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Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Energy, Water, and Transportation Infrastructure; Planning and Financing Papers from Sessions of the ASCE India Conference 2017 Edited by New Delhi, India December 12–14, 2017 Udai P. Singh; B. R. Chahar; H. R. P. Yadav; and Satish K. Vij Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. URBANIZATION CHALLENGES IN EMERGING ECONOMIES Energy and Water Infrastructure; Transportation Infrastructure; and Planning and Financing SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE ASCE INDIA CONFERENCE 2017 December 12–14, 2017 New Delhi, India ORGANIZED BY American Society of Civil Engineers CO-SPONSORED BY Indian Institute of Technology Delhi Institution of Engineers (India) EDITED BY Udai P. Singh B. R. Chahar H. R. P. Yadav Satish K. Vij Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Published by American Society of Civil Engineers 1801 Alexander Bell Drive Reston, Virginia, 20191-4382 www.asce.org/publications | ascelibrary.org Any statements expressed in these materials are those of the individual authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASCE, which takes no responsibility for any statement made herein. No reference made in this publication to any specific method, product, process, or service constitutes or implies an endorsement, recommendation, or warranty thereof by ASCE. The materials are for general information only and do not represent a standard of ASCE, nor are they intended as a reference in purchase specifications, contracts, regulations, statutes, or any other legal document. ASCE makes no representation or warranty of any kind, whether express or implied, concerning the accuracy, completeness, suitability, or utility of any information, apparatus, product, or process discussed in this publication, and assumes no liability therefor. The information contained in these materials should not be used without first securing competent advice with respect to its suitability for any general or specific application. Anyone utilizing such information assumes all liability arising from such use, including but not limited to infringement of any patent or patents. ASCE and American Society of Civil Engineers—Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Photocopies and permissions. Permission to photocopy or reproduce material from ASCE publications can be requested by sending an e-mail to permissions@asce.org or by locating a title in ASCE's Civil Engineering Database (http://cedb.asce.org) or ASCE Library (http://ascelibrary.org) and using the “Permissions” link. Errata: Errata, if any, can be found at https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784482025 Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. ISBN 978-0-7844-8202-5 (PDF) Manufactured in the United States of America. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies iii Preface Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. By the end of the last century the world transitioned from predominantly rural to equal rural-urban living. Many estimates predict that by year 2050 two thirds of the world’s population will live in cities due to rapidly increasing rural to urban migration. This rapid and unplanned migration is having most impact on metropolitan areas in emerging economies, and is threatening the quality of life for its residents. Infrastructure in these cities, a key ingredient in quality of life, is not keeping up with the growth of population. Civil engineers throughout the world regularly face challenges in building infrastructure in our quest for sustainable solutions to quality of life issues. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), a global leader in sustainable practices in civil engineering infrastructure, organized a conference “Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies” on 12 to 14 December 2017 in New Delhi, a rapidly expanding metropolitan area, to facilitate policy, technical, and scientific discussions and exchanges on these challenges in emerging economies. This conference of civil engineers, urban architects, policy makers, technology experts, and related professionals provided a showcase for the latest developments and advancements in design, construction, technology, and policy related to sustainable infrastructure and offered a forum to discuss and debate future directions for emerging economies. The goal was to help these societies move towards resilient sustainable cities and infrastructure. Approximately 400 abstracts were received and reviewed by the conference steering committee and other reviewers. Of these, about 250 technical papers were presented at the conference. A Book of Abstracts was published and distributed at the conference. Each full paper underwent peer review by two or three reviewers. As a result, 151 papers were accepted for publication in the Proceedings. The Proceedings has been published in two volumes. This volume includes 81 papers, while the other volume has 70 papers. While some papers present successful case studies and examples of sustainable infrastructure, others share latest advances in urban infrastructure planning, design, and construction. In addition, several papers showcase new tools and latest research to support sustainable urban infrastructure. The Proceedings contain peer-reviewed papers from several continents, including from the west as well as from emerging economies, especially from India. In this volume, the 81 peer-reviewed papers have been divided into three topics: (1) Planning & Financing to Meet the Growing Demand, (2) Transportation Around and Beneath Existing Cities, and (3) Water, Environment & Energy Infrastructure to Meet the Demands of Exploding Population in Urban Areas. The papers presented here are organized by each of these three tracks. They cover a diversity of topics, such as policy and government issues, challenges in mass transportation, solid and industrial waste management, urban watershed management, innovation in energy © ASCE Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies infrastructure, public-private partnerships, affordable housing, urban drainage management, intelligent transportation systems, traffic management, urban water systems infrastructure, water and wastewater treatment, urban renewal and financing, urban pollution, project management challenges, multi-modal transportation, etc. Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. The need to use innovative and sustainable solutions and to efficiently use, protect, and manage our existing resources is paramount to improving quality of life in the urban environment, especially in emerging economies around the world. We hope that this publication will be of assistance and use in this effort. Publication of the peer-reviewed Proceedings has been a team effort. We express our sincere appreciation to all who made it possible (please see the Acknowledgements page). In addition, special thanks are due to the India Section of ASCE and to Indian Institute of Technology Delhi as well as Institution of Engineers (India) for co-organizing the conference and actively assisting ASCE in the publication of the Proceedings. Dr. Udai P. Singh, Environmental Consultant, Moraga, California, USA Prof. B. R. Chahar, Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Er. H. R. P. Yadav, Director, Institution of Engineers (India), New Delhi, India Er. Satish K. Vij, President, ASCE India Section, New Delhi, India © ASCE iv Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Acknowledgments Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Conference Chair and Lead Editor  Dr. Udai P. Singh, Moraga, California, USA Track Chairs and Editors  Prof. B. R. Chahar, New Delhi, India  Er. H. R. P. Yadav, New Delhi, India  Er. Satish K. Vij, New Delhi, India Reviewers of Technical Papers  Er. H. R. P. Yadav, New Delhi, India  Er. Satish K. Vij, New Delhi, India  Dr. Udai P. Singh, Moraga, California, USA  Prof. B. R. Chahar, New Delhi, India  Er. K. B. Rajoria, New Delhi, India  Prof. Mohammad Jawed, Guwahati, India  Prof. A.K. Nema, New Delhi, India  Dr. Sudhir Misra, Kanpur, India  Prof. Mahesh K. Jat, Jaipur, India  Prof. K. Srinivasa Raju, Hyderabad, India  Prof. Ibadur Rahman, New Delhi, India  Er. Avinash Prasad, New Jersey, USA  Prof. Santanu Bandyopadhyay, Mumbai, India  Dr. K.N. (Guna) Gunalan, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA  Prof. D. Nagesh Kumar, Bangalore, India  Prof. Brijesh K Yadav, Roorkee, India  Prof. Kishen J.M. Chandra, Bangalore, India ASCE Staff  Ms. Angie Lander, Reston, Virginia, USA  Ms. Meggan Maughan-Brown, Reston, Virginia, USA © ASCE v Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Contents Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Energy and Water Infrastructure Needed to Meet the Demands of Exploding Population in Urban Areas Aerobic Biological Treatment of Pesticide Industry Effluent: A Kinetic Evaluation ................................................................................................................. 1 Prakat Modi, Keerthi Katam, and Debraj Bhattacharyya An Effective Routing Model for Collection and Transportation of Solid Waste in Bengaluru South ...................................................................................................... 11 Abhijeet S. Nadgir, S. D. Anitha Kumari, Shrihari K. Naik, and M. V. Deepthi Analytical Modeling for Solute Transport in a Homogeneous Medium ............................... 20 Sushree Swagatika Swain and Pradip Kumar Das Application of Modified Tube Settler to Improve Sedimentation Process ............................ 28 Mangesh P. Bhorkar, Anand G. Bhole, and Prashant B. Nagarnaik Assessment of Stormwater Drainage Network to Mitigate Urban Flooding Using GIS Compatible PCSWMM Model.............................................................................. 38 Satish Kumar, D. R. Kaushal, and A. K. Gosain CFD Modelling of Circular Baffled Aeration Tanks ............................................................. 47 K. Devarajan and Ajey Kumar Patel Change in Land Use and Land Cover in Urban Catchment Due to Rapid Urbanization of Capital City of Madhya Pradesh, India, and Its Effect on Urban Hydrology ............................................................................................................... 59 Munendra Kumar and Jaganniwas Classification of Recyclables from E-Waste Stream Using Thermal Imaging-Based Technique ...................................................................................................... 67 G. Sathish Paulraj, H. Subrata, T. Amber, and T. Atul Co-Composting of Municipal Solid Waste with Sewage Sludge for Sustainable Waste Management in Urban Areas .................................................................. 79 M. Lokeshwari, Vikas Mendi, T. Raghavendra, Amaranatha Reddy, and B. C. Udayashankar Development of Framework for Public Consultation in a Water Supply Project ......................................................................................................................... 90 Rakhee Das, Mohammad Jawed, and L. Boeing Singh © ASCE vi Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Development of Low Cost Biosorbent from Pseudarthria viscida Plant for Deflouridation of Water .................................................................................................. 102 Aju Mathew George and A. R. Tembhurkar Effect of Settling Time on the Treatment of Domestic Grey Water Using Mango Seeds as Coagulant ................................................................................................... 112 Kavish Rathore, Ishant Raj, Roopika Nautiyal, Shivangi Uliana, Brij Shah, and Anantha Singh Enhancement of the Performance of a Continuous Bipolar-Mode Electrocoagulation (CBME) System Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Modification of the Process Parameters and Reactor Configuration ........................................................................................................................ 122 Madhuri Damaraju, Debraj Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti Panda, and Kiran Kumar Kurilla Environmental Sustainability Assessment of Soil Amendments for Enhanced Phytoremediation................................................................................................. 130 Krishna R. Reddy, Gema Amaya-Santos, and Girish Kumar Erosion Indices of Surface Soils with Pin Hole Test ............................................................ 137 Himanshu Kumar, Sudheer K. Yamsani, and Sreedeep Sekharan Flood Estimation Using Probability Distribution Function Based Synthetic Unit Hydrograph Methods at Ungauged Catchments in Varrar Basin, Kerala, India .............................................................................................................. 142 N. Amarnatha Reddy, Vikas Mendi, T. Raghavendra, and M. Lokeshwari Flow Analysis of Rigid and Flexible Vegetation Using ANSYS Fluent ............................... 154 Munendra Kumar and Shashank Aggarwal Flow Duration Curve Prediction Using a Physical Deterministic Model for Indian Catchments .......................................................................................................... 168 Anita Nag and Basudev Biswal Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Tender Coconut Coir and Optimization of Process Parameters Using Response Surface Methodology ............................................ 178 G. Marttin Paulraj, S. Parth, and B. Debraj Identification of Groundwater Potential Zones and Artificial Recharge Sites in Vedganga River Sub-Basin Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques ....................... 189 Gurav Chandrakant and Md. Babar Influence of Pipe Discharges on Cost and Reliability of Looped Water Distribution Networks ........................................................................................................... 200 Shweta Rathi, Nikita Palod, Rajesh Gupta, and Lindell Ormsbee © ASCE vii Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Numerical Simulation and Profile Computation of Hydraulic Jump under the Sluice Gate....................................................................................................................... 210 M. Kumar and D. Tiwari Optimum Utilization of Alternate Material for Aggregates—An Approach for Waste Management in Urban Areas for Sustainability ................................................. 221 G. Prathima, Bharathi Ganesh, and K. P. Nagaraja Performance and Characteristics of Vehicular Emissions Using CNG and H-CNG Vehicular Fuels ....................................................................................................... 232 H. R. P. Yadav and Kafeel Ahmad Phosphorus Retention in Lateritic Soil Constructed Wetland Treatment of Domestic Sewage ................................................................................................................... 238 Kruti Jethwa, Samir Bajpai, and P. K. Chaudhari Phytoremediation—A Sustainable Solution for Reducing Heavy Metal Contamination from the Bhalaswa Landfill Site ................................................................. 247 Parul Johar, Divya Singh, and Arun Kumar Potential Impact of Climate Change on Rainfall Extremes for Urban Drainage Management .......................................................................................................... 256 S. Patowary, J. Hazarika, and A. K. Sarma Prediction of STP Operational Parameters Using ANN ...................................................... 267 R. K. Rai and K. Nagaraj Production of Biofuel from Kitchen Wastewater by Using a Mixed Culture of Diatoms: Treatment, Kinetic Evaluation, and Lipid Analysis ........................................ 278 Keerthi Katam, Marttin Paulraj Gundupalli, and Debraj Bhattacharyya Rationalization of Krishna River Water Quality Monitoring Locations by Combination of Multivariate Statistical and Multi Criteria Decision Making Techniques in a Geo-Spatial Framework ............................................................... 288 Aditya Nanekar, Vikas Varekar, Nilesh Susware, and Pratik Munde Removal of Turbidity Using Dual Media Filter ................................................................... 302 Sandeep Samantaray, Subhasree Samantaray, Dillip K. Ghose, Ashutosh Rath, and Chitta Ranjan Mohanty Simulation of Existing Water Distribution Network at Punagam Area of Surat City Using WATERGEMS Software ..................................................................... 312 D. J. Mehta and K. J. Prajapati Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Noise Pollution in Ahmedabad City of Gujarat through Measurements and Mapping ................................................................ 322 Ketan Lakhtaria, Sandip Trivedi, and Anurag Kandya © ASCE viii Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Study of Parameters Optimization Using SFLA for the Stormwater Drainage Network of Extremely Urbanized Settlements..................................................... 328 Satish Kumar, D. R. Kaushal, and A. K. Gosain Studying Feasibility of Using Nanotechnology-Solar Assisted Breakdown of Plastic and Its Impact on Groundwater ........................................................................... 336 Tanushree Parsai, Arun Kumar, and Bhanu Nandan Using Building Energy Simulation to Study Energy Demands of Prefabricated Housing Unit .................................................................................................. 347 Niket Kumar, Naveen Tiwari, and Sudhir Misra What Is the Tidal Energy Potential of Sri Lanka? .............................................................. 358 Vikas Mendi, N. Amarnatha Reddy, M. Lokeshwari, T. Raghavendra, and Jaya Kumar Seelam Planning and Financing to Meet the Growing Demand Alliance Contracting Framework for Affordable Mass Housing Construction .......................................................................................................................... 366 Murali Jagannathan Framework for Bundling in Network Infrastructure through Public-Private Partnerships .................................................................................................. 376 Tharun Dolla and Boeing Laishram Chandigarh’s Experiment with Affordable Housing ........................................................... 388 Jatinder Pal Singh Conceptual and Strategic Planning for Undeveloped Residential Area in Mumbai City ..................................................................................................................... 395 Saurabh B. Amlani and Prashant P. Nagrale Development and Implementation of On-the-Job Training System for Construction Workers .......................................................................................................... 405 S. Johari and K. N. Jha Development of Probabilistic Methodology for Evaluating Pavement Condition Index for Flexible Pavement ................................................................................ 417 Mohd. Shoyeb Ansari and A. R. Kambekar Differences of Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) Consciousness among Indian Construction Industry ......................................... 428 C. Vigneshkumar, Urmi Ravindra Salve, and K. Saravana Muthu Environmental Responsive Urban Planning and Regulations in India: An Analysis ............................................................................................................................ 434 M. F. Jawaid, Satish Pipralia, and Ashwani Kumar © ASCE ix Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Examination of Sustainable Affordable Housing Policies and Perspectives in India after Reform ............................................................................................................ 442 Pavan N. Ghumare, K. A. Chauhan, and S. M. Yadav Framework for Conducting Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Infrastructure Facilities ................................................................................................................................. 450 Dima Jawad, Yara Medawar, and Sophia Ghanimeh Housing Affordability in India: Opportunities and Key Challenges .................................. 462 Abid Hasan, Abbas Elmualim, Rameez Rameezdeen, and Bassam Baroudi Modeling Urban Land Use Dynamics through Markov Model Using Geospatial Tools for Kota, India .......................................................................................... 472 Ankita P. Dadhich, Pran N. Dadhich, and Rohit Goyal Potential of Prefabrication for Affordable Housing in Urban India ................................... 481 Gaurav Gupta and Ashutosh Mukherjee Program Management Approach for Urban Renewal and Regeneration of Built Environment Sector—Indian Scenario ................................................................... 489 Anurita Bhatnagar and Vanita Ahuja Public Private Partnerships in India: Problems and Solutions ........................................... 507 Murali Jagannathan Spatial Analysis of Educational Facilities in Pune City ....................................................... 518 Pooja Gandhile and Arati Petkar Strategies for Augmenting Socio-Economic Infrastructure around Greenfield Airport—A Case of Dholera International Airport .......................................... 530 V. Nimesh, M. S. Hussain, and J. Sen Study of Redevelopment Opportunities in Delhi ................................................................. 542 Amrita Kaur Gulati Study on the Information Technology Impact Questionnaire ITIQ on the Construction Industry in India ............................................................................................. 552 Avinash Ojha and Lokesh Gupta Urbanizing India and the Need for Natural Resources Planning ........................................ 558 Amruta Garud and Bakul Rao Transportation around and beneath Existing Cities A Fuzzy Approach for Quantifying Accessibility to Public Transit System ....................... 569 Dewal Mishra and Ashoke K. Sarkar © ASCE x Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. A Novel Approach of Safety Evaluation for Red Light Violation Related Crashes at Signalized Intersections ...................................................................................... 580 M. Paul, V. Chaudhary, and I. Ghosh A Review Paper: Study on Safety of Side Walkability Facilities in Urban Areas of Developing Countries ............................................................................................. 590 Badveeti Adinarayana and Mohammad Shafi Mir Abatement of Nitrate by Bismuth Based Inorganic Media ................................................. 598 M. Ranjan, P. K. Singh, and V. Kumar Assessment of Qualitative Level-of-Service for Pedestrians: Silchar, Assam ..................... 606 Ranadip Mandal and Mokaddes Ali Ahmed Calibration Methodology of Microsimulation Model for Unsignalized Intersection under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions ........................................................ 618 M. Paul, V. Charan, V. Soni, and I. Ghosh Determination and Comparison of PCU on Urban Roads under Mixed Traffic Conditions—A Case Study ....................................................................................... 628 R. Srinivasa Rao and Nitesh Yadav Prediction of Settlement of Road Embankment Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) ............................................................................................................... 639 A. Saha, S. Kundu, and A. K. Dey Developing Level of Service (LoS) Thresholds on Ten-Lane Divided Multi-Lane Urban Roads in India ........................................................................................ 649 Pallav Kumar, Shriniwas Arkatkar, and Gaurang Joshi Development of Simple Exponential Smoothing Model for Traffic Flow Prediction under Heterogeneous Traffic Conditions ........................................................... 659 G. Omkar and S. Vasantha Kumar Evaluation of Pedestrian Level of Service in Presence of Street Vendor: Kolkata .................................................................................................................................. 667 Mokaddes Ali Ahmed and Khandokar Minhajul Islam Evaluation of Pedestrian Safety Index at Urban Mid-Block ............................................... 676 H. D. Golakiya and A. Dhamaniya Evaluation of Use of Non-Motorized Vehicles for Shopping Trips under Mix Traffic Conditions ......................................................................................................... 688 Jayesh Juremalani and Krupesh A. Chauhan Examining Effect of Bottleneck on Multi-Lane Roads at Midblock Sections Using Simulation ................................................................................................................... 697 Narayana Raju, Shriniwas Arkatkar, and Gaurang Joshi © ASCE xi Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Impact on Transportation Due to Metro Link Express for Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad (MEGA) ..................................................................................................... 706 Pravek Dwivedi and Rajesh Gujar Method to Prioritize Hazardousness of Locations for Black Spot Identification Using Analytic Hierarchy Process ................................................................. 714 Vidhi Vyas and Amit Goel Modeling Speed-Density Relation for Highways in Developing Countries with No Lane Discipline: A Case Study in Egypt ................................................................. 725 Saleh R. Mousa, Ragab M. Mousa, Sherif Ishak, and Laila Radwand Neural Network Approach to Determine LOS Criteria of Urban Streets for Developing Countries ...................................................................................................... 736 Abhishek Chakraborty, Suprava Jena, and Prasanta K. Bhuyan Optimization of Central Island by SITI Equation Developer Inclusive Pedestrian Facility on Roundabout ...................................................................................... 745 Apeksha A. Mendhe, Rakesh Kumar, and N. J. Mistry Paratransit System Characteristics in Mid-Size City of Silchar, India............................... 757 Laxman Singh Bisht and Mokaddes Ali Ahmed Smart, Sustainable Infrastructure Development ................................................................. 769 M. Abdul Ahad and Saiful Hasan The Effect of Urban Structure on Travel Behavior: A Case of Solapur City ..................... 775 Mithali Jadhav and Rahul Shukla Traffic Management on Two-Lane Rural Highways ........................................................... 785 Gopika Avanoor and T. M. Rahul Vehicle Class Wise Service Time Prediction Models for Tollbooths under Mixed Traffic Conditions...................................................................................................... 794 Y. V. Navandar, H. D. Golakiya, A. Dhamaniya, and D. A. Patel © ASCE xii Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Aerobic Biological Treatment of Pesticide Industry Effluent: A Kinetic Evaluation Prakat Modi1; Keerthi Katam2 ; and Debraj Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.3 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. 1 Post-Graduate, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, Telangana, India 502285. E-mail: ce15mtech11002@iith.ac.in 2 Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, Telangana, India 502285. E-mail: ce13m15p000001@iith.ac.in 3 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, Telangana, India 502285. E-mail: debrajb@iith.ac.in ABSTRACT The study was conducted 1. to examine the performance of aerobic bacteria in treating a pesticide industry effluent and to quantify the biodegradation in terms of bio-kinetic parameters at steady state and 2. to study the inhibition caused by the pesticide effluent on un-acclimated ethanol enriched aerobic culture. The performance of the treatment was monitored based on total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and sulfate removal at different SRTs. Highest COD removal of 80% was observed for SRTs greater than 8-day. The steady state kinetic parameters k, Ks, Y, and kd were 2.52 d−1, 49.68 mg COD/L, 0.25 mg VSS/mg COD, and 0.46 d−1, respectively. The pesticide industry effluent caused a competitive inhibition above a dose of 1.6% on un-acclimated culture. High treatment efficiency can be achieved in aerobic biological treatment when the biomass gets acclimatized to the pesticide industrial effluent. INTRODUCTION Rapid population growth in India has raised the demand for food. To keep up with the demand, fertilizers and pesticides have been used quite extensively. India had around 150 industrial manufacturing units and 500 industrial formulation units of pesticides at the beginning of this century (Gupta 2004). The yearly production of pesticides in India is around 85000 tons. This made India the 12th largest pesticide producer in the world (Subramanian et al. 2007; Bhardwaj and Sharma 2013). Extensive production and consumption of pesticides in India have raised environmental concern about the discharge of these pesticide industrial effluents. The pesticide-laden agricultural runoff has caused contamination of soil and water resources (Shaalan et al. 2007). Pesticides in India are generally classified as insecticides (80%), herbicides (15%), fungicides (2%), and others (3%). The consumption of herbicide is low in India because weed control is mainly done manually. The warm and humid tropical climate deliver a favorable breeding environment for insects. Their short life cycle and higher hatching rate have led to a higher consumption of insecticides. Pesticides have been detected in surface and ground water samples all over India. The organochlorine pesticides, mainly isomers of hexachlorohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan, endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, and heptachlor, have been detected in surface and groundwater samples of Amaravati, Yavatmal and Ganga regions (Lari at al. 2014; Agarwal et al. 2015). These pesticides show little or no biodegradation in the environment and are hazardous to humans and organisms because of their toxicity. They cause immune-suppression, diminished intelligence, hormone disruption and cancer to humans and animals even at an exposure of ppb level. (Alavanja et al. 2004; Gupta 2004; Vivekanandhan and Duraisamy 2012). Pesticides treatment is a critical issue in India due to the huge amount of production. Even © ASCE 1 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies though effective methods like chemical treatment and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are available, they are not economical, and sludge disposal is a major issue in these treatment processes. Biological treatment is one of the better ways to treat pesticide effluent as they can sustain toxicity up to a moderate level, are comparatively economical, and can transform the organic matter in the effluent into a less toxic product by many ways like biodegradation, bio sorption, etc. This research aims (a) to examine the performance of an aerobic bacterial culture in degrading an effluent from a pesticide manufacturing industry, (b) to quantify the degradation in terms of kinetic parameters at steady-state and (c) to study the inhibition caused by the pesticide effluent on growth-substrate utilization by an un-acclimated ethanol-enriched aerobic microbial culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection of Pesticide Industry Effluent: The pesticide industrial effluent (PIE) was collected from one of the pesticide formulation industry located at Pashamylaram industrial zone in Medak district of Telangana, India. The manufacturing industry produces a wide range of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides like acephate, profenophos, dimethoate, ethion, etc. The effluent was stored at −20°C after collection until further use. Figure 1 shows the flow process of the pesticide industry. The wastewater was collected after multiple effect evaporator (MEE). Figure 1: Process flow diagram of the pesticide manufacturing industry Collection of Aerobic Sludge: The aerobic sludge was collected from an Activated Sludge Process (ASP) based Common Effluent Treatment Plant located in the Patancheru park near Hyderabad. Continuous test Reactors: The experiment was conducted in 1000 mL plastic bottles at room temperature as shown in Figure 2. The reactors were seeded with aerobic culture as described earlier. Mixing was provided continuously at 60 rpm. The reactors were operated at six different Solid Retention Time (SRTs)– 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 days in a continuous mode. The reactors were operated for three times the corresponding SRTs for attaining steady-states. Data, obtained after attainment of steady-state was used for analysis. © ASCE 2 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Figure 2: Continuous test reactor setup Bio-kinetic parameter estimation at steady-state: The steady state kinetic parameters were determined using Michaelis-Menten and Monod models given by the following equations: (S0  S) kXS (1) rsu    KS  S θ where rsu = Rate of substrate utilization, mg/L-d k = Maximum specific substrate utilization rate, g substrate/g of microorganism-d KS = Half velocity constant, mg/L θ = Solids Retention Time (equal to Hydraulic Retention Time in this case), days S = Growth limiting substrate concentration, mg/L S0 = Initial substrate concentration, mg/L X = biomass concentration, mg MLVSS/L The linearized form of the above equation, also called Lineweaver-Burk plot, was used to determine k and Ks: K 1 1 θX  S*  (2) S0  S k S k To find decay coefficient (kd) and yield coefficient (Y), the following linearized Monod equation was used: S S 1  Y * 0  kd (3) θ θX Master Culture reactor: The inhibition test was conducted on un-acclimated ethanol enriched aerobic culture. For this test, the aerobic master culture reactor (MCR) was operated in a draw-and-fill mode at 5-d SRT in a 2000 mL reactor rested upon a magnetic stirrer (Remi 2 MLH, make: Remi) for the continued suspension of culture. The reactor was seeded with aerobic culture as mentioned earlier. The reactor was fed daily with an ethanol stock solution of 2000 mg/L COD along with nutrients and minerals as explained in (Young and Cowan 2004). The reactor was operated at room temperature and allowed to achieve steady-state. Inhibition Study: The test culture from the Aerobic MCR was transferred into 125 mL © ASCE 3 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Wheaton bottles. The reactors were operated in similar conditions as MCR and monitored for 10 days to check the oxygen uptake and VSS stability. The reactors, which were in good condition were used for the inhibition study. The test reactors were fed in a similar way like MCR and dosed with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 4.8 % of PIE. Mixed culture samples (2 mL) were removed from the test reactors at every two hours. The samples were inactivated with two drops of 16 g/L of mercuric chloride solution and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 20 minutes using a centrifuge (Make: Remi). The supernatant was then filtered through 0.45μm membrane filter papers and analyzed for residual ethanol using a GC-MS. The kinetics of growth substrate utilization was studied using Michaelis-Menten equation. The inhibitory effect of PIE on the microbial substrate utilization was related to the maximum specific substrate utilization rate and the half velocity constant of the model (Han and Levenspiel 1988; Mulchandani and Luong 1989, Grady 1990; Kim et al. 1994; Bhattacharyya 2009; Bhattacharyya and Singh 2011) as given below. The maximum specific rate of substrate utilization (k) and half-velocity coefficient (Ks) were estimated from the data using a spreadsheet method (Smith et al. 1998). ds kXS (4)  st Ks  S X  Xo  Y (So  S ) k  ko[k*] K  Kso[ Ks*] Competitive Inhibition: k* = 1.0 Ks* > 1.0 Non – competitive Inhibition: k* < 1.0 Ks* = 1.0 * Uncompetitive Inhibition: k < 1.0 Ks* < 1.0 Mixed Inhibition: k* < 1.0 Ks* > 1.0 Where k* = inhibition term Ks* = inhibition term ko = Maximum specific rate of substrate utilization without inhibitor (mg/mg-d) Kso = Half-velocity coefficient without inhibitor (mg/L) Xo = Initial concentration of active cells (mg VSS/L) Analytical Method: The influent and effluent samples were examined for the Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), sulfates, pH, Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Phosphate, and Sulfate by following the methods given in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA, 2005). Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) using TOC-L analyzer (Make: Shimadzu). Ethanol was analyzed using gas chromatography. GC-MS analysis for Ethanol: For Inhibition study ethanol was quantified using Bruker GCMS 400 series. The flow rates of highly pure hydrogen and zero air were set at 30 and 300 ml/min, respectively. The temperatures of Flame Ion Detector (FID) and the injection port was set at 220ºC, and 225ºC, respectively. High pure Helium (He) at 2 mL/min was used as the carrier gas. The BR-SWax separation column (FS 30 m, 0.25 mm ID, 0.25 μmdf) was used. Oven temperature was set initially at 45ºC for 2 minutes and then increased to the final temperature of 240ºC at the rate of 45ºC/min. Injection volume is limited to 1 μL. Splitless injection mode was selected. © ASCE 4 Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Initial characterization: The initial characterization of PIE is shown in Table 1. It was observed that the pH of PIE was 9.75 which shows that it was highly alkaline. The nature of pH has a significant effect on the biological treatment process. The typical range of pH for biological wastewater treatment is 6-8. The values of TS, TSS, and TDS shows that about 85% of the solids were present in dissolved form. The COD was in the range of 35000-35500 mg/L. The TN concentration was comparatively much higher than the phosphorus concentration. Table 1: Initial characteristics of PIE Parameters Pesticide Pesticide Pesticide Industry Effluent Industry Effluent Industry (This study) (Chen et al. 2007) Effluent (Lin 1990) pH 9.7-9.8 1.5-2.5 6.5±0.3 TS (mg/L) 1280±80 TSS (mg/L) 180±30 TDS (mg/L) 1100±50 COD (mg/L) 35000±500 33700±2100 10700 TOC (mg/L) 14700±50 3480 TN (mg/L) 17100±50 TP (mg/L) 2.74±0.5 2120±100 3700 TKN (mg/L) 4570±30 3300±230 1750 Sulfates (mg/L) 568±2 2530±160 Steady-state kinetic study Figure 3 shows the daily variation of TOC and TN for different SRTs. It was observed that the SRT had played a significant role in the TOC and TN removal of PIE. The SRTs greater than 8-d showed immediate removal from the second day. Almost all the reactors (SRT > 8-d) reached steady state by 15 days. The TN took more time to reach steady state compared to TOC. There was no removal observed for 6-d SRT. This might be due to the inhibition caused by pesticides on the activity of aerobic microbes. The data for 6-d SRT was not used to estimate the kinetic parameters. The below results show that the organic carbon present in PIE can be removed by the aerobic culture at SRTs > 8-d. Figure 3: Daily variation of parameters (a) TOC, and (b) TN © ASCE 5 Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies 6 Performance of the reactor: Figure 4 shows TOC, TN, and sulfate removal efficiency at different SRTs. It was observed that the removal of TOC, TN, and sulfate increased with the increase in SRTs. The removal efficiency of the aerobic culture for TOC, TN and sulfates were 88, 41, and 18%, respectively, at 16-d SRT. The plot shows that the culture was able to remove the organic carbon up to a large extent whereas the nitrogen and sulfate removal was less as the aerobic culture was unable to utilize them. Table 2 shows the removal of pesticides under aerobic conditions. It was observed that the removal of carbon from the PIE in this study varied between 80 and 88 % within 8 to 16-day SRTs; Various past studies reported 60 to 100% removal as shown in Table 2. The value shows that the pesticides can be removed using aerobic bacterial culture. Figure 4: Removal Efficiency vs SRT Table 2: Biologically (aerobic) treatable pesticide and their removal Substrate Pesticide Industry Effluent Chemical Family - Dose - Endosulfan Organochlorine 5 - 50 mg/L Endrin Organochlorine 0.1 mg/kg soil Time (days) 8-d SRT 10-d SRT 12-d SRT 14-d SRT 16-d SRT Removal (%) 10 96 87 After acclimatization, more removal, get adsorbed on cells and then transform (Yedla and Dikshit 2001) Favorable condition for removal is reducing and oxidative sequential (Kopytko et al. 2016) 88 78.9 120 Atrazine Triazine 0.01 – 10 mg/L 1 97.9 Atrazine Triazine 0.1 mM 3.54 100 Diuron Organochlorine 50-90 μg/L 1 60 5 94.8 77.3 96.94 83.4 © ASCE This Study 88 Organochlorine 10 mg/L - 85 2.4 mg/kg soil Organochlorine Reference 80 4,4Dichlorodiphenyldichloroe thane (4,4-DDD) Aldrin Dieldrin Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Remarks 76.3 Aerobic mixed culture (Baghapour et al. 2013) observed to be suitable for the treatment of Atrazine Cultures (Radosevich et al. used atrazine as a sole source 1995) of C and N a significant fraction of Diuron is (Baghapour et al. 2013) mineralized or biotransformed to other unknown metabolites Culture used pesticides as a source of C and N (Bandala et al. 2006) Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by RMIT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY on 01/03/19. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Urbanization Challenges in Emerging Economies Steady State Kinetics: The steady state kinetics parameters for COD utilization were estimated by fitting experimental data to equations 2 and 3. Figure 5 shows the curve fitting and estimation of k, Ks, Y, and kd. The steady-state kinetic parameters are shown in Table 3. The steady state kinetic parameters k, Ks, Y, and kd were 2.52 d−1, 49.68 mg COD/L, 0.25 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.46 d−1 respectively. It was observed that the maximum specific substrate utilization rate (k) and the decay coefficient kd were found to be more whereas half velocity constant (Ks) and yield coefficient (Y) were less than the values reported in the literature (Lin 1990). Figure 5: Aerobic Steady-state kinetics parameter (a) Estimation of k and Ks (b) Estimation of Y and kd Inhibition Study: Figure 6 shows the residual ethanol concentration with time for different dose (%) of pesticide effluent. It was observed that the substrate removal plots overlap each other up to a dose of 1.6% PIE, therefore, indicating no inhibition. However, at higher doses, a noticeable drop in the rates of substrate utilization was observed. Table 3: Steady state kinetic parameters of PIE under aerobic condition Type of k (d−1) Ks (mg Y (mg VSS/ kd (d−1) Reference Wastewater COD/L) mg COD) Pesticide 2.52 49.68 0.25 0.47 This study industry Effluent Pesticide 1.08 2434 0.382 0.018 (Lin 1990) industry Effluent The ethanol-enriched aerobic master culture reactor produced an average biomass concentration of 280 mg VSS/L, at 5-d SRT, at an organic loading rate of 0.4 g COD/L-d, with a yield coefficient of 0.56 mg VSS/mg COD removed. The maximum specific rate of substrate utilization (k) and half-velocity coefficient (Ks) were estimated from the data using a spreadsheet method (Smith et al. 1998). The kinetic parameters (k, and Ks) at different doses of PIE are given in Table 4. No noticeable trend of change in k with PIE dosage was noticed within the tested range, which implies that the inhibition term k* can be assumed to be equal to 1. However, Ks value increased at a dose greater than 1.6%, which implies that the inhibition term K s* is greater than 1. The results of the inhibition term k* and Ks* imply that the PIE caused a competitive inhibition on ethanol utilization by the un-acclimated aerobic biomass. This observation suggests © ASCE 7
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