Tài liệu Business environment of households in the rural areas of vinh phuc and bac ninh province

  • Số trang: 147 |
  • Loại file: PDF |
  • Lượt xem: 99 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nhattuvisu

Đã đăng 27125 tài liệu

Mô tả:

THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY Socialist Republic of Vietnam Republic of the Philippines BUSINESS EMVIRONMENT OF OUSEHOLDS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF VINH PHUC AND BAC NINH PROVINCE Name of Student : PHAM NGOC YEN English Name : NANCY Date of Birth : 09/07/1976 Course : SLSU-DBA1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my gratitude to the teachers of Post-Graduate Department of Southern Luzon State University - Philippines. Thai Nguyen University and the teachers of International Traning Centern – College of Agriculture and Forestry - Thai Nguyên University, especially Dr.Nelly Mendoza, my dissertation advisor, for their generous encouragement and support to finish this work. I am grateful to Statistic Department of Vinh Phuc province and Bac Ninh province for their enthusiastic support on collecting and processing the statistics. I am also indebted to 500 business households in those two provinces for their participation and informative response they provided. My finishing the dissertation would not have been possible without the emotional support and encouragement from my management and colleagues at the University of Labour and Social Affairs and General Statistics Office, as well as the unconditional love and support from my family and my great friends. Thank you all so much! Author Nancy - Phạm Ngọc Yến i ABSTRACT There have been a lot of studies on business environment. However, they concentrate only on business environment of enterprises and companies of large scale, having their business registration, or on business environment of a locality in general. The most noticeable one among them is the research to build a Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) of Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) in combination with Vietnam Competitiveness Improvement Project sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development. PCI has become an important tool to measure and assess business environment of private sector in 63 cities and provinces in Vietnam. The index gets strongly active effect on improvement of business environment of the provinces. It also helps local authorities find out obstacles for business of enterprises, especially institution environment. More importantly, PCI helps provincial authorities to aware importance of business environment improvement for their local enterprises, it is considered an index reflecting capacity and efficiency of the local authorities. However, the index has some certain limits on methodology. Firstly, the data were collected from registered enterprises which are large-scaled and have experience and good relations with local authorities, and normally operated in urban areas, but not including business households (which play an important role in creating jobs and are vulnerable and impacted by changes of the business environment). Therefore, difficulties they met may differ from that of small-sized enterprises and business households. In details, the nine factors impacting on business environment of the survey provinces in the PCI include: Market entry cost; land access; transparency; time cost; informal chrges; activeness of the State authorities; enterprise support service; human resource training; legal policies. Some of these factors getting large impacts on business environment of enterprises, such as time cost; legal policies … provide nearly insignificant impacts on performance of business households, and vice versa, factors having large impacts on performance of the households play no role in PCI (such as: capital). Secondly, the data were collected from an indirect survey where a questionnaire was sent to individual enterprises to get them filling into assessments and sending back. This may cause a low accuracy of collected information (non-sample error). On the other hand, in conformity to Vietnamese Law on Enterprises, a business household has its corporate capacity as an enterprise. Therefore, the study method of PCI with ii changes for some factors to get them suitable with a study of business environment of households has scientific basis. It is known that Vĩnh Phúc and Bắc Ninh, the two provinces adjacent to Hanoi (Vĩnh Phúc is bounded by the North of Hà Nội, Bắc Ninh is bounded by the East of Hanoi), have made significant contribution to economic development of the capital city for the last years. In conformity to the National Plan by 2020, the two provinces shall be important supports for Hanoi to get a sustainable economic development. Vĩnh Phúc City and Bắc Ninh City (2 central cities of the two provinces) shall be satellite cities to help Hanoi settle issues of environment, materials and human resources … Therefore, socio-economic development of the two provinces gets much attention from the Government. Being a province of longstanding culture with development of numerous traditional villages specializing in bronzing, carpentry, ceramics …, Bắc Ninh has opportunities and challenges completely different from that of Vĩnh Phúc, a province having a lot of villages and communes with small trade of agricultural, forestry and aquatic products (rice, bean, peanut, vegetable ...) in addition to its agricultural economy. Therefore, economic development of the province can not be separated from development of household business. It is necessary to get a favorable business environment for development of household business. In urban areas, with development of enterprises of various types, business environment of the households also has significant improvement. However, in rural areas, business environment of the households does get much attention. From the fact, the writer chooses the theme: “Study on business environment of households in rural areas of Vĩnh Phúc Province and Bắc Ninh Province”. The theme aims to study factors of the business environment impacting on establishment and development of business households in rural areas of Vĩnh Phúc Province and Bắc Ninh Province. To study business environment of business households in rural areas of Vĩnh Phúc Province and Bắc Ninh Province, the writer made a survey on 500 business households. Sampling is made by the hierarchical random method, with layers of districts, communes and households. In each province, 250 business households are sampled. Sampling is made in 3 steps: - Selection of districts: Five districts in a province were selected with proportional-topopulation-size (PPS) method on basis that the more business households the district had, the higher the possibility to be sampled it had. iii - Vĩnh Phúc Province including: Lập Thạch, Yên Lạc, Vĩnh Tường, Tam Dương, and Bình Xuyên Districts. - Bắc Ninh Province indluding: Tiên Du, Từ Sơn, Quế Võ, Thuận Thành and Yên Phong Districts. - Selection of communes: PPS method was also applied to choose five communes in each district. - Selection of households: In a commune, ten business households were selected on basis that the rate of households having business registration/the ones having no registration was 6/4. The survey was completed in 2 weeks in each province. Data were input and cleaned by a specialized software. The data then were dumped to a data processing software, Stata, to make the analysis. During the study, the formality index (FI) was built to assess business environment of the households. The index was made on method of Building a Provincial Competitiveness Index - PCI. The FI can be considered the weight mean value of component indexes reflecting the local business environment. The two important issues in building the FI is to determine component indexes and to estimate the weight of component indexes. Although the FI method is similar to the PCI method, the study made some adjustments to some factors during building the component indexes. In details: 3 factors “time cost; legal institution; activeness of local authorities” in PCI were changed into the 3 factors: “access to capital; business registration; support from State authorities” to get them suitable to the business environment of the households. In this theme, the weight of FI component indexes was estimated by a factor analysis and regression. Study results: 1. Analysis of business environment of households through survey data and Formality Index (FI). It is shown in the study that, in general, Vĩnh Phúc trends to get higher grade of component indexes in comparison to Bắc Ninh. In addition, there is no significant difference between communes of the two provinces for each component index. It is assessed by the business households in the two provinces that their access to land gets less trouble than other factors like capital, human resources and output market. Among factors of macro business environment, market entry is accessed to be easy with insignificant informal charges. iv However, awareness and accessibility to legal policies on the households’ business is assessed to be weak in the two provinces. This study chooses indexes reflecting business development level, including profit, turnover growth, and assessment of the households on their business performance. Estimation of the indexes for the two provinces and districts under the survey shows that profit, turnover growth rate and rate of the households having positive assessment on their business in Bắc Ninh Province is higher than those in Vĩnh Phúc Province. There is a huge difference among the three indexes in the districts. In general, in the districts having a rapid economic growth rate, the business households have higher profit and turnover growth rate, and they get better assessment on business development. In Vĩnh Phúc Province, Lập Thạch and Yên Lạc are two districts of the highest profits and business growth rate among the ones under the survey. In Bắc Ninh Province, Từ Sơn district has the highest average profit, and Thuận Thành district has the highest growth rate among 5 districts under the survey. They are districts adjacent to Hanoi, with their developed infrastructure system. It is shown from the analysis that the factors of micro business environment including accessibility to capital, input and output market of the households play the most important role in the Household Formality Index. Accessibility to land also plays an important role for business of the households. Support from State authorities for development of the business households is considered an important factor for their development. Factors of laws and informal charges have a small weight, showing their insignificant contribution to competitiveness of the households. Table 4.27: Weight of component indexes Component indexes Weight (w) Access to land 0.0895 Access to capital 0.2282 Access to human resources and inputs of production/trade 0.1423 Access to output market (Client) 0.1460 Access to infrastructure 0.0474 Market entry indexes 0.0484 Informal costs 0.0474 Transparency of information 0.0604 Support from State authorities 0.1915 Source: Estimation on basis of survey data v The results show that value of the Household Formality Index ranges in 5,8 - 6,4. Vĩnh Phúc has a slightly higher index in comparison to Bắc Ninh, (the FI is in score range of 10). Table 4.28: Formality Index (FI) of provinces and districts Vĩnh Phúc In general Value Standard error 6.182 0.070 Districts Bắc Ninh In general Value Standard error 6.101 0.058 Districts Lập Thạch 6.278 0.110 Yên Phong 5.882 0.107 Tam Dương 5.908 0.149 Quế Võ 6.087 0.141 Bình Xuyên 5.985 0.082 Tiên Du 6.118 0.116 Yên Lạc 6.184 0.112 Từ Sơn 6.403 0.115 Vĩnh Tường 6.234 0.149 Thuận Thành 6.075 0.110 Source: Estimation on basis of survey data 2. Assessment on impacts of business environment on business households’ performance. * Factors impacting on business households’ performance In order to assess impacts of business environment on business households’ performance, econometric models are used with dependent variables of (1) Average monthly profit of the business households in 2012; (2) Average monthly turnover of the business households in 2012. Both of them directly reflect business performance of the households through the most essential indicators of turnover and profit. Model (1): Yi = β 0 + ∑ j β i j X i j + δ i DFI i Where: Yi is average monthly profit of the households in 2012 (A) Model (2): Yi = β 0 + ∑ j β i j X i j + ∑ k θ i k I i k + ε i Where: Yi is average monthly turnover of the households in 2012 (B) As for independent variables: Xj is a vector reflecting internal forces of the business households, including demographic characteristics of the households’ managers (qualifications, age, experience), business characteristics of the households (number of operation years, business registration, business lines), scope of capital, human resource and business space area. We can find that profit and turnover of the households are in direct proportion with labor and capital. In general, business households of higher scope of laborers and capital trend to get higher profit and turnover. Business households in trade sector trend to get higher vi profit than the households in industry or construction. Experience of the managers is directly proportional to profit and turnover. Business households with female managers trend to get lower profits. Households with business registration trend to get higher turnover in comparison to those having no business registration. Similarly, business households in Bắc Ninh trend to get higher turnover than that in Vĩnh Phúc with no clear impact on their profit. On the other hand, impacts of DFI in the models are clear and have their statistic meanings. It is shown in the results that, on average, if the districts get their DFI increased with 1%, then the households shall get an increase of 3,3% for their profit and increase of 8,4% for their turnover. * Factors impacting on conversion into enterprise business It is shown in the study that only 13,3% of business households with business registration intends to converse into enterprise business. 56% of them are not aware of benefits of the conversion. To get a more thorough study on impacts on their decision to converse into enterprise business, we use the same econometric model as mentioned above: Where, is a binary variable, with a value of 1 if the households have intention to converse into enterprise business and a value of 0 if not. The model provides some facts that younger the younger the managers are, the higher the intension of conversion is. Female managers get higher intention of conversion than male managers. Business households in trade and service have lower intention of conversion than that in industry/construction. Meanwhile, capital scope has a significant impact on the trend of conversion into enterprise business: the higher capital scale is, the higher the trend of conversion is. The households using loans have higher trend of conversion. The results are proper, because in general, the households using loans are the ones having higher capital scope or having their plans for business development. On the other hand, scope of business space and human resource has no clear relation to the intention of conversion. DFI gets an active impact on the decision to converse into enterprise business. However, it is shown in the analysis of component indexes that a better market accessibility and a low index of market entry have an active impact on the decision of conversion. We can see in the results that opportunities in the output market have a significant impact on the business households. When the output market is potential and accessible, the households trend to vii decide to converse into enterprise business to take full advantage of the market opportunities. Among factors of macro economic environment, only the index of “Assistance from State authorities” has its statistic meanings. “Assistance from State authorities” is actually the households’ viewpoint on activeness of local authorities. In localities where the business households have a positive view on the role of State authorities in their business performance, the households are more possible to converse into enterprise business than in other places. * Factors impacting on decision to get business registration Among the survey samples, there are 270 households having business registration and 230 households having no business registration. Among the households without business registration, only 21% of them have intention to get their business registration. To study factors impacting to decision to get business registration of the households without business registration certificates, an econometric model is applied, with the dependent variable of value 1 if the household has intention to get business registration and of value 0 if the household has no intention to get business registration. The results show that scale of capital has a significant impact on the households’ decision to get business registration. It means that business households of higher capital trend to get more intention to register their business in comparison to that of lower capital. Business households with no loan have more trends to formalize their business than the ones with loans. Furthermore, land impact has a reverse relation, that is, business households with small business space have higher trend to get business registration than the ones with larger business space. A reason for this lies in the fact that the formalization shall help the households get loans and hire/purchase land more easily, solving their existing difficulties for capital and land. Households having managers with high school education or higher trend to get business registration more than the ones having managers with lower education. Business households in service have higher trend to get business registration in comparison to the others. Therefore, in localities having favorable environment for the households to enlarge their business space and easily employ high quality laborers, the households have higher trend to get their business registration. On the other hand, the households having difficulties in accessing to the output have higher trend to get business registration. The reason lies may be that in localities having difficulties in accessing to the output market, and formalization viii of the business shall help the households get better voice, and get more trust from customers, and get easier in transacting with customers and finding their markets. Summary of Findings 1. On basis of collected information from the survey on business environment in Vĩnh Phúc and Bắc Ninh provinces, the thesis gets an analysis on business environment of the households in the two provinces through analyzing components of the business environment. It is shown that the business households are facing with difficulties: limited borrowing capacity, narrow business space and low quality human resource. Moreover, market price fluctuation and limited infrastructure, especially electricity and road system, provide numerous difficulties for the business households. Although informal charges of the households are insignificant, the assistance from State authorities is also insignificant. 2. The main method applied by the writer to define the formality index is based on the provincial competitiveness index (PCI) on business environment for private economic sector annually built by VCCI. The main point here is how to select components of business environment so as to be suitable with business households. From qualitative studies in the survey area and quantitative studies, the writer believes that the research selected the most exact components of business environment of the households in rural areas of the two provinces. 3. The most important result of the research is that the writer, on basis of the collected information, could define a set of indexes to evaluate competitiveness of business environment in Vĩnh Phúc and Bắc Ninh. A remarkable point in this research is that the indexes can be defined at district level. Basically, the results are similar to the provincial competitiveness index built by VCCI. 4. According to the analysis, factors of input access and output access of the business households play the most important role in the competitiveness index of the households. The factors get direct impacts on business performance of the households, and they are main factors to promote competitiveness of the households. The next important ones playing an important role for business performance of the households are capital and land. However, legal stipulations and informal charges get a small weight in the general competitiveness index, proving an insignificant contribution to competitiveness of the households. In order to improve competitiveness of the households, the State should provide convenience for access to output market, inputs, capital and land of the households. ix 5. It is shown by the analysis that the formality index at district level and commune level is in the range of 5.9 to 6.6. Vĩnh Phúc has the index of 6,18 which is higher than that of Bắc Ninh (6.15) show that the business environment of the business households in rural area in Vinh Phuc is better than business environment of the business households in Bac Ninh. The result is similar to the Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) of year 2010 built by VCCI. In details, PCI of Vĩnh Phúc and Bắc Ninh is 66.7% and 65.7% respectively (in a score range of 100%, and FI in a score range 1 of 10). 6. The researcher used modeling method to determine factors impacting on business performance of the households in the two provinces. Another important objective of the research to clarify the households’ decision to get business registration or not and to convert into a enterprise business or not was also made by the modeling method in combination with the normal statistical analysis methods. It is shown that the households’ decision to convert into enterprise business or not and to get business registration or not is significantly impacted by business environment factors: labor access, market access and land access. Meanwhile, the role of macro environment factors is limited. 7. The writer believes that the research results are meaningful and satisfactory in evaluating business environment of the households in the two provinces. However, the research was conducted in a small scale, in the two provinces of similar socio-economic features, so the picture of the households’ business environment cannot be generalized in a national scale. x LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS GDP : Gross Domestic Product FI : Formality Index DFI : District Formality Index PFI : Provincial Formality Index PCI : Provincial Competitiveness Index VCCI : Vietnam of Chamber of Commerce and Industry VNCI : Vietnam Competitiveness Initiative GSO : General Statistics Office IPSARD : Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development MOLISA : Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social IRC : Indochina Research and Consulting company xi LIST OF TABLE Table 4.1: Gender, qualification, experience of the managers ............................................41  Table 4.2: Number of laborers in sectors/ provinces ...........................................................42  Table 4.3: Fixed capital, working capital in sectors/ provinces...........................................43  Table 4.4: Turnover, profit in sectors/provinces..................................................................43  Table 4.5: Rate of households with intention of business expansion ..................................45  Table 4.6: Quality, recruitment and training of laborers .....................................................46  Table 4.7: Quality and accessibility of inputs......................................................................46  Table 4.8: Accessibility to bank loans .................................................................................49  Table 4.9: Value of loans and rate of loan sources..............................................................49  Table 4.10: General assessment on bank loans....................................................................50  Table 4.11: Land area and rate of the households in form of land use................................51  Table 4.12: Capacity of business space enlargement ..........................................................51  Table 4.13: Land Use Right Certificate ...............................................................................52  Table 4.14: Main reasons for obstruction of business space enlargement...........................52  Table 4.15: Market Access and competition .......................................................................53  Table 4.16: Importance of infrastructure .............................................................................54  Table 4.17: Assessment on quality of infrastructure services .............................................56  Table 4.18: Rate of households accessing and using other services....................................57  Table 4.19: Taxes and tax inspection...................................................................................60  Table 4.20: Assessment of the households on State officers and authorities ......................62  Table 4.21: Accessibility to information, documents ..........................................................64  Table 4.22: Role of local authorities in product sale ...........................................................65  Table 4.23: Average value in score range of 9 component indexes ....................................68  Table 4.24: Contribution of component indexes for variance of the 4 factors ....................69  Table 4.25: Average value of variables reflecting the households’ business performance.70  Table 4.26: Regression analysis...........................................................................................71  Table 4.27: Weight of component indexes ..........................................................................71  Table 4.28: Formality Index (FI) of provinces and districts................................................72  Table 4.29: Average statistic value of variables used in the econometric models ..............78  Table 4.30: Impacts of business environment on profit and turnover .................................79  Table 4.31: Conversion into enterprise business of the business households .....................82  Table 4.32: Factors impacting on the households’ decision to converse into enterprise business................................................................................................................................84  Table 4.33: Business registration of sole business households ...........................................87  Table 4.34: Awareness of benefits from business registration and reasons provided by the households without business registration for their lack.......................................................88  Table 4.35: Factors impacting on the households’ decision to get business registration ....90  Table 1 Appendix 1: The weight of component indexes with different methods..............103  Table 2 of Appendix 1: Formality Index (FI) with with different methods.........................104  xii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1: Number of non-agricultural business household and employees in nonagricultural business household in 2004-2012 period. (Unit: thousand household, thousand employee)...............................................................................................................................2  Figure 1.2. A diagram showing the conceptual framework of the study...............................0  Figure 1.3. The figure shows that business environment of the households including 9 factors that has been changed to impact business results of the household...........................6  Figure 4.1: Business situation in 2012 compared to 2011...................................................44  Figure 4.2: The capital source structure of the business households...................................48  Figure 4.3: Informal costs for state employees in total income of business households .....62  Figure 4.4: Assessment on attitude of the authorities to operation of business households 65  Figure 4.5: Assessments of the households on local authorities..........................................66  Figure 4.6: The trust of business households in the court system .......................................67  Figure 4.7: Provincial Formality Index (PFI) and District Formality Index (DFI) .............73  Figure 4.8: The business results of the households and formality indexes..........................76  Figure 1 Appendix 1: The weight of component indexes with different methods ............103  Figure 2 of Appendix 1: Formality Index (FI) with different methods .............................105  xiii LIST OF BOXES Box 1: Questionnair structure for the private business household survey in 2012.............33  Box 2: Payable taxes of business households......................................................................61  Box 3: Why don’t some business households want to converse into enterprise business? .83  Box 4: Why don’t some households get their business registration? ..................................89  Chart 2.1. Emulation and analysis of business environment of business households ........17  xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENT ......................................................................................................i  ABSTRACT..........................................................................................................................ii  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................xi  LIST OF TABLE ...............................................................................................................xii  LIST OF FIGURES ..........................................................................................................xiii  LIST OF BOXES ..............................................................................................................xiv  TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................xv  CHAPTER I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING .....................................................1  1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................1  1.2. Background of the study ..........................................................................................2  1.3. Objectives of the study .............................................................................................3  1.4. Statement of problem ...............................................................................................4  1.5. Conceptual Framework............................................................................................5  1.6. Research Framework ...............................................................................................6  1.7. Significance of the study...........................................................................................7  1.8. Scope and limitation of the study. ...........................................................................7  1.9. Definition of terms ....................................................................................................7  1.10. Outline of the Study................................................................................................9  CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES.................10  2.1. Sole proprietorship .................................................................................................10  2.1.1. History of sole proprietorship in Vietnam........................................................10  2.1.2. Definitions and legal properties of the Business household ...........................11  2.1.3. Current situation of sole business households in Vietnam. ............................13  2.2. Business environment .............................................................................................14  2.2.1. Definition on business environment of sole business households ..................15  2.2.2. Factors of business environment of sole business household.........................19  2.2.3. Factors impacting to business environment of business households .............22  2.3. Some researches on business environment of business households ...................25  2.3.1. Some researches on business environment of business households in Vietnam .....................................................................................................................................25  xv 2.3.2. Some researches on business environment of business households in other regions .........................................................................................................................27  CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..........................................................31  3.1. Figures and research methodology .......................................................................31  3.1.1. Qualitative research ..........................................................................................31  3.1.2. Quantitative research........................................................................................31  3.2. Methodology to measure Formality Index (FI)....................................................33  3.3 Research Hypotheses ...............................................................................................39  CHAPTER IV : PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND NTERPRETATION OF DATA ..................................................................................................................................41  A. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS HOUSEHOLDS THROUGH SURVEY DATA AND FORMALITY INDEX .....................................41  4A.1. Business scale and performance of business households................................41  4A.2. Economic environment of rural business households.....................................45  4A.3. Policies and regulations for rural business households ..................................57  4A.4. Determination of Formality Indexes ................................................................67  4A.5. Analysis of Formality Index results..................................................................72  B. ASSESSMENT ON IMPACTS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT ON HOUSEHOLD’BUSINESS PERFORMANCE ..........................................................77  4B.1. Factors impacting on business households’ performance ..............................77  4B.2. Factors impacting on conversion into business enterprise..............................81  4B.3. Factors impacting on decision to get business registration.............................86  CHAPTER V : CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................94  5.1. Summary of Findings .............................................................................................94  5.2. Implications of the Findings...................................................................................96  5.3. Recommendations...................................................................................................97  5.4. Future Research......................................................................................................98  REFERENCE.....................................................................................................................99  APPENDICES..................................................................................................................101  Appendix 1. Method to define the weight on basis of direct regression .................101  Appendix 2: Documents relevant to household business .........................................106  Appendix 3 : QUESTIONNAIRE .............................................................................108  xvi CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING 1.1 Introduction Being a developing country, Vietnam has gained remarkable economic achievement in nearly 30 years, both in economic growth and poverty reduction. GDP per capita growth rate reached 7% during the last decade. Poverty rate reduced from 58% in 1993 to 37% in 1998 and 14% in 2008. Businesses household1 make a great contribution to the economic growth. Business households not only help create jobs, increase income and increase state budget revenues but also build biggest networks reaching to distant areas, thus develop distribution network, balance trading activities and develop local economy. In long term, the economy will witness a transition from unofficial sector to official sector. The number of agricultural household and non-agricultural production business will decrease. However, in the context of an economic transition facing a lot of difficulties, business households still play an important role. Business households help reduce negative impact of economic shocks on household. Trade globalization brings about both opportunities and risks for the economy (Easterly and Kraay, 2000; Winters and associates, 2004). When losing jobs in business sector, employees can work in household sector. Nguyen (2010) indicates that a number of labors who get low-paid in company have turned to household sector. Agricultural household can also changed to non-agricultural business activities in case of natural disasters and/or business difficulties. According to the total survey on non-agricultural production and business establishment of General Statistic Office in 2004, there were 2.9 million of non-agricultural business establishment nation-wide, providing jobs for nearly 5 million labors (Figure 1.1). The number of business establishment and employees in this sector has increased gradually. In 2012, there were 4.6 million business establishment, providing jobs for 7.8 million labor in the nation. 1 Author use the term « business household » according to Decree 43/2010/ND-CP of the Government. Business household is the non-agricultural business households or non-agricultural business establishments. In this thesis, the author use both the phrase " business household" and "businesses establishment" with similar meaning. 1 Figure 1.1: Number of non-agricultural business household and employees in nonagricultural business household in 2004-2012 period. (Unit: thousand household, thousand employee) 7797 8000 7436 7065 7000 6700 6594 5766 5584 6000 4988 5000 4629 3748 4000 2914 3053 3869 3986 4125 3300 3000 2000 1000 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 number of business establishments 2009 2010 2012 number of labors Source: Statistical Yearbook However, compared to business sector, the development of household is limited. Capital and human resources of business household is small and hardly change over years. On average, each household consists of 2 labors (Figure 1.1). The proportion of household with business registration is small, about 27.5% in 2007. 2 There has not been a favorable business environment for businessc households Phuoc Ha, 2006; IRC and IPSARD, 2011). Local authorities pay much attention to business households as this is the sector which generates the most state budget revenues (from tax) for the provinces (IRC and IPSARD, 2011). 1.2. Background of the study There have been a large number of researches on business environment; however, these researches often focus on general business environment of the localities or the enterprises (eg. Freeman and associates, 2005; CAP, 2007). The number of researches 2 According to data of the Census administrative economic establishments in 2002 and 2007 2 focusing on household business, especially in rural areas is limited. Amongst previous researches on business environment, a notable research is on building Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) by VCCI collaborating with Vietnam Competitiveness Initiative (VNCI) funded by USAID. Since its debut in 2005, PCI has become an important tool to measure and evaluate business environment of private sector in 63 provinces and cities in Vietnam. It also helps local authorities point out restriction factors to business households, especially environment and institution. However, PCI is designed for business sector, not business household. Vinh Phuc and Bac Ninh, the two provinces adjacent to Hanoi (Vinh Phuc is bounded by the North of Hà Nội, Bac Ninh is bounded by the East of Hanoi), have made significant contribution to economic development of the capital city for the last years. In conformity to the National Plan by 2020, the two provinces shall be an important support for Hanoi to get a sustainable economic development. Vĩnh Phúc City and Bắc Ninh City (2 central cities of the two provinces) shall be satellite cities to help Hanoi settling issues of environment, materials and human resources … Therefore, socio-economic development of the two provinces gets much attention from the Government. Being a province of long-standing culture with development of numerous traditional villages specializing in bronzing, carpentry, ceramics …, Bắc Ninh has opportunities and challenges completely different from that of Vĩnh Phúc, a province having a lot of villages and communes with small trade of agricultural, forestry and aquatic products (rice, bean, peanut, vegetable ...) in addition to its agricultural economy. Therefore, economic development of the province can not be separated from development of household business. It is necessary to get a favorable business environment for development of household business. In urban areas, with development of enterprises of various types, business environment of the households also has significant improvement. However, in rural areas, business environment of the households doesn’t get much attention. 1.3. Objectives of the study Generally, this study aims to study factors of business environment affecting formation and development of the business households in the rural areas of Vinh Phuc and Bac Ninh province. Specifically, the specific objectives of this research are: - Analysing business Environment of business households in rural areas of 2 provinces through survey data; - Calcutating formality index (FI) of of business households and use FI to assessment business Environment of business households in rural areas of 2 provinces; 3
- Xem thêm -