Tài liệu A critical discourse analysis of president barack. h. obama’s address on cuba detente policy

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VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HA NOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES FACULITY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  HOÀNG THỊ THẮM A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF U.S PRESIDENT BARACK H.OBAMA’S ADDRESS ON CUBA DETENTE POLICY (NGHIÊN CỨU BÀI PHÁT BIỂU CỦA TỔNG THỐNG BARACK H. OBAMA VỀ CHÍNH SÁCH BÌNH THƯỜNG HÓA QUAN HỆ VỚI CUBA TỪ GÓC ĐỘ PHÂN TÍCH DIỄN NGÔN) Field: English Linguistics Code: 60220201 Course: QHF.2014 Supervisor: Prof. Nguyen Hoa - Hanoi, September 2017 - Abstract In my thesis, I employ Fairclough‟s approach of CDA and Halliday‟s Systemic Functional Grammar to analyze a case study which is a political speech named “Obama‟s address on Cuba détente policy”. The study is to find out the relationship between language, ideologies and power hidden behind the discourse. At the same time, linguistic strategies are also discussed to see how the ideologies are constructed and manifested in the speech. The results indicate that CDA helps reveal the relationship between language, ideologies and power in the speech. Language is a means to show ideologies and power; on the other hand, language is also to construct one‟s ideologies or his identity to some extent. By analyzing this case study, it can be seen that Obama is of great intelligence in using language as a strategic tool to display his ideologies and power. i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS On the completion of this thesis, I am indebted to many people. First and foremost, I wish to thank my supervisor, Prof. Nguyen Hoa for his valuable and prompt advice and helps, without which, this thesis could not come into being. Much gratitude also go to all my lecturers and officers from Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Languages and International Studies, Vietnam National University, who facilitated with the best possible conditions during my whole course of studying. Last but not least, I express thanks to my family and friends, whose encouragement and assistance are of extreme importance during the course of my writing this paper. Hanoi, September, 2017 Hoang Thi Tham ii TABLE OF CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................................ iii PART I: INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................1 1. Rationale ......................................................................................................................1 2. Scope of the study ........................................................................................................1 3. Purposes of the study...................................................................................................1 4. Empirical Data .............................................................................................................2 5. Design of the study ......................................................................................................2 PART II: DEVELOPMENT ...................................................................................................3 CHAPTER 1: Literature Review ............................................................................................3 1.1. The history of CDA .....................................................................................................3 1.2. Elements in CDA .........................................................................................................3 1.2.1. CDA definition .............................................................................................................3 1.2.2. CDA goals ....................................................................................................................4 1.2.3. Critical .........................................................................................................................4 1.2.4. Ideology .......................................................................................................................5 1.2.5. Power ...........................................................................................................................5 1.2.6. Discourse .....................................................................................................................6 1.2.6.1. Discourse as a social practice ..................................................................................6 1.2.6.2. Type of power ............................................................................................................7 1.2.6.3. Political discourse .....................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 2: Methodology....................................................................................................8 2.1. Data ..............................................................................................................................8 2.2. Procedure .....................................................................................................................8 2.2.1. Fairclough‟s Three – Dimensional Approach ..............................................................8 2.2.1.1. Description ................................................................................................................8 2.2.1.2. Interpretation ............................................................................................................9 2.2.1.3. Explanation .............................................................................................................10 2.2.2. Halliday‟s Systemic Functional Linguistics ..............................................................10 2.2.2.1. Transitivity system ...................................................................................................10 2.2.2.2. Thematic system ......................................................................................................11 CHAPTER 3: Findings and Discussion ................................................................................13 iii 3.1.1. Experiential values ....................................................................................................15 3.1.2. Relational values........................................................................................................18 3.1.3. Expressive values .......................................................................................................19 3.1.4. Metaphors ..................................................................................................................19 3.2. Grammatical analysis .................................................................................................20 3.2.1. The use of personal pronouns „I‟, „we‟ and „you‟ .....................................................20 3.2.2. Nominalization and passivization ...............................................................................21 3.2.3. Modes of sentences ....................................................................................................23 3.2.4. Modality analysis .......................................................................................................23 3.2.5. Cohesive devices ........................................................................................................24 3.2.6. Transitivity analysis ................................................................................................... 26 3.2.7. Thematic analysis ......................................................................................................28 3.3. Textual analysis .........................................................................................................29 3.4. Interpretation .............................................................................................................29 3.4.1. Interpretation of institutional context and speech act ...............................................30 3.4.2. Interpretation of inter-textual context and presupposition ........................................32 3.5. Explanation ................................................................................................................33 PART III CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................35 1) Summary and conclusion ...........................................................................................35 2) Implications ...............................................................................................................37 REFERENCES .....................................................................................................................38 WEBSITE ..............................................................................................................................38 Appendix 1 .............................................................................................................................. I Obama‟s address on Cuba détente policy ............................................................................... I Appendix 2 Transitivity analysis in detail ........................................................................... IX Appendix 3 Thematic analysis in detail ........................................................................... XVII Appendix 4 Content Analysis ......................................................................................... XXIII Appendix 5 Thematic structure.......................................................................................XXXI iv PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Regarded as a social phenomenon, the study of language in use helps discover many interests such as ideologies or power behind the language. Recently, critical discourse analysis (henceforth CDA) has become very popular among linguists because of its purposes. That is, the study of CDA is to find out the relationship between ideologies, power and language, and in turn to reveal ideologies and power hidden behind the discourse. For that reason, I decide to apply CDA in my minor thesis. In addition, as a learner of language but having a great interest in politics, I choose one political speech named “Obama‟s address on Cuba détente policy to analyze. I make my mind up to vote for this speech because of several reasons. First, with more than 2,000 words, it becomes a proper choice for a study of 10,000 words. Second, it is an official speech which is delivered by a high-ranking politician (President Obama). Finally, the most important reason, I want to see what Obama‟s ideologies are constructed and how they are manifested linguistically in his speech. 2. Scope of the study In this study, I employ written aspects of the speech, but with the absence of spoken one despite my awareness of such an importance in comprehending the overall message. Yet, with more than 20,000 words in the text, I think it is enough for a minor thesis to meet its requirements. For such a reason, I put my emphasis on basic features such as vocabulary, grammar or textual ones to reveal hidden messages behind the discourse. 3. Purposes of the study Purposes of the study are to uncover the relationship between language, ideologies and power hidden behind the speech and to reveal how the ideologies are manifested linguistically and constructed in the discourse. In order to reach these purposes, I answer the two research questions as following: 1) What are Obama‟s themes as constructed in his speech? 2) How are the themes manifested linguistically? 1 4. Empirical Data The empirical data used in the paper comes from the website (http://www.americanrhetoric.com/newtop100speeches.htm). In particular, the data is a speech, which was delivered on December 17th, 2014 at Cabinet room, the White House and it is considered as a sudden, shocking and historic event. The purpose of the speech is to restore full diplomatic relations with Cuba, ending the 54 -year - deep -freeze relation between the two nations. The seeds of change were planted after Obama‟s 2012 reelection, when he huddled with advisers and asked them to „think big‟ about the second term agenda, including the possibilities of new starts with longstanding U.S foes such as Iran and Cuba. Then the speech was the result of 18 months of hush-hush talks between the two nations, including secret meetings in Canada and the personal involvement of Pope Francis. Such a condition helps create an important pave to divulge ideologies hidden behind the speech. 5. Design of the study This study consists of three main parts. They are: Part I: Introduction It includes the rationale, the scope of the study, the aims of the study, data collecting and sampling, and the design of the study. Part II: Development The development comprises three chapters. Chapter 1 named “Literature Review” provides the development process of critical discourse analysis and important features of its theory as well. Chapter 2 entitled “Methodology” shows clearly the analytical framework of the study. I employ Fairclough‟s approach to analysis the speech because it is the most linguistic. Chapter 3 labeled “Findings and Discussion” talks about Obama‟s ideologies hidden behind the speech and strategies he resorted to get his ideologies across. Part III: Conclusion This part summarizes findings; hence, being able to conclude what ideologies and power are constructed in the speech and how these ideologies are manifested linguistically. Also, some recommendations for further study are presented as well. 2 PART II: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: Literature Review 1.1. The history of CDA CDA is a domain of critical applied linguistics. The 1970s saw the emergence of CDA. Its development was credited with prominent works including Kress and Hodge (1979), Fowler et al (1979), van Dijk (1985), Fairclough (1989) and Wodak (1989). In particular, Fowler et al. (1979-1996) made an important contribution to ascertain the early foundations of Critical Linguistics. Then, from 1989 to 1999, Fairclough set out the social theories underpinning CDA as well as explained and elaborated on some advances in CDA, showing not only how the analytical framework for investigating language in relation to power and ideology developed, but also how CDA is useful in disclosing the discursive nature of much contemporary social and cultural change. After that, van Dijk worked in text linguistics and discourse analysis, and considered the relevance of discourse to the study of language processing. Also, he focused on developing a theoretical model that explained cognitive discourse processing mechanisms. These famous linguists built up main assumptions, principles and procedures of what became Critical Linguistics. By 1990s, it came into existence with this particular approach to linguistic analysis, showing how CDA was, by that time, emerging as a distinctive theory of language, a radical different kind of linguistics. Noticeably, most studies of these famous linguists are drawn on Hallidayan systemic functional grammar. This indicates that an understanding of the basic claims of Halliday‟s grammar and his approach to linguistic analysis is essential for an adequate understanding of CDA. 1.2. Elements in CDA Concepts relating to „critical‟, „ideology‟, „power‟ and „discourse‟ are discussed as deeply as possible to make a proper understanding of CDA. However, before talking about these elements, we should talk about CDA definition and its goals. 1.2.1. CDA definition 3 The notion of Critical Discourse Analysis is the principal issue for those who wish to research such an area. It stays dissimilar among different scholars such as van Dijk (1998), Rebecca Roger (2004), Gilbert Weiss and Ruth Wodak (2003), Norman Fairclough (2001) or Theo Van Leuuwen (1993). However, I only mention some basic and famous definitions. As stated by van Dijk (1998), CDA investigates the way „social power abuse, dominance and inequality which are enacted, reproduced and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context‟. Quite different from van Dijk, Norman Fairclough (2001) holds his attitude that CDA is considered as ideological analysis. For the above opinions, CDA can be seen as an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a social practice and its targets are to uncover hidden power and ideology behind discourses. 1.2.2. CDA goals The main purpose of CDA as cited by (Litosseliti, 2006), is to understand social issues, inequalities, and ideologies, by exposing the subtle role of discourse in maintaining them. Also, it is to develop more effective means against persecution in society (Rathzel, in Wodak, 1997). Toward deconstructing and reconstructing images of the other still represents other target of CDA (Rathzel in Wodak, 1997). (Schaffner, 1996) suggests that what CDA should act is to describe and explain, and if necessary criticize social and discursive practices, based on solid research. 1.2.3. Critical The notion of „critical‟ which is inherent in CDA‟s program is also understood very differently. For general understanding, as suggested by Oxford Dictionary, „critical‟ is to be understood as a way of thinking about and examining culture and literature by considering the social, historical and ideological forces. The opinion of Wodak and Meyer (2002) is relatively different that „critical‟ is something keeping distance to the data, embedding the data in the social, taking a political stance explicitly and a concentration on self-reflection as scholars doing research. With Corson (2000) (in Roger 2004), he holds his opinion about „critical‟ that it is often associated with researches in power relations. By means of „critical‟ , linguists find it easier to uncover 4 power inequalities hidden in discourses and wider social and cultural formations. Overall, it is believed that „critical‟ is something qualitative and a sharp tool to reveal ideologies and power behind the discourse. 1.2.4. Ideology „Ideology‟ for CDA, is seen as an important aspect of establishing and maintaining unequal power relations. Thompson (1990) holds his opinion about the study of „ideology‟ „the ways in which meaning is constructed and conveyed by symbolic forms of various kinds‟. It also discovers the social contexts within which symbolic forms are employed and deployed. For Simpson (1993), „ideology‟ is created by a combination of cultural assumptions, political beliefs and institutional practices. According to Eagleton (1994), the study of „ideology‟ has to consider the variety of theories and theorists that have examined the relation between thought and social reality. Despite different concepts of „ideology‟, its main functions according to van Dijk are to self-represent the group or the membership and identification of its members, to organize their social practices or struggles, and to promote the interests of the group and its members with respect to other groups. 1.2.5. Power Wodak and Meyer consider „power‟ as relations about difference, and especially about the influences of differences in social structures. They also mention that „power‟ does not derive from language, yet in the service of language, „power‟ is challenged, subverted and altered distributions of power in the short and long term. From the point of view of Teun van Dijk (1998), „power‟ is defined in the light of control. When one group or individual is likely to more or less control the acts and minds of other groups or individuals, they can have more or less power. „Power‟ in CDA often is seen as ideological power which is exercised in discourse, and the power to project one‟s practices, beliefs and perspectives as universal, „common sense‟ or „right and just‟. „Power‟ in CDA is signaled not only by grammatical forms within a text, but also by a person‟s control of a social occasion by means of the genre of a text. It is often exactly within the genres related to given social occasions that power is exercised or challenged. 5 1.2.6. Discourse In this session, I will start to discuss „discourse‟ in CDA as „discourse as a social practice. Then I mention to some types of discourse and focus on „political discourse‟ because it relates to the study. 1.2.6.1. Discourse as a social practice In CDA, „discourse‟ is considered as a social practice. By using „a social practice‟, Fairclough implies that language is a part of society, and not somehow external to it, a social process and a socially conditioned process, conditioned that is by other (nonlinguistic) parts of society. In turn, „discourse‟ involves social conditions, which can be specified as social conditions of production, and social conditions of interpretation. These social conditions also relate to three different „level‟ of social organization including the level of the social situation, or the immediate social environment in which the discourse occurs, the level of the social institution which constitutes a wider matrix of the discourse and the level of the society as a whole. Social conditions of production Process of production Text Process of interpretation Interaction Social conditions of interpretation Context Table 1: Discourse as text, interaction and context 6 1.2.6.2. Type of power Norman Fairclough (2001) categorizes discourse into two major aspects including power in discourse and power behind discourse. Power in discourse is associated with discourse in which relations of power are actually exercised and enacted. In other words, discourse is the site of power struggles. Through power in discourse, analysts can reveal the control of powerful participants and the constraint the contribution of non-powerful participants. The later aspect is about power behind discourse which represents the stake in power struggles – for control over orders of discourse is a powerful mechanism for sustaining power. 1.2.6.3. Political discourse For Dieckmann and Christina Schaffner, political language is to denote the use of language in the context of politics and a point of view of language use, respectively. Political language contains some features (Geiss, 1987); that is, it might have an indirect but stronger effect on people‟s political thought than expressions of strong opinions; bias very often exists in political discourse and verbs which denote speech may imply positive impact or negative impact; especially, the context in political discourse is of great importance in understanding of the messages embedded in the text. One more thing, political speeches contain some characteristics as follow:  The speeches are parts of and/ or the results of politics.  They fulfill different functions due to different political activities.  Their topics are primarily associated with politics.  In the majority of the cases, they are meant for a wide public. 7 CHAPTER 2: Methodology 2.1. Data As mentioned in the previous part (Empirical Data), the data for this CDA is empirical. In particular, I employ one political speech called “Obama‟s address on Cuba détente policy” which is taken from the website (http://www.americanrhetoric.com/newtop100speeches.htm). 2.2. Procedure CDA is to find out the relationship between language, ideologies and power; in turn, reveal ideologies and power hidden behind the discourse. Therefore, I want to employ CDA to see how the relation between ideologies and language are manifested linguistically in Obama‟s speech, and what his ideologies are constructed. In addition, CDA in all of its various forms understands itself to be strongly based on theory. And there is a wide variety of theories which are applied in analyzing CDA; however, I employ Fairclough‟s analytical framework because it is seen as the most linguistic. Also, in his work, Fairclough used Halliday‟s systemic functional grammar to analysis; therefore, I will focus on three-dimensional approach of Fairclough and several key points relating to Halliday‟s systemic functional linguistics below. 2.2.1. Fairclough’s Three – Dimensional Approach In his approach, Fairclough recommends three different stages which are description, interpretation and explanation as well. 2.2.1.1. Description At this step, features including vocabulary, grammar and textual structure are all mentioned in order to reveal hidden meanings, embedded messages and speaker‟s ideologies. For such reasons, a number of questions are listed below: A. Vocabulary 1. What experiential values do words have? 2. What relational values do words have? 3. What expressive values do words have? 4. What metaphors are used? 8 B. Grammar 5. What experiential values do grammatical features have? 6. What relational values do grammatical features have? 7. What expressive values do grammatical feature have? 8. How are sentences linked together? C. Textual structures 9. What interactional conventions are used? 10. What larger-scale structures does the text have? 2.2.1.2. Interpretation Interpretation step copes with discourse processed and their dependence on background assumptions. It is generated through what is in the text and what is „in‟ the interpreter. This stage is summarized through the figure as follow: Interpretative procedures (MR) Resources Interpreting Social orders Situational context Interactional history Inter-textual context Phonology, grammar, Surface of utterance vocabulary Semantics, Meaning of utterance pragmatics Cohesion, Local coherence pragmatics Text structure and „point‟ Schemata Table 2: Interpretation Norman Fairclough (2001; 119) 9 2.2.1.3. Explanation The objective of the third stage- explanation- is to portray a discourse as part of a social process, as social practice, presenting how it is determined by social structures, and what reproductive effects discourses can cumulatively have on those structures, sustaining them or changing them. Norman Fairclough shows three questions in common in order to be applied in certain discourse analysis. 1. Social determinants: What power relations at situational, institutional, and societal level help shape this discourse? 2. Ideologies: What elements of MR which are drawn upon have an ideological character? 3. Effect: How is this discourse positioned in relation to struggles at the situational, institutional, and societal levels? Are the struggles overt or over? Is the discourse formative with respect to MR or creative? Does it contribute to sustaining existing power relations or transforming them? 2.2.2. Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics This kind of linguistic system is of great importance for CDA analysts. Halliday distinguished three meta-functions of language which are continuously interconnected: they are the ideational function through which language lends structure to experience, the interpersonal function which constitutes relationships between the participants, and the textual function which constitutes coherence and cohesion in texts. In my paper, I utilize two functions including ideational and textual functions. These two functions are realized at the lexico-grammar level by choices in the transitivity and thematic system of the language, and the unit of this level is clause. 2.2.2.1. Transitivity system This system is defined as the world of experience into a manageable set of process types. Normally, a process type contains three components such as the process itself, participants in the process and circumstance associated with the process. Transitivity provides the potential to group the infinite variety of occurrences into a finite set of 10 process types. They are material, mental, relational, behavioral, verbal, existential process. This frame of reference is useful when we interpret experience of what goes on. 2.2.2.2. Thematic system Thematic system answers the question „how is the content of the text organized?‟ and it is realized the ordering of „theme and rheme‟ in a clause. Halliday (1994) states that the theme is the starting-point for the message, the ground from which the clause is taking off; and the theme is divided into simple and multiple theme. The theme extends from the beginning of the clause up to the first element that has function in transitivity; and it is named topical theme. If there are other things coming before the topical theme, multiple themes will appear. Vice versa, in case there is nothing before the topical theme, it stays single. Components of a multiple theme can be summarized as below according to Bloor, T and Bloor, M (1995). Meta-function Component of theme Textual theme Continuative Structural Conjunctive Interpersonal theme Vocative Modal Finite Wh-interogative Experiential theme Topical (participant, circumstance, process) Table 3: Components of a multiple theme It also should be distinguished between marked and unmarked themes. The first notion can be defined that a theme which is other than the subject, in a declarative clause while the later one is often found in adverbial groups, prepositions or nominalization. It is placed where the subject is the starting point of the clause. 11 In this chapter, I have argued on the one hand that CDA theories are reviewed and discussed, and on the other hand that the analytical framework by Norman Fairclough is mentioned in detail. They are considered as a useful and major tool in analyzing Obama‟s speech which is presented next part – the most important part of the study. 12 CHAPTER 3: Findings and Discussion To answer the first research question “What Obama‟s themes1 as constructed in his speech”, I analyze the content of the speech (See appendix 4 Content Analysis) and then collect it into a thematic schema (See appendix 5 Thematic Structure). In particular, Obama‟s themes are represented as following: 1. The topic of the speech: Announce for changes 2. Background of the past policy: Failure of the past policy to make a case for changes 3. Need for changes: plan and steps; benefits for changes 4. Difficulties 5. Solutions 6. Acknowledgment It can be seen that Obama‟s thematic argumentation is so obvious. Right at the first sentence of the speech, Obama directly shows the topic sentence “Today, the United States of America is changing its relationship with the people of Cuba.” Then the audience can recognize the issue and continues to follow the speech. So why need changes? We can find out the answer in the second step of Obama‟s thematic schema – Background of the past policy. Because he wants to make a case for changes, Obama indicates failures of the past policy. Indeed, he demonstrates that the past rigid policy does not serve the American or Cuban‟s interest “Neither American, nor Cuban people are well served by a rigid policy.” (Line 31-32), and it receives no support by other nations “No other nation joins us in imposing these sanctions, and it has had little effect…” (Line 26-27) although it has the best of intentions (Line 26) which serve democracy and human rights (Line 22). Showing such failures requires a need for changes. 1 Themes and ideologies are interchangeable 13 At the step of need for changes, Obama specifies his plan and steps and benefits for changes. He displays four steps for changes by using connective words- “first, second, third and finally” which helps create a logical and coherent content. The four steps are: reestablish diplomatic relations “First, I‟ve instructed Secretary Kerry to …reestablish diplomatic relations” (Line 66-67); review Cuba‟s designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism “Second, I‟ve instructed Secretary Kerry to review Cuba‟s designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism” (Line 84-85); increase travel, commerce, and the flow of information to and from Cuba “Third, we are taking steps to increase travel, commerce, and the flow of information to and from Cuba” (Line 90-91); and renew leadership in the Americas ““Finally, our shift in policy towards Cuba comes at a moment of renewed leadership in the Americas” (Line 175-176). In addition, Obama indicates benefits for changes to persuade the audience believe and follow his policy. That is, Cuban Americans can travel and send remittances to their families in Cuba “We lifted restrictions for Cuban Americans to travel and send remittances to their families in Cuba” (Line 38-39). Moreover, it will be easier for Americans to travel to Cuba and they will be able to use American credit and debit cards on the island (Line 94). Also, it will be easier for U.S exporters to sell goods in Cuba and Cubans enable to communicate with the United States and other countries. On the other hand, the journey to make such Obama‟s steps come to an end is not easy. It certainly contains a lot of difficulties. He claims the change is hard (Line 196) and “No es facil- It‟s not easy (Line 164). By using a daily-life-Cuban sentence, Obama wants to connect and share with Cuban community about the difficulties. Despite these obstacles, he always shows his belief and hope about the success of his changes “Ideals matter more than the color of our skin, or the circumstances of our birth; a demonstration of what the Cuban people can achieve, and the openness of the United States to our family to the South (Line 192-193)”. 14 To persuade the public, Obama does not only present his belief about the policy, but also give solutions for the difficulties. His administration discusses with the government of Cuba about Alan‟s case and other aspects of the two nation‟s relationship “many months, my administration has held discussions with the Cuba government….” (Line 49), and continue to do on issues related to democracy and human rights in Cuba “We will continue to do on issues related to democracy and human rights in Cuba.” (Line 78), “We will continue to support civil society there” (Line 132). One more important thing in Obama‟s thematic argumentation is his acknowledgment. He does not forget to thank those who are his partners in his efforts. They are Holiness Pope Francis who shows the importance of pursuing the world; the government of Canada, which hosted discussions between two nations, and a bipartisan group of congressmen who have worked tirelessly for Alan Gross‟s release (Line 171-172). In sum, analyzing the content of the speech, we can see Obama‟s themes/ideologies hidden behind the speech; then to observe how these themes are manifested linguistically in the speech, I present strategies Obama used to manifest his themes getting across. The linguistic strategies I present below are associated with the themes which are found out after analyzing the content analysis. 3.1. Vocabulary analysis In this session, I will examine values words can have. They are experiential, relational, expressive value and metaphor. 3.1.1. Experiential values A formal feature with experiential value is a trace of and a cue to the way in which the text producer‟s experience of the natural or social world is represented. To begin with, let‟s look at such a value, which is represented in the discourse, to gain a general picture of the speaker‟s attitude, ideology and his perspective as well. A great number of utilized words which are to describe events, actions, or persons give us a universal 15
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