Tài liệu Visual ielts

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Visuals ABOUTGRAPHS, WRITING AN D TABLES DIAGRAMS Gabi Duigu @ Gabi Duigu 2001 All rights reserved Published by Academic English Press 9/13 Armstrong Street Cammeray NS\f 2062 Australia Ph:02 94376330 email:g.duigu@unsw.edu.au Distributedby: Melting Pot Press 10 GraftonStreet NS\( 2008 Chippendale Australia Ph: (5r) 29212 1882 F a x : 0 29 2 1 11 8 6 8 email:books@elt.com.au r s B N0 - 9 5 7 8 9 9 6 - 0 - 2 . : : l i : : : i ; ; : : . .: : l : : . .: : . : : : : : : l : :!':::::::::::::::::|' : :: ::::!' ::-::::::::::::::::: l:l:::l::::::l.l.l : | | | : :ltl lf::::r:::a:a:t:t::.t: .:.......:.......:........... ... Part1 t. The Purposeof GraphsandTables .. .. .. .2 Part 2 2. \WritingaboutGraphsandThbles 2 . 1 \ W r i t i n g t hI en t r o d u c t i o n 2.2 TimeExpressions 2.3 Expressions of Measurement ......9 ......10 .......13 . . . .15 Part3 3. \TritingtheReport 3.1 Contrast.... 3.2 Tiends 3.3 Correlations ......25 ...,.25 ......32 ......35 Part4 4. Using the Right sryle . 4.1 Modifiers 4.2 Using the CorrectSryleand Avoiding Errors . . . .39 ...39 . . .48 Part5 5. Diagrams 5.1 VocabularyandGrammar 5 . 2 U s i n g a g o o d s r y.l e AnswerK"y.. ...55 ......55 ......56 ...59 \With thanks to Maryanne Sheafor making the book possible,and for her enduring patience and encouragement. Many of the graphs and tables in this book are basedon visualsfrom various issuesof the UNESCO Courier, to which very worthwhile publication grateful acknowledgment is made. :li:i.,:iii:.: !::ii'.t.iilil j::::aii,::::.::::itiii.J :::::::l :ltir,,:::::t:t:,,1::::::::::::::::t:t: :r::i:r;iil;:,:iti;;lir,:i t:ri;':f: t::ttt:l;:ti;ittiit lntroductionand Overview Many books exist that are guides to academicwriting for native speakers.There are also a number for non-native speakers.Of these,quite a few deal with the use of graphs, tablesand other visuals.However, they normally explain how to insert or use thesevisuals to make your work more interesting and easyto understand.They do not usually explain how to write about thesevisual aids. The primary purpose of this book is to help you with the \Writing Thsk I of the IELIS Academic test. Howevet becauseit attempts to deal with the language required in a systematicway, you may find that much of the information it contains could be useful to you later during your studies,if you ever need to use graphs, tablesor the like in your work. So perhapsyou should not give the book away as soon as you have passedyour IELIS. )i()K)K)t()K 'Writing Thsk 1, it is In order to write about visuals,as required in IELIS Academic necessaryto understand what to write, as well as ltotl to write it. The first section of this book therefore beginswith a discussionabout the main purpose and featuresof graphs, tablesand other visuals,and provides exercisesto practiseidenti$'ing these correctly. The later sections then go on to deal with the languagerequired to write about them. There are vocabulary lists, explanationsabout meaning and grammar, and exercises.There is also an Answer Key, and model answersare provided, so that the book can be used for self-studyas well as class-roomuse. 2 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams Since most of the IELTS Academic \Writing Thsk 1 questions deal with graphs and rables,and since they require specific interpretation and writing conyentions,we will first focus on these. A Note on terminology: The IELIS Handbook mentions diagrams and tables. Clearly this includes graphs (the most common visual used in \Writing Task 1) under diagrams. Other books talk about visuals to cover all of these.Youdo not need to worry about this as the label is usually given in the introduction to the task and you can simply use the sameword in your answer. 1. ThePurposeof Graphsand Tables In order to know how to do something properly, it is necessaryto understand the parpose of that thing. tWe actually need to know two things: a) the purpose of using graphs and tables;and b) the purpose of utriting about the graphs and tables that have been used. \Wewill deal with the first one first. 1.1UsingGraphsand Tables TASK1 'Which of the following statements do you think best describe the purpose of providing graphs and tables in an academic text? a) to explain what is in the t€xt in a different way b) to provide information which is additional to that provided in the text c) to make it easierto understand the conceptsby using a visual rather than by just using words d) to give an overview or an impression or a summary e) to provide more exact details than is desirablein the text rc Answer Key Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams 1.2 Writingabout Graphsand Tables In real life, the text usually comesfrst, and the graph or table is added to support the text. In fact, most books that adviseon writing, explain how to use graphs or tables to illustrate the words more cleady. However, in IELTS the reverseoccurs you are given the graph, table or diagram and must supply the words. In Thsk 1 candidatesare askedto look at a diagram or table, and to present the information in their own words. Depending on the type of input and the task on their abiliry to: suggested,candidatesare assessed r organise, present and possibly compare data .describe the stagesofa processor procedure .describe an object or event or sequenceofevents . explain how something works IELTS Handbooh, 1999 Note that the first of theseis the most common task found in the Test, and the one we are dealine with now TASK2. \(zhich of the following do you think best describes the purpose of writing about graphs and tables (in real academic writing)? a) to explain what is in the graph or table in a different way which makes it easierto understand b) to give exactly the same information in words, in order to emphasiseit c) to expand on what is in the graph or table by giving additional explanations about the reasonsetc. d) to draw attention to the most important asp€ctsof the information shown in the graph or table. tc Ansuter Ke! 3 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams 1.3 Understandingthe Purpose TASK3. Look at the following graph and the descriptions given underneath, and decide which one is the most suitable. Try to explain why you think so. AnnualUrbanGrowthRates Average ltsto-ts T--l 1995-2000 ffiil 2020-2025 Asia Europe North Latin America America a) This gdph showsthe auerageannualurban groluth rate of 5 continentsfrom 1970 to 2025. According to the graph, Africa had about 5o/oauerageannual urban groutth rate in 1970 and ouer 4%oauerageannual urban grozuthrate in 1995 and in 2025 the auerageannual urban grou.tthrate is expectedto bejust ouer3o/o.For Asia the auerageannual urban groutth rate wasjust ouer3o/o in 1970 and 1995 and it utas expectedto be about 2o/oin 2025. In Europe, by contrast,tlte auerageannual urban groutth rat€ was only about 1.5% in 1970 and it went down to about 0.5o/oin 1995, and in 2025 it utill be lessthan 0.2o/o.In Latin America tlte auerageannual urban groutth rate utentfrom just under 4o/oin 1970 to just ouer2%oin 1995 and it tuill probably bejust ouer 1o/oin 2025. In North America the auerageannual urban groluth rAte uAs about 1o/oin 1970 and 1995 and is ffiPectedto stay tlte samein 2025. b) Looking at the graph lae cdn seethat urban {ouath has happenedon all 5 continentssince 1970 and that it is expectedto continue right up to 2025. The most dramatic grouth is in Africa, Asia and Latin America, becAusetbesecontinentshaue experiencedthe most deuelopmentand industrialisation since 1970, while Europe and North America show lessincreaseprobably becausethey already started being more urbanised. In deuelopingcountriesmary)peoplefom the countrytsideare attrdcted t0 the cities to loohfor u,,orhand better opportunities in heahh and education, but this rapid urbanisation is causingmany problems and needsto be connolled. Visuals:Writing about Graphs, Tablesand Diagrams that since 1970 there has beenconsiderableurban grotuth in all 5 ) The graph shou,,s continentspresented and that this trend is expectedto continue at least until2025. Houteuer,the ratefor eaclt continent ltas not beentlte same. The deuelopingcounnies of Afica, Asia and Latin America experiencedtlte most dramatic growth rates in 1975, with Afica hauing around 5o/oPer Annum, Latin America just ouer 4%oand Asia ouer3o/o. In 1995 theseratesdeneasedto just ouer 4o/oin Afica and doun to about 2o/ofor Latin Anterica, but Asia remained tlte same. This grouth rate is expectedto decreaseby about 1% for all three continentsbjt the year 2025. Mennuthile North America is expectedto maintain its groutth rate of 1o/op.a. ouer the entire period, tahile Europe, hauing started theperiod at about 1.5o/ogrowth rate is expectedto reducethis to only about 2% by 2025. a Ansuer Ke! differenttypesof Graphsand Tables 1.4 Understanding \7e now need to look more closelyat what graphs and tablesshow, and the differencesberween them. a) 'What features do the following graphs have in common? CigaretteConsumptionin China 1950- 90 WorldMeatProduction, Million Tons billions: 2000 t Pork 1500 ,.a( 40 20 't0 0 u Poultry -ta 30 / a Beef/Buffalo .---'-+/ R .A' ..,.8' F-.:::--.ts_+ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 b) Vhat features do the following graphs have in common? How are they different from the previous ones? Percentageof distributionof Internet-connected July1999 by incomeof countlies, computers, Waste1999 Household Paper& 21% Carboard High-incomecountries95.1 =Plastic 8% Middleincome counldies4.7 / Low-incomecounti reso.z Metal 6% Glass8% Other'l l% Food& Garden Materials46% Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams c) 'What about these graphs? Percentaqe of all children 5 - 1 4 y e a - r sw h o w o r k 1 9 9 5 Europe AnnualWaterConsumption: World 150 Africa 120 tuia Latin America & Caribbean Oceania ffieoys Icitlt Thousands9o of Litres (percapita)6o 30 o d) 1950 1960 1970 1980 ',I990 2000 'What kind of information do the following tables provide? How does this differ from the graphs? computers Internet-connected worldwide,1981-1999 1987 1988 '1989 1990 '1991 1992 1993 1994 r 09s 1996 1997 1998 1999 28,174 s6,000 159.000 313,000 617,000 1,136,000 2,056,000 3,864,000 6,642,000 12,881,000 19,5r+0,000 36,739,000 56.218,000 Thelargestnumberof foreignstudentsby country 1995 of origin,in the 50 majorhostcountries: 115,87'l China 69,736 62,324 45,432 43,941 41,159 39,626 37,629 36,515 34,908 32,411 28.280 27,749 Korea.Republicof Japan Germany Greece Malaysia lndia Turkey Italy Morocco France Canada United States a Ansuer Ke! Understanding graphs and rables involves understanding the following details: 1. \X/hat is the information or data in the graph or table abo :ut?[ This infarrnation is norma$t suppheA uith ilte graplt or tabla,J r$fhat 2" are the units of rneasufemeflt used? 3. \{hat is the area (place) involved ? 4. \f,hat is the time-scale involved ? 5. What is the purpose of the graph or table? Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams Let us look at the graphs and tablesshown above once more, and answer the following questions: 'What 1. are the units of measurementused? 2.'W-hat is the area (place) involved ? 3. Vhat is the time-scaleinvolved ? 4. \What is the purpose of the graph or table? After examining the graphs and tables above you will have noticed the following: In the caseof a line graph, the horizontal and vertical axes provide most of the information. Usually trends over a specific period of time are shown in this way. A bar graph shows the samekind of information but with the units presentedas bars or columns. Another kind of bar graph (also called a histogram) may show numerical distributions rather than changes. Pie graphs show proportions, normally representedas percentages. Thbles give detailed data and may be used to display changes over time or they may show distributions of variablesaccording to place, or rype. They usually require more interpretation than graphs do. Graphs 1.4.1Wedge-shaped There is one kind of graph that can causeconfusion becauseit appearsto combine the featuresof both the pie chart or the bar graph and line graph. Look at these graphs and answer the questionsthat follow. TASK4 Region fromFossilFuelBurningby Economic WorldCarbonEmissions Million Tons 7000 6000 s000 4000 3000 2000 1000 1990 1990 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs, Tablesand Diagrams l. tVhat was the amount of emissions from industrial countries in 1950? 2.'What was the amount of emissions from developing countries in 1950? 3. How much did the Former Eastern Bloc countries emit in 1980? from 1985- 2000 WorldSpendingon Advertising (in5USmillions) : : Total 33-olO90 ,,::,:::,:,::: North America ffi rrrop" c282,OOO ffi Asia/lacific I utinAmerica 242,000 .r9l,ooo 1124ooo Il J€4sog,,i: 4. Did the European countries spend more or less than the Asia/Pacific ones on advertising in 1985? 5. Did the Latin American countries spend more or less than the European ones in 2000? a Ansuter Ke! 1.4.2 CombinedGraphs It is is very common to find two or more graphs presentedtogether.This is usually done to show either a comparison, or a more complicated correlation than can be shown in one graph. A correlation is the way two setsof facts are related to each other. The relationship may be a change over a period of time, or it may be a possiblecauseand effect link. There is a section dealing with Correlations in more detail, starting on page 35. Writingabout Graphsand Tables This section is going ro deal with selectingthe right approach and sryle, learning to use the appropriate vocabulary,and becoming aware of the grammar related to this vocabulary. The languageof graphs and tables is divided, for convenience, into: introductory expressions time expressions terms of measurement In Part 3 we will deal with: expressions of comparison and contrast expressions for trends correlations To use this languagecorrectly,it is necessaryto keep the following points in mind: 1. You must know the exact meaning and usageof the terms 2. You must know the collocations of the terms: i.e. you must know which expressionsgo together, and which are never found in combination 3. You must know the grammatical featuresof the terms 4. YOU MUST CAREENOUGH TO BEACCURATE 10 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams \?arningl From the lis* that follow in this.::.rio:l do NOT, in.your own. writing, useanf expressions you areunfarniliar with. Only usethe terms that you know, and make sureyou know them correctly.Only selectedexamplesare given here.Ir is essentialfor you to haveat leastone of the following ESL dictionaries,which will give you mor€ examples: Oxford Advanced frarner"s Dictionary Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Collins CoBuild Dictionary CambridgeDictionary of InternationalEnglish 2.1 Writingthe Introduction Often the hardest part of writing anything is writing the introduction. If you have a good technique for this, then the rest of the task is usually lessdifficult. The first thing to note is that writing about visuals is not the same as writing an essay.This m€ans three things in particular: 'iwite a 1. You are not asked to discuss the information, but generally to report describing" the information. 2. It is not necessaryto write an introduction like in an essayfor this writing task You are writing a report, which means that you do not begin with a broad general statement about the topic. 3. You do not need to write a conclusion which gives any kind of opinion about the significance of the information. So how do you begin?There are three steps. Step l: Identify the main idea behind the graph or table. This will be the focus ofyour first sentence. Step 2: Consider the details of what is being shown -the units of measurement and the time frame - and decide how much you need to include. Steps 1 and 2 involve understanding the visual. This was discussedin Part 1. Step 3: Consider the languageto use-the introductory expressions,the tenses of the verbs, the correct expressionsof time and I or measurementetc. For Step 3 this section should help you. Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams 2.1,1 What introductoryexpressionsto use There are three possibleways to start. One is to refer to the visual directly (e.g. This graph shous thepopuktion ofAlia in the 20th centur!.) Howeve! this method is not advisable,since the instructions in the IELIS test will normally give you just this information. If you copy directly your English from the paper you are wasting time, since the examiner cannot assess from a copied sentence. The secondway is to refer directly to the main messageconveyedby the visual (e.g. Tltere was a sharp increasein the population ofAlia in the 20th century.)This way is perfectly acceptable,and shows that you are able to recognisethe main concept or m€ssagethat the graph or table shows. The third way combines the two (e.g. The graph shoutstbat there utasa sharp increase in thepopulation ofAlia in the 20th century.)This is also acceptable, and is often used as a convenient way to start. In order to use this method, it is necessaryto use a few fixed expressions,which refer to the text itself, like those below. 2.1.2 Introductory Expressions The graph / table shows / indicates / illustrates / reveals / represents It is clear from the graph / table It can be seen from the graph / table As the graph / table shows, As can be seen from the graph I table, As is shown by the graph / table, As is illustrated by the graph / table, From the graph / table it is clear Notice that it is best to avoid using personalpronouns. Instead of saying We can see fom the graph.... it is better to use the passiveor impersonal constructions, as above. Do not forget that the secondway is also very acceptable(i.e., not referring to the text directly at all). There will be more examplesof this in the following pages. Most of the above expressionscan be followed by a clause starting with that. Severalof the above expressionscan be followed by a noun or noun phrase. Severalof the above expressionsmust be followed by a main clause. Tiy to identi$' which is which by doing the next exercise. 11 12 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Iables and Diagrams TASK5: Make all the possible matches between the expressions in the table on the left with those on the right: 1. The graph shows/ indicates I a) that thepopulationofAlia greu', 2. It is clear from the table 3. It can be seen from the graph I 4. As the table shows, I 5. As can be seen from the graph, I c) the PoPulation ofAlia grew in the i" the 20th centur! I O1tltt groutth in the size of the 6. As is shown/illustratedby the graph, | populationofAlia 20th century 7. From the graph it is clear o Answer KeJt 'Warnings: 1. Avoid using the phrase: according to the graph. This is becausethe phrase according to generally means that the information comes from another person or source, and not from our own knowledge. (For example,Accordingto tlte Handbook, lou cannot take the exdm more tltan oncein three months. According to my friend, the essayquestion aas not too dfficuh.) In the caseof a graph or table that is shown, the information is there right in 'knoJ it. That front of you, ,h."*rir.r, and.also the reader,and so you can both is, it does not come from another source. 2. Note that the expressionsas cAn be seenfrom the graph or as is shotttn/ illustratedby the table do not contain the dummy subiect ir. Avoid these expressionsif you think you are going to forget this unusual grammar' is best avoided, since it requires a sophisticated 3. The word preserutrs summarising noun ro follow. For example: ThegrdPhpres€ntsan oueruiewof the population gotath of Alia in the last 20 years. Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams TASK6 Which is the best introductory sentence for a description of this graph from the following? 1950- 90 WorldMeatProduction, Million Tons 80 70 ,,r 60 o 30 ,r 20 ts-q tr l0 0 a Beef/Buffalo ./ 50 40 e-.,:::- 1950 /.n 1960 E Poultry ,,, . - -. , a ' -- E €. 1970 .4 1980 Potk Sheep/Goats ',1990 a) This graph sltotasthe changesin world rneatProduction betueen 1950 and 1990. b) From this graph we cAn seethat most meatProduction is a lot higher in 1990 than in 1950. c) Between1950 and 1990 meatproduction in the world rosesignifcantly for all hinds of meat excePtsheepand goat meat. d) The graplt shoutsthat in 1950 production ofpoulny and sheepand goat meat was lessthan 5 million tons, uthileproduction ofpork and beefand buffalo 1n€Atuas around 20 million tons. rc Ansuter Ke! 2.2TimeExpressions fu you can seein the above exercise,you can start your description with a time phrasein some cases: Betuteen1950 and 1990productionrosesignificant[t... Even if you do not begin your sentenc€with a time expression,in many cas€s, particularly those involving line graphs, the time frame is given and is an important elemenr of the visual and will need to be mentioned. For this reasonit is important that you know how to use the common expressionsof time, and that you revise them from any normal grammar book if they causeyou difficulties. Here are the common ones: for in -and between during before from-to/until after 13 14 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams in: In 1999... In the 20th century... In the first ten years... tltere was a significant increasein production for: For the first six months... For twenry years... the number of employes remained the same. during: During the first six months... During the first half of this century... During the remainder of the year... production was slouing down, while imports increased. from-to/until: From August tol until November... From 1950 to 1960... tltere was no changein energl use. between -and: Berween1950 and 1960... tltere uas no changein the rate offuel consumption. before I after: Before 1960 the number remained small,6u afrcr 1965 t/tere utasa sudden increase. around / about: Around / about l9B0 there was a changein the number offemale part-time employees. byt By the late 19th century the rural workforcehad declinedsignificantQ. at: At the end of the last century tltere utasa sharp increasein manufacturing. since: Since the 19th century there has beena steadyd.ecline. are: Orher usefulexpressions (in) the period from (in) the oeriod between to and in the first/last three months of the year to over the period the next years/ decades/ quarter ofa century etc. over over a ten year period throughout the 19th century from that time on after that then in the 1980s Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams Note that you can refer to a decade as the 1980s etc. There is no apostrophe before the s. 2.2.1Usingthe right tenses. It is important to selectthe correct tenses.Points to remember: a) For most visualsa specific time in the past will be given and you will need to use the past simple tense. If two things took place at the same time, you may use the past continuous tense for one of them. (\Ylhilepoulny production uas rising during this period, tltere utasno changein mutton production). b) If you usesinceor recent(ly)it means that you are referring to events that have come up to the present.That means using the present perfect tense. ( The useof tlte Internet has risen enormouslysincethe 1990s.) c) \flith by you will often need to use the past perfect or the future perfect tense. ($t the end of the centur! tlte rate of urbanisation had doubled.) TASK7 Look again at the graph ofVorld Meat Production (in Tirsk 6) and complete the following statements with a suitable expression of time: 1. Theproduction of sheepand goat meat remained almost unchanged 2. theproductionofpork rosesharply. slowly 3. Pouhryproductionincreased and rosedramatically. steadygrouth 4. Beefand bffilo productionexperienced a Answer Ke! of Measurement 2.3 Expressions Since graphs and tablesshow measurements,it is necessaryfor you to have a knowledge of the most common terms used to describequantiry and related expressions,and, as always,to know how to use them CORRECTLY. The followins lists are there to act as a reminder for you of nouns that you are probably aheady familiar with, and to show you the verbs that they are associatedwith, and the rypical phrasesused to describevisual aids. 15 16 Visuals:Writingabout Graphs,Tablesand Diagrams 2.3.1 Quantities quanuty number the total quantity the whole of the the majority the total the total number the whole amount the greatest amount the total amount all of the the full amount the greatest number the maximum the minimum amount figure It is best to use arTount and quantity for uncountable nouns, although both are used for countable nouns as well, particularly quantity. However, num'ber can generallybe safelyused for all countable nouns. The amount of production increasedin the last 20 years' The number of cars on the roadsincreasedin the last 20 yearl However, you cannot say *The quantit! ofproduction increased. This is becausequantity is only used for items that can actually be measuredor counted (e.g. iron ore, shares,weapons), not for abstract terms. Sinceamount can be used more widely (e.g. the Amount of utealth / experience/ waste)it is generally safer to use this word if you are not certain. For number you must of course have a plural, countable noun following: the number of cars; tlte number of unemployedpeople. There is some confusion about whether the verb following thesephrasesshould be in the singular or plural. Strictly speaking,it should be singular, becausethe noun number is itself singular, so we should say: The number of carsbas increased.The number of unenployedpeople ltas drcreased. But you may also come acrossthis kind of sentence: Thereare a number ofpeople taho ltaue ashedfor this book. This is becausein this casewe are thinking about the people rather than the number. refersto the actual number itself, not the thing that the number refers ro: While tlte number of Internet usersu)Asonly 2.6 million in 1990, thisf.gure ltas more than doubled in the last tuo years. Thewordf.gure Note the combinations given in the table above (e.g. the total amounr)' A more simple and idiomatic way of expressing the whole/ total amount is to say all of the or the utholeof the. However, note that all of the can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns (e.g. all of thepopulation; all of the people), while the uthole of the can only be used with uncountable nouns (e.g. the whole of thepopulation; the uhole of theproduction for that year). It is clearly safer to useall of the.
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