Tài liệu Intelligent textiles and clothing

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32mm 240 x 159 x 24 Pantone 648 C & 722 C WO O D H E A D WO O D H E A D PUBLISHING IN TEXTILES OD H E A Dtextiles P UinBclothing L I SisHanI exciting N G Inew N field TE X wide-ranging TILES WheOuse of intelligent with WO O D H E A D PUBLISHING IN TEXTILES T applications. Intelligent textiles and clothing summarises some of main types of intelligent textiles and their uses. Part I of the book reviews phase change materials (PCMs), their role in thermal regulation and ways they can be integrated into outdoor and other types of clothing. The second part discusses shape memory materials (SMMs) and their applications in medical textiles, clothing and composite materials. Part III deals with chromic (colour change) and conductive materials and their use as sensors within clothing. The final part looks at current and potential applications, including work wear and medical applications. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Intelligent textiles and clothing will be an essential guide for textile manufacturers in such areas as specialist clothing (for example protective, sports and outdoor clothing) as well as medical textiles. Dr Heikki Mattila is Professor of Textile and Clothing Technology at Tampere University of Technology, Finland. CRC Press LLC 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW Suite 300, Boca Raton FL 33487 USA CRC order number WP9099 Woodhead Publishing CRC Press Mattila Woodhead Publishing Ltd Abington Hall Abington Cambridge CB1 6AH England www.woodheadpublishing.com Intelligent textiles and clothing PUBLISHING IN TEXTILES Intelligent textiles and clothing Edited by H. Mattila ii Related titles: Smart fibres, fabrics and clothing (ISBN-13: 978-1-85573-546-0; ISBN-10: 1-85573-546-6) This important book provides a guide to the fundamentals and latest developments in smart technology for textiles and clothing. The contributors represent a distinguished international panel of experts and the book covers many aspects of cutting edge research and development. Smart fibres, fabrics and clothing starts with a review of the background to smart technology and goes on to cover a wide range of the material science and fibre science aspects of the technology. It will be essential reading for academics in textile and materials science departments, researchers, designers and engineers in the textiles and clothing product design field. Product managers and senior executives within textile and clothing manufacturing will also find the latest insights into technological developments in the field valuable and fascinating. Wearable electronics and photonics (ISBN-13: 978-1-85573-605-4; ISBN-10: 1-85573-605-5) Building electronics into clothing is a major new concept which opens up a whole array of multi-functional, wearable electro-textiles for sensing/monitoring body functions, delivering communication facilities, data transfer, individual environment control, and many other applications. Fashion articles will carry keypads for mobile phones and connections for personal music systems; specialist clothing will be able to monitor the vital life signs of new-born babies, to record the performance of an athlete’s muscles, or to call a rescue team to victims of accidents in adverse weather conditions. A team of distinguished international experts considers the technical materials and processes that will facilitate all these new applications. Details of these books and a complete list of Woodhead titles can be obtained by: ∑ visiting our website at www.woodheadpublishing.com ∑ contacting Customer Services (e-mail: sales@woodhead-publishing.com; fax: +44 (0) 1223 893694; tel.: +44 (0) 1223 891358 ext.30; address: Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AH, England) iii Intelligent textiles and clothing Edited by H. R. Mattila CRC Press Boca Raton Boston New York Washington, DC WOODHEAD PUBLISHING LIMITED Cambridge, England iv Published by Woodhead Publishing Limited in association with The Textile Institute Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington Cambridge CB1 6AH, England www.woodheadpublishing.com Published in North America by CRC Press LLC, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton FL 33487, USA First published 2006, Woodhead Publishing Limited and CRC Press LLC © 2006, Woodhead Publishing Limited The authors have asserted their moral rights. This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authors and the publishers cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials. Neither the authors nor the publishers, nor anyone else associated with this publication, shall be liable for any loss, damage or liability directly or indirectly caused or alleged to be caused by this book. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from Woodhead Publishing Limited. The consent of Woodhead Publishing Limited does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from Woodhead Publishing Limited for such copying. Trademark notice: product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. Woodhead Publishing ISBN-13: 978-1-84569-005-2 (book) Woodhead Publishing ISBN-10: 1-84569-005-2 (book) Woodhead Publishing ISBN-13: 978-1-84569-162-2 (e-book) Woodhead Publishing ISBN-10: 1-84569-162-8 (e-book) CRC Press ISBN-10: 0-8493-9099-0 CRC Press order number: WP9099 The publishers’ policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp which is processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publishers ensure that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. Project managed by Macfarlane Production Services, Dunstable, Bedfordshire (macfarl@aol.com) Typeset by Replika Press Pvt Ltd, India Printed by T J International Limited, Padstow, Cornwall, England v Contents Contributor contact details 1 Intelligent textiles and clothing – a part of our intelligent ambience xiii 1 H MATTILA, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction Intelligent systems Applications 1 1 2 2 Methods and models for intelligent garment design 5 M UOTILA, H MATTILA and O HÄNNINEN, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Introduction Background context The underpinnings of interdisciplinarity Scientific practices and research strategies for intelligent garments Conclusions References 5 6 9 12 15 16 PART I Phase change materials 19 3 Introduction to phase change materials 21 M MÄKINEN, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction Heat balance and thermo-physiological comfort Phase change technology PCMs in textiles Future prospects of PCM in textiles and clothing References 21 22 22 23 30 32 vi 4 Contents Intelligent textiles with PCMs 34 W. BENDKOWSKA, Instytut Wlokiennictwa Textile Research Institute, Poland 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5 Introduction Basic information on phase change materials Phase change properties of linear alkyl hydrocarbons Textiles containing PCM Measurement of thermoregulating properties of fabrics with microPCMs Summary Acknowledgements References The use of phase change materials in outdoor clothing 34 34 36 39 55 60 60 60 63 E A MCCULLOUGH and H SHIM, Kansas State University, USA 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 PART II 6 Introduction Methodology Results Conclusions Implications and recommendations References Shape memory materials Introduction to shape memory materials 63 67 72 80 81 81 83 85 M HONKALA Tampere University of Technology, Finland 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Overview Shape memory alloys Shape memory ceramics Magnetic shape memory materials Shape memory polymers and gels Future prospects of shape memory materials References 85 86 94 94 95 100 101 7 Temperature sensitive shape memory polymers for smart textile applications 104 J HU and S MONDAL, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 7.1 7.2 7.3 Introduction A concept of smart materials Shape memory polymer and smart materials 104 105 106 Contents 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 vii Some examples of shape memory polymer for textile applications Potential use of shape memory polymer in smart textiles General field of application Challenges and opportunities Acknowledgement References 110 115 118 120 121 121 Development of shape memory alloy fabrics for composite structures 124 F BOUSSU, GEMTEX, France and J-L PETITNIOT, ONERA, France 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Introduction Definition and description of shape memory alloys Interesting properties of shape memory alloys Different kinds of alloys Different kinds of applications of shape memory alloys Conclusion Future trends Internet links References 124 125 126 132 134 138 140 140 141 9 Study of shape memory polymer films for breathable textiles 143 J HU and S MONDAL, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 10 Introduction Breathability and clothing comfort Breathable fabrics Water vapor permeability (WVP) through shape memory polyurethane Future trends Acknowledgement References 143 144 145 152 162 163 163 Engineering textile and clothing aesthetics using shape changing materials 165 G K STYLIOS, Heriot-Watt University, UK 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Introduction Innovative design concepts in textiles and clothing The principles of shape changing materials and their end-uses Technical requirements for shape changing textiles and clothing 165 165 166 169 viii Contents 10.5 Engineering textile and clothing aesthetics with shape memory materials Aesthetic interactive applications of shape changing smart textiles The concept of mood changing textiles for SMART ambience Summary Acknowledgement References 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 Part III 11 Chromic and conductive materials Introduction to chromic materials 172 182 184 186 187 187 191 193 P. TALVENMAA, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Introduction Photochromic materials Thermochromic materials Colour-changing inks Electrochromic materials Conclusion References 193 194 196 200 201 203 204 12 Solar textiles: production and distribution of electricity coming from solar radiation. Applications 206 R R MATHER and J I B WILSON, Heriot-Watt University, UK 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 Introduction Background Solar cells Textiles as substrates Technological specifications Challenges to be met Suitable textile constructions Conductive layers for PVs Future trends Sources of further information References 206 206 207 209 210 211 211 213 214 215 216 13 Introduction to conductive materials 217 A HARLIN, Technical Research Centre of Finland, and M FERENETS, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 13.1 13.2 Electric conductivity Metal conductors 217 220 Contents ix 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 Ionic conductors Inherently conducting polymers Application technologies for conducting fibre materials Future trends in conductive materials References 222 223 231 236 237 14 Formation of electrical circuits in textile structures 239 T K GHOSH, A DHAWAN and J F MUTH, North Carolina State University, USA 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 Introduction Development of textile-based circuits Fabrication processes Materials used Characterization Applications Potential for the future Bibliography 239 240 240 246 266 272 276 277 15 Stability enhancement of polypyrrole coated textiles 283 M Y S LEUNG, J TSANG, X M TAO, C W M YUEN and Y LI, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 Introduction Conductivity changes of polypyrrole films on textiles Stabilisation of the Ppy Experimental results of stability enhancement Conclusion Acknowledgement References 283 286 290 292 303 304 304 16 Electrical, morphological and electromechanical properties of conductive polymer fibres (yarns) 308 B KIM and V KONCAR, ENSAIT-GEMTEX Laboratory, France and C DUFOUR, Institute IEMN, France 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 Introduction Preparation of conductive fibres – overview Experimental Results and discussion Applications: prototype Conclusion Acknowledgements References 308 309 311 312 320 320 321 322 x 17 Contents Multipurpose textile-based sensors 324 C COCHRANE, B KIM and V KONCAR, ENSAIT-GEMTEX Laboratory, France and C DUFOUR, Institute IEMN, France 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 Introduction Conductive polymer textile sensors Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) textile sensors Perspective References 324 326 331 339 339 18 Textile micro system technology 342 U MÖHRING, A NEUDECK and W SCHEIBNER, TITV Greiz, Textile Research Institut Thuringia-Vogtland, Germany 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 Part IV 19 Textile micro system technology Textiles are inherent microstructures Goal of the application of compliant textile structures First attempt: textile electronic circuit technology based on copper wires in a lattice structure with interconnections and interruptions Galvanic modification of yarns Light effects based on textiles with electrically conductive microstructures Textile-based compliant mechanisms in microengineering and biomechatronics References & Sources of further information Applications WareCare – Usability of intelligent materials in workwear 342 343 346 347 348 350 351 354 357 359 H MATTILA, P TALVENMAA and M MÄKINEN, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 Introduction Objectives Methodology Textile materials Electronics Usability testing Conclusions Bibliography 359 359 360 361 362 364 367 368 Intelligent textiles and clothing i Contents 20 Intelligent textiles for medical and monitoring applications xi 369 J-SOLAZ, J-M BELDA-LOIS, A-C GARCIA, R BARBERÀ, T-V DORÁ J-A GÓMEZ, C SOLER and J M PRAT, A Instituto de Biomecanica de Valencia, Spain 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 Introduction Importance of intelligent textiles for healthcare Potential applications of intelligent textiles From medical needs to technological solutions Summary and future trends Acknowledgements References 369 370 373 380 393 394 394 21 Context aware textiles for wearable health assistants 399 T KIRSTEIN, G TRÖSTER, I LOCHER and C KÜNG, Wearable Computing Lab, ETH Zürich, Switzerland 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.9 21.10 Introduction Vision of wearable health assistant Approach Electronic textile technology Context recognition technology Wearable components Applications Outlook Acknowledgement References 399 399 401 402 414 414 415 418 418 418 22 Intelligent garments in prehospital emergency care 421 N LINTU, M MATTILA and O HÄNNINEN, University of Kuopio, Finland 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 22.10 22.11 22.12 22.13 Introduction Different cases and situations Circumstances Vital functions Monitoring of vital functions Selection of monitoring methods Interpretation of monitored parameters Telemedicine Negative effects of transportation on vital parameters Patient chart Data security Day surgery Protective covering 421 422 422 422 423 425 425 425 426 427 427 427 428 xii Contents 22.14 22.15 22.16 22.17 22.18 An integrated monitoring of vital functions Mobile isolation Optimal smart solution for prehospital emergency care Conclusions References 429 429 430 431 432 23 Intelligent textiles for children 434 C HERTLEER and L VAN LANGENHOVE, Ghent University, Belgium and R PUERS, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 Introduction State of the art The intellitex suit Future trends Acknowledgements References 434 435 436 447 448 448 24 Wearable biofeedback systems 450 B J MUNRO, University of Wollongong and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Textile and Fibre Technology, Australia and J R STEELE, T E CAMPBELL and G G WALLACE, University of Wollongong, Australia 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 24.10 24.11 24.12 Introduction Is there a need for biofeedback technology? Are there problems with current biofeedback devices? Can we provide biofeedback for joint motion? The development of a functioning wearable textile sensor Functional electronics Interconnections The Intelligent Knee Sleeve: a wearable biofeedback device in action Why is the Intelligent Knee Sleeve needed? Other applications of wearable biofeedback technology Future directions References 450 450 451 452 453 460 460 462 463 467 467 469 25 Applications for woven electrical fabrics 471 S SWALLOW and A P THOMPSON, Intelligent Textiles Limited, UK 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 Index Smart fabric technologies Active and passive smart fabrics Electrical smart fabrics Products and applications References 471 472 475 483 487 489 xiii Contributor contact details (* = main contact) Editor and Chapter 1 Chapter 3 Professor Heikki Mattila Tampere University of Technology SmartWearLab Sinitaival 6 33720 Tampere Finland Mailis Mäkinen SmartWearLab Tampere University of Technology Sinitaival 6 FI-33720 Tampere Finland E-mail: heikki.r.mattila@tut.fi Tel: +358 3 3115 2494 Fax: +358 3 3115 4515 E-mail: mailis.makinen@tut.fi Chapter 2 Professor Minna Uotila*, Professor Heikki Mattila and Dr Osmo Hänninen University of Lapland PO Box 122 (Siljotie 2) FIN-96101 Rovaniemi Finland Tel: +358 40 556 2893 E-mail: minna.uotila@ulapland.fi Chapter 4 Dr Wies’ awa Bendkowska Instytut Wlokienictwa Textile Research Institute Brzezinska S/15 92–103 Ledz Poland E-mail: bendkowska@mail.iw.lodz.pl xiv Contributor contact details Chapter 5 Chapter 8 Professor Elizabeth McCullough* and Dr H. Shim Kansas State University Institute for Environmental Research 64 Seaton Hall Manhattan, KS 66506 USA F. Boussu* and Dr J-L Petitniot ENSAIT, GEMTEX Laboratory 9 rue de l’Ermitage BP 30329 59056 ROUBAIX Cedex 01 France Tel/fax: +1 785-532-2284 E-mail: lizm@ksu.edu Tel: +33 3 20 25 64 76 E-mail: francois.boussu@ensait.fr Chapter 10 Chapter 6 Markku Honkala Tampere University of Technology Smartwear Lab Sinitaival 6 33720 Tampere Finland E-mail: markku.honkala@tut.fi Chapters 7 and 9 Dr Jinlian Hu Institute of Textiles and Clothing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom Kowloon Hong Kong Tel: 852 27666437 Fax: 852 27731432 E-mail: tchujl@polyu.edu.hk Professor G.K. Stylios Research Institute for Flexible Materials School of Textiles and Design Heriot-Watt University Scottish Borders Campus Galashiels TD1 3HF UK E-mail: G.Stylios@hw.ac.uk Chapter 11 P. Talvenmaa Tampere University of Technology SmartWearLab Sinitaival 6 33720 Tampere Finland E-mail: paivi.talvenmaa@tut.fi Contributor contact details xv Chapter 12 Chapter 15 Dr Robert Mather* and Professor John Wilson School of Engineering and Physical Sciences Heriot-Watt University Riccarton Edinburgh EH14 4AS UK Dr M-Y. S. Leung*, Joanna Tsang, Professor X-M Tao, Dr C-W. M Yuen and Yang Li Institute of Textiles and Clothing The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hung Hom Kowloon Hong Kong E-mail: r.r.mather@hw.ac.uk Chapter 13 Professor A. Harlin* and Dr M. Ferenets Institute of Fibre Materials Science Tampere University of Technology P.O. Box 589 Tampere 33101 Finland Tel: +358 3 3115 3742 Fax: +358 3 3115 2955 E-mail: ali.harlin@vtt.fi; marju.ferenets@tut.fi Chapter14 Professor Tushar Ghosh, Dr A. Dhawan* and Dr J.F. Muth College of Textiles North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 USA Tel: +1 (919) 515-6568 Fax: +1 (919) 515 - 3733 E-mail: Tushar_Ghosh@ncsu.edu dhawananuj1976@yahoo.com Tel: 852 27666437 Fax: 852 27731432 E-mail: tclens@inet.polyu.edu.hk Chapter 16 Dr Bohwon Kim* Laboratory GEMTEX ENSAIT (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles) 9 rue de l’Emitage 59056 Roubaix, cedex 1 France E-mail: bwkim75@yahoo.fr Tel: +33-(0)3-2025-7587 Fax: +33 (0)3-2027-2597 Professor Vladan Koncar Laboratory GEMTEX ENSAIT (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles) 9 rue de l’Emitage 59056 Roubaix, cedex 1 France E-mail: vladan.koncar@ensait.fr Tel: +33 (0)3-2025-8959 Fax: +33 (0)3-2027-2597 xvi Contributor contact details Professor Claude Dufour IEMN/DHS Avenue Poincaré BP19 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex France E-mail: claude.dufour@univ-lille1.fr Tel: +33 (0)3-2019-7908 Fax: +33 (0)3-2019-7878 Chapter 17 Mr Cédric Cochrane* Laboratory GEMTEX ENSAIT (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles) 9 rue de l’Emitage 59056 Roubaix, cedex 1 France E-mail: cedric.cochrane@ensait.fr Tel: +33 (0)3-2025-8974 Fax: +33 (0)3-2027-2597 Dr Bohwon Kim Laboratory GEMTEX ENSAIT (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles) 9 rue de l’Emitage 59056 Roubaix, cedex 1 France E-mail: bwkim75@yahoo.fr Tel: +33 (0)3-2025-8974 Fax: +33 (0)3-2027-2597 Professor Vladan Koncar Laboratory GEMTEX ENSAIT (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles) 9 rue de l’Emitage 59056 Roubaix, cedex 1 France E-mail: vladan.koncar@ensait.fr Tel: +33 (0)3-2025-8959 Fax: +33 (0)3-2027-2597 Professor Claude DUFOUR IEMN/DHS Avenue Poincaré BP19 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex France E-mail: claude.dufour@univ-lille1.fr Tel: +33 (0)3-2019-7908 Fax: +33 (0)3-2019-7878 Chapter 18 Dr. rer. nat. habil. Andreas G. Neudeck TITV Greiz Textile Research Institute Thuringia-Vogtland e.V. Zeulenrodaer Str. 42 D-07973 Greiz Germany Tel: (03661) 611 204 Fax: (03661) 611 222 E-mail: a.neudeck@titv-greiz.de Contributor contact details xvii Chapter 19 Chapter 22 Professor H Mattila,* P. Talvenmaa and M. Mäkinen Tampere University of Technology SmartWearLab Sinitaival 6 33720 Tampere Finland Niina Lintu,* Dr M. Mattila and Dr O. Hänninen Department of Physiology University of Kuopio P.O. Box 1627 70211 Kuopio, Finland E-mail: heikki.r.mattila@tut.fi E-mail: Niina.Lintu@uku.fi Chapter 20 Dr Jose S. Solaz*, Mr Juan-Manuel Belda-Lois, Dr/Ana-Cruz Garcia, Mr Ricard Barberà, Dr JuanVicente Durá, Mr Juan-Alfonso Gomez, Dr Carlos Soler and Dr Jaime Prat Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia (IBV) Universidad Politécnica de Valencia – Edificio 9C Camino de Vera s/n E-46022 – Valencia Spain Tel: +34 96 387 91 60 Fax: +34 96 387 91 69 E-mail: jose.solaz@ibv.upv.es Chapter 23 Dr Carla Hertleer,* Professor L. Van Langenhove and Professor R. Puers Ghent University Technologiepark 907 9052 Zwijnaarde Belgium E-mail: Carla.Hertleer@UGent.be Chapter 24 Dr Bridget J. Munro* Biomechanics Research Laboratory University of Wollongong Wollongong New South Wales Australia, 2522 Chapter 21 Dr Tünde Kirstein,* Professor Gerhard Tröster, Ivo Locher Christof Küng Wearable Computing Lab ETH Zürich Gloriastrasse 35 CH-8092 Zürich Switzerland E-mail: Troester@ife.ee.ethz.ch Tel: +41 44 632 5280 Fax: +41 44 6321210 E-mail: bmunro@uow.edu.au Dr Toni E. Campbell ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science Intelligent Polymer Research Institute University of Wollongong Wollongong New South Wales Australia, 2522 E-mail: tonicamp@uow.edu.au xviii Contributor contact details Professor Julie R. Steele Biomechanics Research Laboratory University of Wollongong Wollongong New South Wales Australia, 2522 E-mail: jsteele@uow.edu.au Professor Gordon G. Wallace ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science Intelligent Polymer Research Institute University of Wollongong Wollongong New South Wales Australia, 2522 E-mail: gordon_wallace@uow.edu.au; Chapter 25 Dr Stan S. Swallow* and Dr A. P. Thompson Intelligent Textiles Limited ITL Studio, Brunel Science Park Runnymede Campus, Coopers Hill Lane Egham Surrey, TW20 0JZ UK Tel: +44 (0)1784 433 262 E-mail: stan@intelligenttextiles.com 1 Intelligent textiles and clothing – a part of our intelligent ambience H M A T T I L A, Tampere University of Technology, Finland 1.1 Introduction Although intelligent textiles and smart clothing have only recently been added to the textile vocabulary, we must admit that the industry has already for several years focused on enhancing the functional properties of textiles. New chemical fibres have been invented. By attaching membranes on textile substrates, fabrics were made breathable and yet waterproof. Three-dimensional weaving technology paved the way for new exciting technical textile developments. These are some examples of a textile-based approach for improving the properties and functionality. Wearable technology, the electronics-based approach, started to add totally new features to clothing by attaching various kinds of electronic devices to garments. The results, however, were often bulky, not very user friendly and often very impractical. The garment was truly wired with cables criss-crossing all over, batteries in pockets and hard electronic devices sticking out from the surface. The piece of clothing had become a platform for supporting electronics and was hardly wearable in a clothing comfort sense. The current objective in intelligent textile development is to embed electronics directly into textile substrates. A piece of clothing remains visibly unchanged and at the end of the day the consumer can still wash it in the washing machine without first removing all the electronics. This of course is very challenging. 1.2 Intelligent systems Intelligent systems are normally understood to consist of three parts: a sensor, a processor and an actuator. For example, body temperature monitored by the sensor is transferred to the processor, which on the basis of the received information computes a solution and sends a command to the actuator for temperature regulation. To achieve such interactive reactions three separate parts may actually be needed. The sensor may be embroidered on the surface of the T-shirt by using conductive yarns. Signals are transmitted wirelessly 1
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