Tài liệu Analyzing impacts of rubber plantation on poverty reduction, land ownership and natural forest resource in northern, lao pdr

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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRANING MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SPORT NATIONAL ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LAOS VIETNAM LAOS HOUNGPHET CHANTHAVONG ANALYZING IMPACT OF RUBBER PLANTATION ON POVERTY REDUCTION, LAND OWNERSHIP AND NATURAL FOREST RESOURCE IN NORTHERN LAO PDR Specialty : Economics Agriculture Code : 62.31.1001 Supervisor: Assoc.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen A dissertation Submitted to the National Economics University, Vietnam and National University of Laos in fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics HANOI, 2013 i DECLARATION Being aware of legal liability I declare, that the diploma thesis was written by myself and it does not include any contents obtained in the illegal way. I also declare that the presented thesis was not a subject of any university professional title’s proceedings previously. In addition I declare that the presented version of the thesis is identical with the electronic version included. The author of the thesis HOUNGPHET CHANTHAVONG ii ABSRACT This examined the economic impacts of rubber plantations on rural people’s livelihoods and forest resources. Sing district of LuangNamTha Province was selected for field data collection and different techniques for data collection at the field level were designed focusing on qualitative data analysis. The outcome from the field data analysis was shared with the government officers at both provincial and national levels. The results of the study illustrated that rubber plantation have both positive and negatives impacts. The rubber planting provides alternatives on land use opportunity for the upland cultivators and it will also contributes to the achievement of forestry strategies implementation to increase the forest cover in the future. The negative impacts happened to the livelihoods of local people, especially during the awaiting period for latex tapping. However, those impacts will decrease when income can be generated from the rubber latex. The study revealed that immediate technical assistance at the provincial and district level are required. Natural resource management and land use planning need to be improved to minimize the impacts of wide spreading of land conversion. iii ACLNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I would like to extend my deep appreciation to PGS.TS.Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen for her advices and supports during my research activities till its completion. I am grateful for Prof.Dr. Tran Tho Dat Vice President of National Economics University of Vietnam and Assoc.Prof. Dr. Lai Phi Hung, the coordinator for Lao-Vietnam PhD program for his effort facilitating during my study. I would like to express my deep gratitude to all relevant staffs of the Faculty of Forestry, National University of Laos who have been very helpful in facilitating my study. I am very grateful to Prof. Dr.Soukkongseng Saignaleuth, the President of National University of Lao PDR for his support and allowing me to enroll in this study program. I have also received impressive supports from my collaborating institutions, including: the Department of Forestry, the Departments of Investment and Planning (Ministry of Planning and Investment), the National Economic Research Institute and the National Land Management Authority. They have kindly provided me very good sources of relevant information and data. Moreover, the government officials in the province of LuangNamTha and Sing District provided me worthwhile collaboration and assistance during my field research. All visited families and farmers, who were very active involved in giving me accurate information and very much appreciated for their devoted time. Finally, unforgettable, I would like to give special thanks to my colleague at the faculty of Forestry especially Dr. Sithong Thongmanivong, the director of Natural Resource Management and Climate Change for his support reviewing my writing. I would also like to thank to my whole family members they are always support me to continue my study, especially my loved wife and daughters. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ...........................................................................................................i ABSRACT .....................................................................................................................ii ACLNOWLEDGEMENT.......................................................................................... iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................iv ABBREVIATION ........................................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................. viii CHAPTER 1: THESIS INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1 1.1 1.2 Rationale............................................................................................................. 1 Objectives ........................................................................................................... 3 1.3 1.4 Research Questions ........................................................................................... 4 Scope of the study and study area.................................................................... 4 1.5 Research Methodology ...................................................................................... 6 1.5.1 Research model ................................................................................................... 7 1.5.2 Data Collection Method ...................................................................................... 8 1.5.3 Data Collection Process..................................................................................... 11 1.5.4 Data profile ........................................................................................................ 12 1.5.5 Data processing ................................................................................................. 15 1.6 Research Contribution .................................................................................... 15 1.7 Research Limitation ........................................................................................ 16 CHAPTER 2: ANALYTICAL FRAMWORK OF ANALYZING IMPACT OF RUBBER PLANTATION ON POVERTY REDUCTION, LAND OWNERSHIP AND NATURAL FOREST RESOURCE ...................................... 17 2.1 Basic issue of impact analysis ......................................................................... 17 2.1.1 Impact assessment ............................................................................................ 17 2.1.2 Basic theory of impact evaluation ..................................................................... 18 2.2 Rubber Plantation Development.................................................................... 18 2.2.1 Overview of Rubber Plantation Development .................................................. 18 2.2.2 Factors Determining Rubber Plantation Development ..................................... 22 2.2.3 Plantation and Economic Development ............................................................ 23 2.3 Political and Legislation Factors on rubber plantation development ........ 25 2.3.1 Government Strategies for rubber production in Lao PDR .............................. 25 2.3.2 Laws related to plantation development............................................................ 25 v 2.3.3 Policies related to plantation development........................................................ 29 2.3.4 Policies on Land Ownership ............................................................................. 32 2.3.5 Forest Land Conversion and Concession for Plantation ................................... 34 2.3.6 Policies impacts on plantation development ..................................................... 46 2.4 Existing approaches for analyzing impact of rubber plantation on poverty reduction and land ownership and natural forest resources ........ 50 2.4.1 Impact of Rubber Plantation on Poverty Reduction ......................................... 51 2.4.2 Impacts of Rubber Plantation on Land Ownership ........................................... 55 2.4.3 Impacts of Rubber Plantation on Natural Resource .......................................... 56 2.5 Lesson learn from Vietnam ............................................................................ 58 CHAPTER 3: ANALYZING IMPACTS OF RUBBER PLANTATION ON POVERTY REDUCTION AND LAND OWNERSHIP AND NATURAL FOREST RESOURCES IN NORTHERN LAOS ................................................... 61 3.1 3.2 Overview of Sing District, North of Laos ...................................................... 61 Rubber Introduction in Northern Laos ........................................................ 63 3.3 Factors Determining Rubber Plantation Development in Northern Laos ...... 65 3.3.1 Lao Government’s Foreign Investment Promotion Policy ............................... 66 3.3.2 Regional Market Influences .............................................................................. 67 3.3.3 Villagers’ Motivation ........................................................................................ 68 3.4 Impacts of Rubber Plantation on Poverty Reduction, Land Ownership and Natural Forest Resource in Northern Laos ........................................... 70 3.4.1 Impact on Poverty Reduction ............................................................................ 70 3.4.2 Impact on land ownership ................................................................................. 76 3.4.3 Impact on Natural resources .............................................................................. 79 3.5 Reason of negative impacts............................................................................. 83 CHAPTER4: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION................................ 87 4.1 4.2 Conclusion ........................................................................................................ 87 Recommendation ............................................................................................. 89 4.3 Implication ....................................................................................................... 92 REFERENCE ............................................................................................................. 94 ANNEX 1 ..................................................................................................................... 99 vi ABBREVIATION Lao PDR Lao People’s Democratic Republic DAFI Development of Agriculture, Forestry and Industry NAFRI National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute FRC Forest Research Centre PAFO Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office DAFEO District Agriculture and Forestry Extension Office IRSC International Rubber Study Group WWF World Wide Fund FDI Foreign Direct Investment CPI Committee Planning and Investment FAO Food and Agriculture Organization MAF Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry NTFPs Non-Timber Forest Products PPID Provincial Planning and Investment Division SEIA Social Environment Impact Assessment NLMA National Land Management Authority MPI Ministry of Planning and Investment MOD Ministry of Defense CPMI Committee for Promotion Management of Investment DOF Department of Forestry GTZ German Technical Cooperation vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1: Participant criteria ................................................................................ 13 Table 1.2: Number of interviewees in each studied village .................................. 13 Table 1.3: Number of interviewees in each studied village by economic status .. 14 Table 2.1: Land use types and their responsible body .......................................... 26 Table 2.2: Scope permission for land lease and concession ................................. 38 Table 2.3: Differentiation between land lease and concession ............................. 39 Table 2.4: Plantation investment projects in provinces......................................... 44 Table 2.5: Investment areas before and after land concession project in Barjieng and LaoGnam district ............................................................ 48 Table 3.1: Rubber plantation in hectare by provinces, in Laos ...................................... 64 Table 3.2: Rubber Plantation in five provinces in the North, Laos-2006 ............. 65 Table 3.3: Hardyao Village Land Zoning, 2005 and 2011 ................................... 78 viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1: Map of Sing District ............................................................................... 6 Figure 1.2: Conceptual framework of the research study ......................................... 7 Figure 2.1: Bottom up concession flow .................................................................. 41 Figure 2.2: Top down concession flow ................................................................... 43 Figure 3.1: Willing of households in rubber plantation investment and involvement .......................................................................................................69 Figure 3.2: Main income sources of visited villagers, categorized by socioeconomic status. .......................................................................................71 Figure 3.3: An increase in rice areas in Sing district in 1999 and 2009 ................. 72 Figure 3.4: Cost of rubber products before exporting ............................................ 73 Figure 3.5: Comparing rubber incomes among three different groups .................. 74 Figure 3.6: Livelihood improvement resulting from rubber plantation expansion .............................................................................................. 75 Figure 3.7: Comparing GDP growth in LuangNamtha province, 2003 to 2008 .... 76 Figure 3.8: Percentage of forest and land use changes between 1991 and 2004, Sing district .......................................................................................... 80 Figure 3.9: Rubber Plantation Area in 2006, 2007 and 2010 (Planned), Sing district ................................................................................................... 81 Figure 3.10: Comparing Rubber Plantation Area in different districts, 2002 to 2008.....81 Figure 3.11: Map of Sing’s Land Use and Forest Cover 2002 ................................. 83 1 CHAPTER 1 THESIS INTRODUCTION Sustainable forestry and land use to promote social and economic development is a key component of development policy in many developing countries. Putting in place the right combination of resource use, industrial development policies to meet these goals is a complex policy challenge. This thesis analyzes Impacts of Rubber Plantation on Poverty Reduction, Land Ownership and Natural Forest Resource in Northern, Lao PDR using in-dept interview technique for data collection as well as using conduction analysis to produce the results. This chapter provides an overview of the thesis and its structure. It begins by discussing the problem statement of the research, followed by its rationality, objectives, questions, scope, research site, contribution and limitation of the present study. It then outlines the structure of the study. 1.1 Rationale A demand for rubber production has grown worldwide significantly over the past decades due to rapid progressive economies of China and India. Global rubber consumption has risen up to 5.9% in average annually since early 2000s (Douangsavanh, Thammavong& Noble 2008 &Vongkhamor, S. et al. 2007). Although the market for rubber in industrial nations is more stable and unlikely expected to increase, rubber is extremely increasing in "New Asia emerging economies" including China, India and other the ASEAN countries. In 2003, China’s rubber imports shot up almost 24% (Raintree 2005). This has created opportunities for, then, rubber plantation programs to be largely invested in potential rubber producing countries in order to supply the rubber market demand. In Lao PDR, historically, rubber was first introduced by French planters in Champasack Province (in 1930) during the colonial period. After that, more than 50 2 hectares of rubber plantation areas were again established into Bachiangchalernsouk District, Champasack Province by the Development of Agriculture, Forestry and Industry (DAFI) (NAFRI 2008). From 1994 to 1996, over 342 hectares of rubber plantation were established by the Hmong villagers at HadNyao village, Namtha district, Laungnamtha Province. In this period, rubber plantation development was in an initial stage. However, rubber plantation has been rapidly increasing in the last few years, resulting from the high market demand for latex from China, India, Thailand and Vietnam (Alton et al., 2005; FRC, 2005) and a consequence of establishment of recent government policy on the investment promotion. This creates more opportunities for both foreign and domestic investors to interest in large scale investment business on land concession. The government of Laos has recognized investors’ interest in rubber production as the best economic potential which could contributes to the national economy and ensure socially and economically improvement of local farmers. “Lao PDR is aiming to expand its rubber cultivated area to 180,000 hectares by 2010. Through this expansion policy, income will be generated through the export of rubber, and it is expected to create jobs for plantation workers, tappers, processors and rubber dealers. This policy will also enhance Laos’ various resettlement strategies and rapidly alleviate poverty among the rural communities. Through the rubber industry, it is hoped that further foreign direct investment will flow into Laos (Rasphone 2009). Since earlier 1990s, promotion of agricultural commodities’ production has been implemented in the Northern part of Lao PDR in order to stabilize shifting cultivation and opium poppy production. Para rubber regarded as “green gold” or “the tree of hopes” was introduced in various areas in Northern provinces. Since 2000, the Government of Laos has opened land investment for rubber plantation to both domestic and foreign enterprise, aiming to improve rural people’s livelihoods and to graduate from poverty. Many degraded forest areas have been conversed into rubber plantation and this practice was extensively common (Douangsavnah, 3 Thammavong& Noble 2008). The increase of rubber plantation has resulted from infrastructure development and changes of institutionalization to support regional trading (Leebouapao et al. 2005). Rubber plantation is the hope of local people to improve their quality of life. It is believed that, rubber plays an important role in generating alternative income of local villagers. It is recognized as crucial options for the poverty eradication of the Government of Laos. Thus, when the market began to boom in 2004, the demand on lands for rubber plantations have increased significantly. As a result, the traditional agricultural practices of the local in the Northern Laos have recently shifted from subsistence based production towards market based production. Since rural farmers have potentials to connect to agricultural market information, their fallows are converting into cash crops such rubber fields. The extensive rubber plantation is currently a controversial issue concerning its impacts on rural livelihoods and environmental condition (Thongmanivong et al. 2006). Although several studies has been done to seek the impact of the plantation on local livelihood such as Shing (2008), Thongmanivong et. al, (2008), they are not in-dept enough to understand the links between the plantation development and the local livelihood due to their lack of consideration of social factors. Furthermore, Lao overall still has a lack of experiences and knowledge on rubber, most of the techniques derived from China & Thailand, even though there is a rubber planting guideline, produced by NAFRI recently (2008). Therefore, there is a need to further investigate whether rubber is the best answer to poverty eradiation and to improve livelihoods and ensure sustainable natural resource utilization and accessibility. 1.2 Objectives In general, this research aims to examine the economic impacts of rubber plantations on rural people’s livelihoods and local land and forest resources. In particular, the specific objectives of this research are to: 4 1. Investigate impacts of land conversion for rubber on improving rural livelihoods in the northern part of Lao PDR. 2. evaluate the contribution of rubber expansion on natural resources accessibility and utilization and on the sustainability of environmental condition 3. Give recommendations to multiply the contribution and avoid negative effect of rubber investment on local livelihood and natural resources 1.3 Research Questions This study is attempting to understand the impacts of land conversion for rubber plantation on the socio-economic and livelihoods of the local residents and environmental conditions. Meanwhile rubber investment is recognized as the key economic opportunity, thus how can government authorities and local farmers minimize risks and maximize this opportunity. However, the study intends to figure out the following specific research questions: 1. If and how does rubber plantation reduce rural poverty? How do smallholders meet their food and income needs during the non-productive period of rubber planting? 2. What is the impact of rubber plantation on land ownership? How does rubber plantation become a barrier of poor households to access and utilize the natural forest product resources? 3. What is the impact of rubber plantation on natural forest resources? 1.4 Scope of the study and study area The direction of study is to understand the positive and negative contribution of rubber investment on local livelihood and natural resources. The research especially compares their income generated by rubber production before and after the land concession as well as agrarian land use change and natural resource 5 accessibility and depletion in Northern of Laos. The study evaluated and compare the potential contribution of land conversion into larger rubber areas and cash crop production and initiative maintenance of the natural resources in the studied area. Therefore, the cost-benefit analysis will be used in this research. In order to make it sound scientific, the below figure shows the framework of the study. First, it will be at the national level which focuses on the government policies and strategies on land development and foreign direct investment as well as the government mechanism minimizing its adversely impacts, specifically in Northern part of Lao PDR. This aim is to review the policy on turning land into capital. Secondly, provincial, community and household level will be targeted to investigate external factors on agri-business and land lease including the assessment of impact of agrarian land use change on rural people’s economic and livelihoods and cultural transition in study areas. The study conducted between 2009 and 2011. The site of the study was deliberately select as a case study of the present thesis. In Laos, rubber plantation has been rapidly expanded especially in the Northern part since the pass decades. This has been because of a higher demand of Chinese for rubber production couple with the promotion of foreign investment of the Local authorities who have welcomed Chinese investors to investment in the business of their interests especially in rubber plantation. Today, the figure shows that rubber plantation areas in the North reach 58% of total rubber plantation in Laos and continue expansion of this plantation is expected (NAFRI 2007). Much of these plantations are concentrated in Sing District of LuanNnamTha Province. For this reason, Sing districted was selected for not only a large investment on rubber plantation taking place but also easy access to the site. Sing is located in the north-western side of LuangNamTha Province, sharing borders with Xishuangbanna, China, to the northeast, Myanmar to the north and northwest, Muang Long district on the west and LuangNamTha district to the south. The political and administrative centre of the district is Muang Sing, a small town made up of a cluster of several villages. According to the population census conducted in May 2005, the district has a total population of 30,548 distributed in 96 villages. 6 However, only three the most involved and affected villages were selected as samples in consultation with the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office. This includes Had Nyao, Dong Jai and Oudomsin villages as highlighted in the red circle on upper left of Figure 1. Figure 1.1: Map of Sing District Source: GTZ 2008 1.5 Research Methodology A number of different methods used in impact evaluation theory. This include randomized evaluations, matching methods (specifically propensity score matching), double-difference methods, instrumental variable methods, regression discontinuity design and pipeline methods, distribution impacts, structural and other modeling approaches. Each method has its own assumptions about the natural of potential selection bias. In fact, the assumptions are crucial to develop an appropriate model to determine program impact. 7 The present study uses Randomized evaluation. This method is considered as the most rigorous method for impact evaluation. It requires the fewest assumptions but can simply draw conclusions from the results. In addition it can reduce work load and cost as the work by randomizing can ensure equivalent groups at the beginning. This can reduce the amount of statistical work synthesizing an equivalent comparison group later on in the analysis phase. 1.5.1 Research model Factors Determining Rubber Plantation Development Market demand Rubber Plantation Impacts of Rubber Plantation - Investment size: area, fund - Types of investment: investors - Types of ownership - Place of investment Poverty Reduction - GDP - Income - Pre and post Economic status of farmers - Period of Investment Natural condition Land Ownership Investment promotion policy - Land ownership transferring - Villager lost land - Land use conflicts Natural Forest Resource Village motivation - Forest cover - Rice production area - Biodiversity and ecosystem Figure 1.2: Conceptual framework of the research study 8 The present study consists of three main research components as shown in Figure 2. First, it attempts to understand factors determining rubber plantation development. These include forces of market demand, suitability of the land for plantation, institutional arrangement for promotion of investment and motivation of the local in rubber plantation. The second component focuses on the context of rubber plantation in the northern region. Details of rubber plantation will cover types of investors, sources of investment fund, location and size of plantation area, forms of investment and ownership as well as period of investment. The last but very important component relates to impacts of rubber plantation. Particular interested will be placed on the impacts on poverty reduction by assessing the changes in GDP, income and economic status of rubber plantation farmers. Impact on land ownership will be investigated especially those related to the conflicts over land use, lost of ownership right on land of the local and ownership transferring. Impact on natural forest resource will also be investigated especially those related to the forest cover, rice production area biodiversity and ecosystem. 1.5.2 Data Collection Method The data that form the basis of the present study were obtained from collection of secondary and primary data. Secondary data collection: Secondary data was collected through a desk review to obtain data required for the first research component presented above. This review was carried out to collect government regulations and policies on rubber plantation development. These documents were obtained from the Department of Forestry (DoF) of Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Land Development Department (LDD) of the Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment. A local policy and regulation on investment in rubber plantation were also collected at LuangNamTha provincial and district offices of Agriculture and Forestry, Investment and Cooperation, and Natural Resource and Environment. In addition, research results of others and 9 experiences of other countries related to rubber plantation were also collected via electronic search and through personal contacts with researchers. Primary data collection: Collection of primary data was carried out through semi-structure and indepth interview approach to particularly obtain the data that support the above second and third research components. Semi-structure interview were mainly used with decision makers and rubber planters in component 1. First, the Lao government at national, provincial and district line agencies were interviewed and discussed to obtain the government policies, lesson leant, minimizing obstacle mechanism and future expectation and other related studies. These include the Provincial Department of Planning and Investment (DPI) and their counterparts at the district level, the Rubber Unit of the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office (PAFO), District Agriculture, Forestry and Extension Offices (DAFEO), and the Provincial Customs Office. In-dept interview were mainly conducted with the local villagers. This type of interview is used when the informant’s account is being sought and is highly valued (Minichiello et al., 1995). Patton (1990) spell out that entering into the participant’s perspective during an interview, allows access to experiences of social reality that cannot be directly observed. Moreover, Seale (1999) explains that interviewees can act as the eyes and ears of researchers and able to recall and summarize a wide rang of observations in seconds which could otherwise take months of work to achieve. Patton (1990) also emphasizes that In-depth interviews are particularly used when the presence of an observer is precluded by the situation (such as attempting to observe the private actions of an individual). As the present study is attempting to understand subjective experiences from the development of plantation, in-depth interview allow a glimpse into the perception of the stakeholders who are involving in this type of investment. Also given both resource and time constrains of the 10 present study, the choice of in-depth interviews was an appropriate method to comprehend the actual effect of effect of rubber plantation on land use system and their livelihood. As further described by Minichiello et al (1995), in-dept interviews are characterized by a conversation-style discussion with a specific purpose. They also further emphasis that this particular form of interview is distinguished for that the conversion focuses on the participant’s ‘perspective of self, life and experience and is expressed in his or her own words’. Patton (1990) spells out that unlike the structure interview where participants must fit their experiences an feeling into the researcher’s categories even if perceived as irrelevant, the in-depth interview allows for great flexibility to capture the experience of each participant, in, an on their own term. To keep the conversation focused on the research, a list of discussed topics is developed and used to guide the discussion. The reason for using this list was to ‘jog the memory of the interviewer’ about all the issues to be covered; it therefore ensured that common topics were covered with each participant. Topics to be covered in the guide question did not require exact wording or a fixed order of questions. Instead, the wording and sequence of questions were adapted to meet the specific context of each actual interview. Accordingly, participants were able to emphasize particular issues and to initiate topics that were not covered in the list. During the interview, if queries arose regarding the meaning of a comment, or if a new angle of inquiry evolved, the researcher would seek clarification or new understandings from participants at the time. The list of discussed topics was developed to address the research questions that were posted in previous section. The topics include: 1. Their social condition such as migration, education, and family relationship. 2. Their livelihood in relation to their economic activities both off farm and on farm activities. 3. History of rubber plantation in the local and the local capacity, willingness and readiness to be involved in this development. 11 4. Their actual involvement in rubber plantation development. 5. If the investment improve their livelihood and how do they meet their food and income needs during the non-productive period of rubber planting. 6. If the spread of this development change their land use pattern and system. 7. Their perception on rubber plantation in the context of land use management. If and how rubber influence the sustainability of local natural resources 1.5.3 Data Collection Process As mentioned in the pass section, interviewees in the present study include those in the central, provincial, district and village levels. Accessing to each of them had different requirement, through different steps. Step 1: Meeting interviewers at the central level. This includes meeting the Director General of the Department of Forestry of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to understand the policy context of forestry in Laos. Within this department, meeting with the head of the division of production forest and forestry business was organized to get insight of business in plantation in Laos cover both issues and opportunities in plantation business in Laos. Director General of the Land Development Department of the National Land Management Authority was interviewed to understand the land policy in the context of investment on land for agribusiness. Director General of department of investment of the Ministry of Investment and Cooperation was met to comprehend the investment procedure and requirement. Accessing to each mentioned person required an official letter from the Faculty of Forestry of the National University of Laos where the researcher engaged. Step 2: Meeting interviewers at the provincial level. The heads of the provincial department offices of Agriculture & Forestry, Land, Investment and Cooperation in LuangNamTha were interviewed to hear their policy and actual context in relation to the plantation business in their province. Similar to Step 1, an official letter from the Faculty of Forestry was required for each of them.
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