Tourism economics in the north central provinces in international economic integration

  • Số trang: 206 |
  • Loại file: DOC |
  • Lượt xem: 12 |
  • Lượt tải: 0
nhattuvisu

Đã đăng 26946 tài liệu

Mô tả:

HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION -------------------------------- NGUYEN THI HONG LAM TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE NORTH CENTRAL REGION IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION PHD THESIS IN ECONOMICS HA NOI - 2013 HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION --------------------------- NGUYEN THI HONG LAM TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE NORTH CENTRAL REGION IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Specialism : Political economics Code : 62 31 01 01 PHD THESIS IN ECONOMICS Academic Supervisors: ASSOC. PROF. Dr. AN NHU HAI HA NOI – 2013 DECLARATION I hereby declare that this is entirely my own work. All the thesis data are truthful. And the thesis conclusions have never been published in any other research. Thesis author Nguyen Thi Hong Lam TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON TOURISM ECONOMY 1.1. Foreign studies on tourism economy 1.2. Domestic studies on tourism economy 1.3. Overview of research results of published studies and issues raised for further study on tourism economy Chapter 2: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL GROUNDS OF TOURISM ECONOMY IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 2.1. Tourism economy and components of tourism economy 2.2. Relationship between tourism economy and socio-economic development and factors affecting tourism economy in international economic integration 2.3. Experience from foreign tourism economy development that can be applied in Vietnam in general and the North Central region in particular Chapter 3: REAL SITUATION OF THE TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE NORTH CENTRAL REGION IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 3.1. Impacts of natural and socio-economic conditions in the North Central provinces on the development of their tourism economy 3.2. Real situation of the tourism economy in the North Central provinces from 2000 to the present 3.3. Assessment of the situation of tourism economy of the North Central provinces in international economic integration from 2000 to present Chapter 4: DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCES IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION 4.1. Context and directions to develop tourism economy in the North Central provinces to 2020 with a vision to 2030 4.2. Fundamental solutions to accelerate the development of tourism economy in the North Central provinces in international economic integration CONCLUSION REFERENCES170 STUDIES RELATED TO THE RESEARCH APPENDIX Page 1 6 6 11 26 32 32 50 65 77 77 86 100 121 121 136 167 171 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE THESIS ASEAN The Association of Southeast Asian Nations CNH, HĐH Industrialisation, Modernisation CSVC - HT Material facilities - infrastructure DLST Ecotourism DNDL Tourism enterprises EWEC EAST - WEST Economic Corridor GDP Gross Domestic Product GMS Greater Mekong Subregion HNKTQT International economic integration KH - CN Science - technology KT - XH Socio-economic KTDL Tourism economy KTTT Market economy MICE Meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions Nxb Publishing house NC & PT Research and development QP - AN National Defence - Security UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization WTO World Trade Organization XHCN Socialist LIST OF TABLES Page Table 3.1:The number of accommodation establishments in the North Central provinces (2000 - 2011) Table 3.2: The quality of accommodation establishments in the North 92 Central provinces (2009 – 2011) Table 3.3: The development of tourism products in the North Central 93 provinces from 2000 to the present Table 3.4: Income the North Central provinces earned from tourists 96 (2000 – 2011) Table 3.5: Labour percentage in the tourism economy of the North 100 Central provinces as compared to the whole nation (2000 - 2011) Table 3.6: The quality of tourism human resource in the North 105 Central province is classified in terms of qualification (2005 - 2010) Table 4.1: Vietnam’s WTO commitments in tourism services and 116 related services Table 4.2: Forecasted tourism economy development targets in the 123 North Central provinces 129 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 3.1: International arrivals to the North Central provinces (2000 - 2011) Figure 3.2: Statistics of major home countries of international 87 arrivals to the North Central provinces (2005 - 2011) Figure 3.3: The number of international arrivals to the North Central 88 provinces in comparison with other regions (2000 - 2011) Figure 3.4: The number of domestic tourists to the North Central 89 provinces (2000 - 2011) Figure 3.5: The number of domestic tourists to the North Central 90 provinces in comparison with other regions (2000 - 2011) Figure 3.6: Total earnings from tourism in the North Central 91 provinces in comparison with those in other regions (2000 - 2011) Figure 3.7: Structure of total earnings from tourism in the North 101 Central provinces (2009 - 2011) Figure 3.8: Structure of total earnings from tourism in the North 102 Central provinces is classified in accordance with economic components (2005 - 2011) Figure 3.9: The job scale in tourism economy in the North Central 104 provinces (2000 – 2011) Figure 3.10: Structure of tourism economy in the North Central 105 region’s GDP (2006 - 2011) 107 1 INTRODUCTION 1. The necessity of the research Tourism is a synthetic industry which is highly intersectoral, interregional and socialised. Performance of this industry not only meets the rising demand for travel of human beings but also plays an essential role in the ”on-the-spot export” of goods and services abroad. Many countries have considered tourism economy as a ”non-smoke industry”, bringing about huge benefits. Tourism economy not only makes contribution to the country’s economic growth but also facilitates the development of other industries, generates job opportunities and income for local people, and becomes a useful means to promote the country’s images, etc. In Vietnam, the tourism industry came into being in 1960, however, until 1990s it was regarded as an economy soon after the country opened door policy. Since then, the tourism economy has grown rapidly and attained certain encouraging achievements. According to the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism, in 2012 Vietnam received more than 6.8 million international arrivals, an increase of nearly 14 percent as compared to 2011; and 32.5 million domestic tourists, an increase of more than 8.3 percent over 2011. Accordingly, the total earnings from tourists reached VND160,000 billion in 2012, an increase of 23 percent over the previous year. In addition, tourism has also paid an important role in promoting images of Vietnam and its people to the outside world, cultural exchanges, and understandings among local ethnic groups and many nations world-wide. The North Central region is an economic zone consisting of Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Thua Thien-Hue provinces, with a natural area of 84,163.3sq.km and a population of over 16.5 million. The North Central region is a territory abounding in many valuable potentials in regard to tourism, namely beaches, caves, tombs, and typical natural wonders typically Sam Son, Cua Lo and Thien Cam beaches and 2 Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park; cultural identities with numerous cultural historical relics, particularly world heritage sites such as the Ho Dynasty Citadel, the Complex of Hue Monuments with court music and many precious vestiges, President Ho Chi Minh vestige in Kim Lien Village, Vinh Moc tunnels, and Quang Tri Citadel, etc. On the other hand, favourable traffic conditions regarding road, rail and waterway transport facilitates the region’s tourism economy to bring into full play its advantages and attract tourists. Over the past years, tourism economy in the North Central provinces has made a remarkable growth which greatly contributes to the industrialisation and modernisation cause of not only the region but also the country as a whole, which is demonstrated through its contribution to the region’s gross economic product. Tourism activities have helped generate many employments and increase income for the community, contributing to region’s social welfare, security and national defence. Nevertheless, the current development of the tourism economy remains limited in regard to demands for international economic integration and the region’s potential. Tourism has not either become a key industry as defined in local Party committees’s resolutions, made a breakthrough development, or exploited the region’s full tourism potential and advantages. Quality of tourism products is still low, and the products themselves are not diverse and characterised with typical cultural features. Also there is a shortage of tourism products of high added value. Charge of certain tourism services remains high, less competitive internationally. Many tourism areas and destinations are spontaneously-established and short of a proper investment. Tourism programmemes remain poorly-designed and identical, failing to meet demand of each particular group of tourists as well as market. Tourism services are not diverse and the service quality is still poor and unattractive. Not many strong and presitigious tourism brands are established in the market. The preservation, repair and upgrading of cultural and revolutionary historical 3 relics; and maintenance of the surroundings have not received proper investment and comprehensive co-operation among relevant authorities and sectors. Tourism promotion operations internally and externally remain limited and unprofessional, and fail to provide sufficient and timely information for tourist and investors. The matter here is how to tap into full potential and advantages of the tourism economy in the whole region to satisfy the demands for international economic integration to bring about high socio-economic effects? Under such circumstances, that the PhD candidate chooses the topic: “Tourism economics in the North Central provinces in international economic integration” to develop into a PhD thesis in the political economics major at the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics and Public Administration is of not only theoretical but also practical significance to the development of tourism economy in the North Central provinces in the coming time. 2. Purpose and task of the research - Purpose: To accelerate the development of tourism economy in the North Central provinces in the context of Vietnam’s deeper and greater integration in international economic relations from the point of political economics. - Task: To fulfill the purpose mentioned above, the thesis will: + Systemise theoretical and practical bases of tourism economy in international economic integration of a certain territory in Vietnam from the point of political economics. + Evaluate the reality of tourism economy in international economic integration in the North Central provinces, and find out results achieved and shortcomings as well as reasons of these shortcomings in the development of tourism economy in these provinces. 4 + Propose directions and solutions to promote the development of tourism economy in the North Central provinces in international economic integration to 2020. 3. Subject and scope of the research -Subject of the research: All business activities related to tourism economy consists of travel, accommodation, tourist transportation, tourism site and destination development, and other tourism services in the North Central provinces in international economic integration. - Scope of the research: + Space: The thesis studies tourism economy in the North Central provinces from economic approaches defined in Vietnam’s strategy on tourism development for the 2011-2020 period, vision to 2030. This tourism develoment region consists of six provinces: Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Thua Thien - Hue. The thesis does not study each province individually but considers each province’s tourism economy as a component of tourism economy of the whole North Central region. + Time scope: The section involving analyses and assessment of the situation of tourism economy is counted from the year 2000 to the present; whilst that of directions and solutions is counted by 2020 with a vision to 2030. 4. Theoretical foundations and research methods of the thesis - Theoretical foundations: The Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh ideology, and standpoints, paths, renewal policies of the Party and State of Vietnam in regards to tourism economy development. - Research methods: 5 + Research methods applied are those of political economics which include abstractisation, analysis and synthesis, and logic plus historical background, etc... + In addition, the thesis also applies research methods of modern economics, namely statistical method, quantitative analysis, and comparative method; and selectively acquires some results of published scientific studies. 5. Scientific contributions and values of the thesis - Systemising theories of tourism economy in international economic integration in a certain tourism area in Vietnam from the perspective of political economics. Typically, the thesis has generalised components of tourism economy, analysed and clarified the relationship between tourism economy with socio-economic development and factors affecting tourism economy in international economic integration. - Selecting lessons drawn from foreign countries’ experience in developing tourism economy to refer to the case of Vietnam in general and the case of the North Central region in particular. - Assessing the situation of tourism economy, the thesis analyses achievements and shortcomings of tourism economy in the North Central provinces in international economic integration. Hence, the thesis analyses objective and subjective causes to such achievements and shortcomings. - Proposing directions and solutions to accelerate the development of tourism economy in the North Central provinces in international economic integration in the coming time. 6. Conclusion Besides the introduction, conclusion, list of reference, and appendix the thesis comprises four chapters and eleven sections. 6 Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON TOURISM ECONOMY In many countries, tourism has become a key economic industry which remarkably contributes to domestic income and job generation. Tourism economy is increasingly playing an important role and position in the national economy. Well aware of the importance of the tourism economy, quite a few researchers and organisations have carried out in-depth studies on this economic industry and made certain contributions to the industry’s development. Following is an overview of major studies on tourism and tourism economy locally and internationally which have been published so far, particularly in the past 15 years. Foreign studies on tourism economy 1.1. FOREIGN STUDIES ON TOURISM ECONOMY Studies on tourism economy have mostly focused on explaining business operations, tourism services, components of tourism and tourism service forms, supply – demand relationship, and the operational mechanism of tourism business practice, typically: - The book “Tourism in Developing Countries” by authors Martin Oppermann and Kye - Sung Chon, was published by International Thomson Business Press in 1997. The book focuses on analysing issues such as tourism development in developed and developing countries, in which the authors stated that the study on tourism in developing countries was carried out in different periods of time: 1930-1960, 1970-1985 and 1985-1993. At the same time, the work also reflects the link between government and tourism, analytical models for tourism development, methods for the measurement of 7 international tourism development, and the development of tourism destinations such as resorts by the hill side, by the beach or in the suburbs. - The research“Global Tourism - The next decade” by William Theobald was published by Butterworth - Heinemann Ltd. in 1994. The work speaks of notions of tourism and tourism classification; positive and negative impacts of tourism; orientation and plan for tourism development; and the role of tourism to the world peace. Through his work, the author clarifies that tourism is one of the forces actuating peace, friendship and mutual understanding. When people travel all over the world, come to understand one another as well as their customs, and appreciate individuals from every country, countries will build up their own international understandings, which will remarkably improve the world peace. - The research “Leisure and Tourism” by John Ward, Phil Higson and William Campbell, was printed by Stanley Thornes Ltd. in 1994. The work studies the tourism and entertainment industry through the analyses of models and trends, and products and services in this industry as well as its impacts on the economy, society or environment. In addition, the research also mentions marketing, the provision of management information services, planning and evaluating events as well as infrastructure resources for tourism and entertainment projects. - The research “The Business of Rural Tourism International Perspectives” by Stephen J. Page and Don Getz was published by International Thomson Business Press in 1997. The research focuses on major issues such as policy, plan, and research impacts tourism trading performance in rural area, in which authors analyse the financial issue as well as tourism promotion in rural area and indicate some models in the United States, Canada, China, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand, etc. and some impacts on the development of this tourism type in this area. 8 - The work “Commercial Recreation & Tourism - An Introduction to Business Oriented Recreation” by Susan A.Weston was published by Brown & Benchmark in 1996. The study reveals concepts and analyses the origin of the entertainment and tourism industry, in which the author presents varied names describing the industry; explains the difference between products and services; introduces locations that can host recreation and tourism activities; and promotes job opportunities for the to-be-graduates in the industry. On the other hand, the author also focuses on the management, and event organisation, and accommodation; food and food, and occupation management. The author also analyses industries of similarity. - The research “Managing Tourism” was written by professor S. Medlik in 1991, and reprinted in 1995 by Butterworth - Heinemann Ltd. The research focuses on the following areas: “Future – Analyses – Plan”, in which the author analyses and responds to questions about the contribution capability of future researches on tourism policy, and about a possibility to control the life cycle of tourism? The author claims that in tourism policies must base on a close association of economics, politics, society and spatial objects. These objects must be placed on a decisive framework whose major function is to achieve set targets with specific significances within a particular period of time. Tourism policy making is not a sophisticated task to the government, but the development through co-operation with tourism organizations and the tourism industry itself. Besides, the research also speaks about concepts of products, competition in the aviation sector, the promotion of products and destinations, tourism management, limitation as well as challenges to the tourism industry. - The work “The Economics of Leisure and Tourism” by John Tribe, was published by Butterworth - Heinemann Ltd in 1995. The research centres on the organisation and promotion of recreation and tourism practices; Entertainment and Tourism in the interrelation with international 9 environment; impacts of recreation and tourism on the national economy; recreation and tourism with environmental issues; and investment in recreation and tourism. In the section: Investment in Leisure, the author indicates factors affecting the investment such as profits, turnover, and operation expenditure, etc. The above-mentioned researches on tourism, outdoor recreational tourism, tourism marketing, tourism legislation, tourism in developing countries, and factors affecting tourism development have somewhat taken into consideration tourism economy and tourism economy management. In addition, there are a number of researches on tourism and tourism economy in English and some other foreign languages being translated into Vietnamese, namely: - The work “Tourism economy” by Robert Lanquar was published by The Gioi Publishing House in 1993. In his work, the author asserts that tourism economy is an industry because its activities aim to exploit tourism assets, and to turn human resources, capital and materials into services and products. The author also discusses tourism and its impacts on the whole economy, tourism demands, tourism consumption, production and investment for tourism, analytical tools and means of tourism economics and tourism business. - The research “Tourism marketing” by Robert Lanquar and Robert Hollier, was printed by the The Gioi Publishing House in 1992. The research discusses historical landmarks of tourism marketing; definitions and concepts of tourism marketing; and analyses of tourism demand and supply, and other demands for tourism market. Regarding history of the tourism marketing, the author states that market came into being from the development of the industrial civilisation. The author also recommends nations to develop a marketing strategy with goals as followed: i, developing an efficient tourism transport network; 10 ii, improving public facilities and equipment at tourism sites; iii, enhancing assistance to some on-the-spot services in case of bad weather; iv, applying a seasonal flexible pricing policy; and v, supply must target each typical group of tourists v.v… - The research “Tourism economy and tourismology” by two Chinese authors Dong Yu Ming, Wang Lei Ting by Shanghai Transport University’s Publishing House in 2000, was translated and published in Vietnamese by Tre Publishing House in 2001. The research refers to theoretical issues of tourism and tourism economy such as concepts of tourism, tourism economy, tourism products and markets, the role of tourism economy, and planning for the construction of tourism areas, etc. Besides, the tourism development in China is also talked about, which reveals many similarities with the development of tourism in Vietnam. Initially, Vietnam’s tourism was mainly designed to receive the State and Party’s international guests, then due to the society’s development requirements tourism developed into an industry which enjoys many favourable conditions to prosper and to be a non-smoke industry producing not a small amount of benefits to the society. Tourism economy and tourismology is a systematic scientific research on tourism operation based on the reality of China, which Vietnam can learn from to develop its own tourism in the socialist orientation. Apart from published researches mentioned above, the thesis also refers to writings on tourism business and services published by UNWTO and printed in foreign magazines and websites. In general, these researches concentrates on theoretical and practical knowledge in regards to economics and techniques in tourism operation, tourism business, tourism market, and lessons drawn from tourism development experience in some countries. These are a resource of secondary data essential for this thesis. The theoretical information related to tourism 11 economy is based on the reality of the economies which have typical features and socio-political trends different from Vietnam, thus, the above-mentioned works are just materials of reference for activities such as doing business, approaching clients, and developing tourism services and market in Vietnam. The subject chosen to study does not bear the same name as well as content with any other research published abroad so far. 1.2. DOMESTIC RESEARCHES ON TOURISM ECONOMY 1.2.1. Scientific researches and PhD theses There have been a great number of researches on tourism and tourism economy in Vietnam so far. Regarding these areas, it should be noted the scientific researches and PhD theses as followed: - Ministerial-leveled work (2006): “Research proposes investment solutions to develop tourism areas”, is done by a group of authors, led by MA Le Van Minh, from the Institute for Tourism Development Research. The research focuses on a system of concepts of tourism areas, the role of investment in developing tourism areas, and practical experience learnt from other countries’ investment into developing tourism areas. The research also analyses the system of the Party and State mechanism and policies in tourism investment in particular and tourism development in general; assesses the state of policies regarding investment into developing tourism areas in Vietnam; and recommends 10 solutions to better investment policies: (i) solution to the organization and management in tourism areas; (ii) solution to construction, management and planning in tourism areas; (iii) solution to rights to land use in tourism areas; (iv) solution for investment into developing tourism areas; (v) solution for mobilizing capital resources to develop tourism areas; (vi) solution to financial and tax mechanism and policies in regards to investment into developing tourism areas; (vii) solution to intersectional and interregional co-ordination and co-operation in exploiting resources in tourism areas; (viii) solution for reformed 12 administrative procedures; (ix) solution for supporting and encouraging the community participation into developing tourism areas; and (x) solution for investment, preservation, and reservation of tourism resources and environmental protection. - Ministerial-level research (2007): “Research develops Vietnam’s tourism products of high competitiveness in the region and in the world”, is carried out by a group of authors, led by Dr. Do Cam Tho, from the Institute for Tourism Development Research. From the perspectives of State management and macroeconomics, the authors turn their attention to systemizing theoretical issues on tourism product competition. The authors analyse and assess the system of tourism products in Vietnam from two criteria: general products offered at a particular tourism destination and products based on different types of tourism. The research also concentrates on the competitiveness and position of Vietnam tourism products in the regional and international tourism markets. The research analyses and assesses the system of tourism products from regional competitors including Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, China and Indonesia. The investigation approaches from consumption perspective and finds out the present position of Vietnam’s tourism products. The research analyses typical features and strengths of Vietnam’s tourism products through a systematic assessment of the products. The research compares and evaluates Vietnam’s tourism products through products of high competitiveness, sea and islands tourism products, cultural tourism products, and ecotourism products. The research proposes concepts of tourism products and 10 criteria to assess the competitiveness of tourism products: (i) attractiveness and uniqueness of tourism resources; (ii) diversity of tourism services; (iii) quality of tourism products; (iv) build-up of tourism products; (v) investment to promote tourism products; (vi) price of tourism products; (vii) approachability 13 of tourism products; (viii) brand name of tourism products; (ix) life cycle of tourism products; and (x) special elements of tourism products. The work also recommends a system of solutions to increase the competitiveness of Vietnam’s tourism products in the market in the short term, and to build up products of high competitiveness in the long term (by 2015). - Ministerial-level research (2008):“Scientific ground to develop coastal tourism in the North Central region” is ”, is carried out by a group of authors led by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pham Trung Luong of the National Institute for Tourism Development Research. The work concentrates on assessing the position and role of coastal tourism in the strategy to develop economy, society, security, and national defense in the coastal area in the North Central region; and in EWEC tourism development. The work analyses features of tourism resources and human resources related to coastal tourism development in the North Central region. The work evaluates the tourism development in islands by the coast of the North Central region; and defines advantages and difficulties, opportunities and challenges to tourism development in islands by the coast of the North Central region. The research proposes solutions to ensure sustainable development of coastal tourism, which consist of: (i) solutions to raise awareness and understanding of islands tourism; (ii) solutions for policy; (iii) solutions for planning; (iv) solutions for investment; (v) solutions to develop coastal tourism products and market; (vi) solutions to promote popularisation of coastal tourism; (vii) solutions to develop human resources; (viii) solutions to protect sea and island tourism resources and environment; and (ix) solutions to develop sea tourism whilst maintain national defense and security. - Ministerial-level research (2011) “The status quo of and solutions to develop national sea tourism regions in the North Central region”, is carried out by a group of authors led by Dr. Nguyen Thu Hanh, of the Institute for Tourism Development Research. The authors concentrates on clarifying
- Xem thêm -