language use (Evans, et al., 2007). CL also argues that storage and retrieval of linguistic knowledge does not have to be fundamentally different from the storage and retrieval of other knowledge. It concentrates on the semantics in terms of mental spaces instead of in terms of models of the world as assumed by the objectivists.
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