Tài liệu Wcdma for umts - hspa evolution and lte 2010

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WCDMA FOR UMTS - HSPA Evolution and LTE 2010
WCDMA FOR UMTS WCDMA FOR UMTS HSPA Evolution and LTE Fifth Edition Edited by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala Nokia Siemens Networks, Finland A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Publication This edition first published 2010  2010 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Registered office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com. The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA evolution and LTE / edited by Harri Holma, Antti Toskala. – 5th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-68646-1 (cloth) 1. Code division multiple access. 2. Wireless communication systems – Standards. 3. Mobile communication systems – Standards. 4. Global system for mobile communications. I. Holma, Harri, 1970- II. Toskala, Antti. TK5103.452.W39 2010 621.3845 – dc22 2010013154 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978-0-470-68646-1 (H/B) Typeset in 9/11 Times by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India. Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire. Contents Preface xvii Acknowledgements xix Abbreviations xxi 1 Introduction Harri Holma and Antti Toskala 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 WCDMA Early Phase HSPA Introduction and Data Growth HSPA Deployments Globally HSPA Evolution HSPA Network Product HSPA Future Outlook References 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 2 UMTS Services Harri Holma, Martin Kristensson, Jouni Salonen, Antti Toskala and Tommi Uitto 9 2.1 2.2 Introduction Voice 2.2.1 Narrowband AMR and Wideband AMR Voice Services 2.2.2 Circuit-Switched over HSPA 2.2.3 Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC) 2.2.4 Voice-over IP 2.2.5 Key Performance Indicators for Voice Video Telephony 2.3.1 Multimedia Architecture for Circuit Switched Connections 2.3.2 Video Codec Messaging 2.4.1 Short Messaging Service (SMS) 2.4.2 Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) 2.4.3 Voice Mail and Audio Messaging 2.4.4 Instant Messaging Mobile Email Browsing Application and Content Downloading Streaming Gaming 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 9 11 12 14 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 26 26 vi 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 Contents Mobile Broadband for Laptop and Netbook Connectivity 2.10.1 End-to-End Security 2.10.2 Impact of Latency on Application Performance Social Networking Mobile TV Location-Based Services 2.13.1 Cell Coverage-Based Location Calculation 2.13.2 Assisted GPS (A-GPS) Machine-to-Machine Communications Quality of Service (QoS) Differentiation Maximum Air Interface Capacity Terminals Tariff Schemes References 27 29 29 30 31 32 33 33 34 35 40 44 45 45 Introduction to WCDMA Peter Muszynski and Harri Holma Introduction Summary of the Main Parameters in WCDMA Spreading and Despreading Multipath Radio Channels and Rake Reception Power Control Softer and Soft Handovers References 47 Background and Standardization of WCDMA Antti Toskala Introduction Background in Europe 4.2.1 Wideband CDMA 4.2.2 Wideband TDMA 4.2.3 Wideband TDMA/CDMA 4.2.4 OFDMA 4.2.5 ODMA 4.2.6 ETSI Selection Background in Japan Background in Korea Background in the United States 4.5.1 W-CDMA N/A 4.5.2 UWC-136 4.5.3 cdma2000 4.5.4 TR46.1 4.5.5 WP-CDMA Creation of 3GPP How Does 3GPP Operate? Creation of 3GPP2 Harmonization Phase IMT-2000 Process in ITU Beyond 3GPP Release 99 WCDMA Industry Convergence with LTE and LTE-Advanced References 47 47 49 51 55 57 59 61 61 61 62 63 63 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 68 69 69 70 70 72 73 Contents vii 5 75 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Radio Access Network Architecture Fabio Longoni, Atte Länsisalmi and Antti Toskala Introduction UTRAN Architecture 5.2.1 The Radio Network Controller (RNC) 5.2.2 The Node B (Base Station) General Protocol Model for UTRAN Terrestrial Interfaces 5.3.1 General 5.3.2 Horizontal Layers 5.3.3 Vertical Planes Iu, the UTRAN–CN Interface 5.4.1 Protocol Structure for Iu CS 5.4.2 Protocol Structure for Iu PS 5.4.3 RANAP Protocol 5.4.4 Iu User Plane Protocol 5.4.5 Protocol Structure of Iu BC, and the Service Area Broadcast Protocol UTRAN Internal Interfaces 5.5.1 RNC–RNC Interface (Iur Interface) and the RNSAP Signaling 5.5.2 RNC–Node B Interface and the NBAP Signaling UTRAN Enhancements and Evolution 5.6.1 IP Transport in UTRAN 5.6.2 Iu Flex 5.6.3 Stand-Alone SMLC and Iupc Interface 5.6.4 Interworking between GERAN and UTRAN, and the Iur-g Interface 5.6.5 IP-Based RAN Architecture UMTS CN Architecture and Evolution 5.7.1 Release 99 CN Elements 5.7.2 Release 5 CN and IP Multimedia Subsystem References Physical Layer Antti Toskala Introduction Transport Channels and Their Mapping to the Physical Channels 6.2.1 Dedicated Transport Channel 6.2.2 Common Transport Channels 6.2.3 Mapping of Transport Channels onto the Physical Channels 6.2.4 Frame Structure of Transport Channels Spreading and Modulation 6.3.1 Scrambling 6.3.2 Channelization Codes 6.3.3 Uplink Spreading and Modulation 6.3.4 Downlink Spreading and Modulation 6.3.5 Transmitter Characteristics User Data Transmission 6.4.1 Uplink Dedicated Channel 6.4.2 Uplink Multiplexing 6.4.3 User Data Transmission with the Random Access Channel 6.4.4 Uplink Common Packet Channel 6.4.5 Downlink Dedicated Channel 6.4.6 Downlink Multiplexing 75 78 79 80 80 80 80 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 87 89 91 91 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 95 97 97 98 99 99 101 102 102 102 102 104 107 110 110 111 113 115 115 116 117 viii 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Contents 6.4.7 Downlink Shared Channel 6.4.8 Forward Access Channel for User Data Transmission 6.4.9 Channel Coding for User Data 6.4.10 Coding for TFCI Information Signaling 6.5.1 Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) 6.5.2 Synchronization Channel (SCH) 6.5.3 Primary Common Control Physical Channel (Primary CCPCH) 6.5.4 Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (Secondary CCPCH) 6.5.5 Random Access Channel (RACH) for Signaling Transmission 6.5.6 Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) 6.5.7 Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) Physical Layer Procedures 6.6.1 Fast Closed-Loop Power Control Procedure 6.6.2 Open-Loop Power Control 6.6.3 Paging Procedure 6.6.4 RACH Procedure 6.6.5 Cell Search Procedure 6.6.6 Transmit Diversity Procedure 6.6.7 Handover Measurements Procedure 6.6.8 Compressed Mode Measurement Procedure 6.6.9 Other Measurements 6.6.10 Operation with Adaptive Antennas 6.6.11 Site Selection Diversity Transmission Terminal Radio Access Capabilities Conclusion References 119 119 120 121 121 121 122 122 123 124 124 125 126 126 126 127 127 128 129 130 132 133 134 135 136 138 139 Radio Interface Protocols Jukka Vialén and Antti Toskala Introduction Protocol Architecture The Medium Access Control Protocol 7.3.1 MAC Layer Architecture 7.3.2 MAC Functions 7.3.3 Logical Channels 7.3.4 Mapping between Logical Channels and Transport Channels 7.3.5 Example Data Flow Through the MAC Layer The Radio Link Control Protocol 7.4.1 RLC Layer Architecture 7.4.2 RLC Functions 7.4.3 Example Data Flow Through the RLC Layer The Packet Data Convergence Protocol 7.5.1 PDCP Layer Architecture 7.5.2 PDCP Functions The Broadcast/Multicast Control Protocol 7.6.1 BMC Layer Architecture 7.6.2 BMC Functions Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service The Radio Resource Control Protocol 141 141 142 143 143 144 145 145 146 147 147 148 149 150 150 151 151 152 152 152 153 Contents 7.9 7.10 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 ix 7.8.1 RRC Layer Logical Architecture 7.8.2 RRC Service States 7.8.3 RRC Functions and Signaling Procedures Early UE Handling Principles Improvements for Call Set-up Time Reduction References 153 154 157 170 170 171 Radio Network Planning Harri Holma, Zhi-Chun Honkasalo, Seppo Hämäläinen, Jaana Laiho, Kari Sipilä and Achim Wacker Introduction Dimensioning 8.2.1 Radio Link Budgets 8.2.2 Load Factors 8.2.3 Capacity Upgrade Paths 8.2.4 Capacity per km2 8.2.5 Soft Capacity 8.2.6 Network Sharing Capacity and Coverage Planning and Optimization 8.3.1 Iterative Capacity and Coverage Prediction 8.3.2 Planning Tool 8.3.3 Case Study 8.3.4 Network Optimization GSM Co-planning Inter-Operator Interference 8.5.1 Introduction 8.5.2 Uplink Versus Downlink Effects 8.5.3 Local Downlink Interference 8.5.4 Average Downlink Interference 8.5.5 Path Loss Measurements 8.5.6 Solutions to Avoid Adjacent Channel Interference WCDMA Frequency Variants UMTS Refarming to GSM Band 8.7.1 Coverage of UMTS900 Interference between GSM and UMTS Remaining GSM Voice Capacity Shared Site Solutions with GSM and UMTS Interworking of UMTS900 and UMTS2100 References 173 Radio Resource Management Harri Holma, Klaus Pedersen, Jussi Reunanen, Janne Laakso and Oscar Salonaho Introduction Power Control 9.2.1 Fast Power Control 9.2.2 Outer Loop Power Control Handovers 9.3.1 Intra-Frequency Handovers 9.3.2 Inter-System Handovers between WCDMA and GSM 173 174 175 178 188 189 190 193 194 194 194 197 199 202 204 204 206 206 207 209 209 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 218 219 219 220 220 226 232 232 241 x Contents 9.3.3 Inter-Frequency Handovers within WCDMA 9.3.4 Summary of Handovers Measurement of Air Interface Load 9.4.1 Uplink Load 9.4.2 Downlink Load Admission Control 9.5.1 Admission Control Principle 9.5.2 Wideband Power-Based Admission Control Strategy 9.5.3 Throughput-Based Admission Control Strategy Load Control (Congestion Control) References 244 245 246 246 249 250 250 250 252 252 253 10 Packet Scheduling Jeroen Wigard, Harri Holma, Renaud Cuny, Nina Madsen, Frank Frederiksen and Martin Kristensson 255 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Introduction Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Round Trip Time User-Specific Packet Scheduling 10.4.1 Common Channels (RACH/FACH) 10.4.2 Dedicated Channel (DCH) 10.4.3 Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) 10.4.4 Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH) 10.4.5 Selection of Transport Channel 10.4.6 Paging Channel States Cell-Specific Packet Scheduling 10.5.1 Priorities 10.5.2 Scheduling Algorithms 10.5.3 Packet Scheduler in Soft Handover Packet Data System Performance 10.6.1 Link Level Performance 10.6.2 System Level Performance Packet Data Application Performance 10.7.1 Introduction to Application Performance 10.7.2 Person-to-Person Applications 10.7.3 Content-to-Person Applications 10.7.4 Business Connectivity 10.7.5 Conclusions on Application Performance References 255 255 261 264 264 265 267 267 268 270 272 274 274 275 275 275 277 280 280 281 284 287 289 291 11 Physical Layer Performance Harri Holma, Jussi Reunanen, Leo Chan, Preben Mogensen, Klaus Pedersen, Kari Horneman, Jaakko Vihriälä and Markku Juntti 293 11.1 11.2 Introduction Cell Coverage 11.2.1 Uplink Coverage 11.2.2 Downlink Coverage Downlink Cell Capacity 11.3.1 Downlink Orthogonal Codes 293 293 295 304 304 305 9.4 9.5 9.6 10.5 10.6 10.7 11.3 Contents 11.4 11.5 11.6 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 13 13.1 13.2 xi 11.3.2 Downlink Transmit Diversity 11.3.3 Downlink Voice Capacity Capacity Trials 11.4.1 Single Cell Capacity Trials 11.4.2 Multicell Capacity Trials 11.4.3 Summary 3GPP Performance Requirements 11.5.1 Eb /N0 Performance 11.5.2 RF Noise Figure Performance Enhancements 11.6.1 Smart Antenna Solutions 11.6.2 Multiuser Detection References 310 312 313 313 327 328 330 330 333 334 334 340 349 High-Speed Downlink Packet Access Antti Toskala, Harri Holma, Troels Kolding, Preben Mogensen, Klaus Pedersen and Jussi Reunanen Introduction Release 99 WCDMA Downlink Packet Data Capabilities The HSDPA Concept HSDPA Impact on Radio Access Network Architecture Release 4 HSDPA Feasibility Study Phase HSDPA Physical Layer Structure 12.6.1 High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) 12.6.2 High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) 12.6.3 Uplink High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) 12.6.4 HSDPA Physical Layer Operation Procedure HSDPA Terminal Capability and Achievable Data Rates Mobility with HSDPA 12.8.1 Measurement Event for Best Serving HS-DSCH Cell 12.8.2 Intra-Node B HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH Handover 12.8.3 Inter-Node–Node B HS-DSCH to HS-DSCH Handover 12.8.4 HS-DSCH to DCH Handover HSDPA Performance 12.9.1 Factors Governing Performance 12.9.2 Spectral Efficiency, Code Efficiency and Dynamic Range 12.9.3 User Scheduling, Cell Throughput and Coverage 12.9.4 HSDPA Network Performance with Mixed Non-HSDPA and HSDPA Terminals HSPA Link Budget HSDPA Iub Dimensioning HSPA Round Trip Time Terminal Receiver Aspects Evolution in Release 6 Conclusion References 353 High-Speed Uplink Packet Access Antti Toskala, Harri Holma and Karri Ranta-aho Introduction Release 99 WCDMA Downlink Packet Data Capabilities 353 353 354 356 357 357 357 361 362 363 365 366 367 367 368 369 370 371 371 374 378 380 382 384 384 386 388 388 391 391 391 xii Contents 13.3 13.4 The HSUPA Concept HSUPA Impact on Radio Access Network Architecture 13.4.1 HSUPA Iub Operation 13.5 HSUPA Feasibility Study Phase 13.6 HSUPA Physical Layer Structure 13.7 E-DCH and Related Control Channels 13.7.1 E-DPDCH 13.7.2 E-DPCCH 13.7.3 E-HICH 13.7.4 E-RGCH 13.7.5 E-AGCH 13.8 HSUPA Physical Layer Operation Procedure 13.8.1 HSUPA and HSDPA Simultaneous Operation 13.9 HSUPA Terminal Capability 13.10 HSUPA Performance 13.10.1 Increased Data Rates 13.10.2 Physical Layer Retransmission Combining 13.10.3 Node B-Based Scheduling 13.10.4 HSUPA Link Budget Impact 13.10.5 Delay and QoS 13.10.6 Overall Capacity 13.11 Conclusion References 392 393 394 395 395 396 396 398 399 399 399 400 401 402 403 404 404 404 406 406 407 408 408 14 409 Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) Harri Holma, Martin Kristensson and Jorma Kaikkonen 14.1 Introduction 14.2 MBMS Impact on Network Architecture 14.3 High Level MBMS Procedures 14.4 MBMS Radio Interface Channel Structure 14.4.1 Logical Channels 14.4.2 Transport Channels 14.4.3 Physical Channels 14.4.4 Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint Connections 14.4.5 Example Radio Interface Procedure during MBMS Session Start 14.5 MBMS Terminal Capability 14.5.1 Selective Combining and Soft Combining 14.6 MBMS Performance 14.6.1 3GPP Performance Requirements 14.6.2 Simulated MBMS Cell Capacity 14.6.3 Iub Transport Capacity 14.7 MBMS Deployment and Use Cases 14.8 Benchmarking of MBMS with DVB-H 14.9 3GPP MBMS Evolution in Release 7 14.10 Why Did MBMS Fail? 14.11 Integrated Mobile Broadcast (IMB) in Release 8 14.12 Conclusion References 409 412 414 415 415 416 416 416 417 418 418 419 419 421 423 424 425 426 426 427 428 429 Contents xiii 15 HSPA Evolution Harri Holma, Karri Ranta-aho and Antti Toskala Introduction Discontinuous Transmission and Reception (DTX/DRX) Circuit Switched Voice on HSPA Enhanced FACH and Enhanced RACH Latency Fast Dormancy Downlink 64QAM Downlink MIMO Transmit Diversity (TxAA) Uplink 16QAM UE Categories Layer 2 Optimization Architecture Evolution Conclusion References 431 HSPA Multicarrier Evolution Harri Holma, Karri Ranta-aho and Antti Toskala Introduction Dual Cell HSDPA in Release 8 Dual Cell HSUPA in Release 9 Dual Cell HSDPA with MIMO in Release 9 Dual Band HSDPA in Release 9 Three and Four Carrier HSDPA in Release 10 UE Categories Conclusion References 455 UTRAN Long-Term Evolution Antti Toskala and Harri Holma Introduction Multiple Access and Architecture Decisions LTE Impact on Network Architecture LTE Multiple Access 17.4.1 OFDMA Principles 17.4.2 SC-FDMA Principles LTE Physical Layer Design and Parameters LTE Physical Layer Procedures 17.6.1 Random Access 17.6.2 Data Reception and Transmission 17.6.3 CQI Procedure 17.6.4 Downlink Transmission Modes 17.6.5 Uplink Transmission Modes 17.6.6 LTE Physical Layer Compared to WCDMA LTE Protocols 467 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.10 15.11 15.12 15.13 15.14 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 17 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 431 431 433 437 439 441 442 444 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 455 459 461 462 463 464 465 465 466 467 468 470 471 471 474 476 479 479 479 481 482 483 483 483 xiv Contents 17.8 Performance 17.8.1 Peak Bit Rates 17.8.2 Spectral Efficiency 17.8.3 Link Budget and Coverage 17.9 LTE Device Categories 17.10 LTE-Advanced Outlook 17.11 Conclusion References 487 487 487 490 492 492 494 494 18 495 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 19 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 TD-SCDMA Antti Toskala and Harri Holma Introduction 18.1.1 TDD Differences in the Network-Level Architecture TD-SCDMA Physical Layer 18.3.1 Transport and Physical Channels 18.3.2 Modulation and Spreading 18.3.3 Physical Channel Structures, Slot and Frame Format TD-SCDMA Data Rates TD-SCDMA Physical Layer Procedures 18.5.1 Power Control 18.5.2 TD-SCDMA Receiver 18.5.3 Uplink Synchronization 18.5.4 Dynamic Channel Allocation 18.5.5 Summary of the TD-SCDMA Physical Layer Operation TD-SCDMA Interference and Co-existence Considerations 18.6.1 TDD–TDD Interference 18.6.2 TDD and FDD Co-existence 18.6.3 Conclusions on TDD and TD-SCDMA Interference Conclusion and Future Outlook on TD-SCDMA References Home Node B and Femtocells Troels Kolding, Hanns-Jürgen Schwarzbauer, Johanna Pekonen, Karol Drazynski, Jacek Gora, Maciej Pakulski, Patryk Pisowacki, Harri Holma and Antti Toskala Introduction Home Node B Specification Work Technical Challenges of Uncoordinated Mass Deployment Home Node B Architecture 19.4.1 Home Node B Protocols and Procedures for Network Interfaces 19.4.2 Femtocell Indication on a Terminal Display Closed Subscriber Group 19.5.1 Closed Subscriber Group Management 19.5.2 Closed Subscriber Group Access Control Home Node B-Related Mobility 19.6.1 Idle Mode Mobility 19.6.2 Outbound Relocations 19.6.3 Inbound Relocations 19.6.4 Relocations between HNB Cells 19.6.5 Paging Optimization 495 495 497 497 498 501 501 504 505 505 505 506 506 507 508 508 509 511 512 512 515 515 517 518 519 520 522 523 523 523 524 524 525 525 526 527 Contents 19.7 19.8 19.9 20 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 Index xv 19.6.6 Home Node B to Macro Handover 19.6.7 Macro to Home Node B Handover 19.6.8 Home Node B Cell Identification Ambiguity 19.6.9 Summary of Home Node B-Related Mobility Home Node B Deployment and Interference Mitigation 19.7.1 Home Node B Radio Frequency Aspects 19.7.2 Recommended 3G Home Node B Measurements 19.7.3 Home Node B Interference Considerations 19.7.4 Adaptive Control of Home Node B Transmit Powers 19.7.5 Femtocell Interference Simulations 19.7.6 Network Planning Aspects 19.7.7 Summary of Home Node B Frequency Usage Home Node B Evolution Conclusion References 527 527 528 529 529 529 530 532 534 536 540 544 545 545 546 Terminal RF and Baseband Design Challenges Laurent Noël, Dominique Brunel, Antti Toskala and Harri Holma Introduction Transmitter Chain System Design Challenges 20.2.1 The Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio/Power Consumption Trade-Off 20.2.2 Phase Discontinuity Receiver Chain Design Challenges 20.3.1 UE Reference Sensitivity System Requirements 20.3.2 Inter-Operator Interference 20.3.3 Impact of RF Impairments on HSDPA System Performance Improving Talk-Time with DTX/DRX 20.4.1 Talk-Time Benchmark of Recent WCDMA Handsets 20.4.2 Trend in RF-IC Power Consumption and Model 20.4.3 Power Amplifier Control Schemes and Power Consumption Model 20.4.4 UE Power Consumption Models 20.4.5 Talk-Time Improvements in Circuit Switched Voice over HSPA with DTX/DRX Multi-Mode/Band Challenges 20.5.1 From Mono-Mode/Mono-Band to Multi-Mode/Multi-Band and Diversity 20.5.2 New Requirements Due to Co-existence 20.5.3 Front End Integration Strategies and Design Trends 20.5.4 Impact on Today’s Architectures Conclusion References 547 547 549 549 554 555 556 563 566 567 568 570 573 577 579 582 582 584 588 588 590 590 593 Preface Second generation telecommunication systems, such as GSM, enabled voice traffic to go wireless: the number of mobile phones exceeds the number of landline phones and the mobile phone penetration is approaching 100% in several markets. The data handling capabilities of second generation systems are limited, however, and third generation systems are needed to provide the high bit rate services that enable high quality images and video to be transmitted and received, and to provide access to the web with higher data rates. These third generation mobile communication systems are referred to in this book as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System). WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) and its evolution HSPA (High Speed Packet Access) is the main third generation air interface globally. During the publication of the 5th edition, the number of WCDMA/HSPA subscribers has exceeded 500 million. It is expected that the 1 billion landmark will be passed in less than two years. There are over 300 commercial HSPA networks globally supporting peak data rates up to 42 Mbps. HSPA has grown to be the preferred radio network for providing wireless broadband access, for supporting an increasing number of smart phones and for offering high capacity and high quality voice service in an efficient way. This book gives a detailed description of the WCDMA/HSPA air interface and its utilization. The contents are summarized in Figure 1. Introduction (Chapter 1) Background and Standardisation (Chapter 4) Radio Resource Management (Chapter 9) Radio Access Network Architecture (Chapter 5) Packet Access (Chapter 10) Radio Interface Protocols (Chapter 7) Physical Layer (Chapter 6) Radio Network Planning (Chapter 8) HSPA Evolution (Chapter 15) Physical Layer Performance (Chapter 11) Introduction to WCDMA (Chapter 3) HSPA Multicarrier Evolution (Chapter 16) Long Term Evolution (LTE) (Chapter 17) MBMS (Chapter 14) Femto cells (Chapter 19) TD-SCDMA (Chapter 18) Figure 1. UMTS Services (Chapter 2) Contents of this book High Speed Packet Access, HSDPA/HSUPA (Chapter 12-13) Terminal RF design (Chapter 20) xviii Preface The book is structured as follows. Chapters 1–4 provide an introduction to the technology and its standardization. Chapters 5–7 give a detailed presentation of the WCDMA standard, while Chapters 8–11 cover the utilization of the standard and its performance. Chapters 12–16 present HSPA and its evolution. TD-SCDMA is described in Chapter 18. The home base stations, also called femtocells, are explained in Chapter 19. Chapter 20 covers terminal RF design challenges. Chapter 1 briefly introduces the background, development, status and future of WCDMA/HSPA radio. Chapter 2 presents examples of the current UMTS applications and the main uses cases. Chapter 3 introduces the principles of the WCDMA air interface, including spreading, Rake receiver, power control and handovers. Chapter 4 presents the background to WCDMA, the global harmonization process and the standardization. Chapter 5 describes the architecture of the radio access network, interfaces within the radio access network between base stations and radio network controllers (RNC), and the interface between the radio access network and the core network. Chapter 6 covers the physical layer (Layer 1), including spreading, modulation, user data and signalling transmission, and the main physical layer procedures of power control, paging, transmission diversity and handover measurements. Chapter 7 introduces the radio interface protocols, consisting of the data link layer (Layer 2) and the network layer (Layer 3). Chapter 8 presents the guidelines for radio network dimensioning, gives an example of detailed capacity and coverage planning, and covers GSM co-planning. Chapter 9 covers the radio resource management algorithms that guarantee the efficient utilization of the air interface resources and the quality of service. These algorithms are power control, handovers, admission and load control. Chapter 10 depicts packet access and presents the performance of packet protocols of WCDMA. Chapter 11 analyses the coverage and capacity of the WCDMA air interface. Chapter 12 presents the significant Release 5 feature, High Speed Downlink Packet Access, HSDPA, and Chapter 13 the corresponding uplink counterpart High Speed Uplink Packet Access, HSUPA in Release 6. Chapter 14 presents Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System, MBMS. Chapter 15 introduces HSPA evolution in Releases 7, 8 and 9. Chapter 16 describes HSPA multicarrier evolution up to four carriers. Long Term Evolution (LTE) in Releases 8 and 9 is presented in Chapter 17. The time division duplex (TDD) based TD-SCDMA (Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is illustrated in Chapter 18. The femtocells are presented in Chapter 19 and the challenges in the terminal RF design in Chapter 20. The 2nd edition contained coverage of the recently introduced key features of 3GPP Release 5 specifications, such as High Speed Downlink Packet Access, HSDPA and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS). The 3rd edition of the book continued to deepen the coverage of several existing topics both based on the field experiences and based on more detailed simulation studies. The 3rd edition covered the main updates in 3GPP standard Release 6. The 4th edition added in detail 3GPP Release 6 features including High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System (MBMS), HSPA evolution and terminal RF design challenges. The 5th edition of the book introduces new material in the areas of HSPA evolution including Releases 8 and 9, HSPA multicarrier solutions, GSM band refarming for HSPA, Integrated Mobile Broadcast (IMB), TD-SCDMA description, femtocells, terminal power consumption estimates, services and LTE. This book is aimed at operators, network and terminal manufacturers, service providers, university students and frequency regulators. A deep understanding of the WCDMA/HSPA air interface, its capabilities and its optimal usage is the key to success in the UMTS business. This book represents the views and opinions of the authors, and does not necessarily represent the views of their employers.
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