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INTERNATIONAL EDITION—Not for S a le in th e U.S.A. Grammar F O U R T H E D IT IO N with ANSWER KEY Betty S. Azar Stacy A. Hagen Irregular Verbs: An Alphabetical Reference List note: Verbs followed by a bullet (•) are defined at the end of the list on the inside back cover. Simple Form Simple Past Past Participle Simple Form Simple Past Past Participle arise aw ake be b ear beat becom e begin bend b et* bid* bind* bite bleed blow break b reed* bring broadcast* build burn burst* buy cast* catch choose cling* com e cost cre e p * cut d e a l* arose awoke was, were bore beat becam e began bent bet bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung cam e cost crept cut dealt fly forbid forecast* forget forgive forsake* freeze get give dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fit fle e * fling* dug did drew dream ed/dream t drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found fit/fitted fled flung arisen awoken been borne/born beaten/beat become begun bent bet bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dream ed/dream t drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fit/fitted fled flung flew forbade forecast forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept kneeled/knelt knew laid led leaned/leant leaped/leapt learned/learnt left lent let lay lighted/lit lost made m eant met mislaid mistook paid proved put quit read rid rode rang flown forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen gotten/got* given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept kneeled/knelt known laid led leaned/leant leaped/leapt learned/learnt left lent let lain lighted/lit lost made m eant met mislaid mistaken paid proven/proved put quit read rid ridden rung go grind* grow h a n g ** have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean m eet mislay mistake pay prove put q u it*** read rid ride ring *In British English: get-got-got. In Am erican English: get-got-gotten/got. ** H a n g is a regular verb when it means to kill someone with a rope around his/her neck. C o m p a r e : I h u n g my clothes in the closet. They h a n g e d the murderer by the neck until he was dead. ***A lso possible in British English: quit-quitted-quitted. ( continued on the inside back cover) PEARSON U nderstanding and Using English G ram m ar, Fourth Edition with Answer Key Copyright © 2009, 2002, 1989, 1981 by Betty Schrampfer Azar All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Azar Associates: Shelley H artle, Editor, and Sue Van Etten, M anager Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, W hite Plains, NY 10606 Staff credits: The people who made up the Understanding and Using English Grammar Fourth Edition team, representing editorial, production, design, and manufacturing, are Janice Baillie, Dave Dickey, Ann France, Amy M cCorm ick, Robert Ruvo, and Ruth Voetmann. Text composition: S4C arlisle Publishing Services Text font: 10/12.5 Plantin Illustrations: Don M artinetti, pages 2, 3, 4, 5, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23, 26, 27, 31, 36, 37, 47, 50, 51, 65, 72, 73, 81, 84, 88, 91, 99, 103, 107,109, 115, 119, 120, 121, 123, 127, 131, 135, 139, 143, 145, 148, 152, 161, 169, 183, 185, 188, 190, 194,201, 213, 220, 223, 232, 236, 238, 247, 255, 256, 259, 260 (top), 275, 278, 280, 286, 287, 292, 301, 303, 308, 316, 319, 321, 328, 340, 342, 347, 353, 355, 357, 362, 371, 373, 389, 396, 408, 413, 420, 424, 425, 432, 441, 446; Chris Pavely, pages 8, 41, 43, 45, 47, 54, 56, 60, 68, 70, 71, 74, 75, 77, 79, 86, 98, 100, 113, 116, 138, 142, 146, 153, 158, 170, 174, 175, 178, 181, 196, 198, 206, 211, 228, 235, 251, 257, 260 (bottom), 265, 272, 284, 289, 293, 309, 315, 331, 345, 349, 360, 363, 367, 378, 385, 393, 394, 403, 414, 422, 428; Kris W iltse, pages 17, 19, 28, 29 L ib rary o f Congress C ataloging-in-Publication Data Azar, Betty Schrampfer, 1941U nderstanding and using English grammar. — 4th ed. / Betty S. Azar, Stacy A. Hagen, p. cm. ISBN -13: 978-0-13-233333-7 (with audio) ISBN -10: 0-13-233333-3 (with audio) ISBN -13: 978-0-13-233331-3 (with audio and answer key) ISBN-10: 0-13-233331-7 (with audio and answer key) [etc.] 1. English language—Textbooks for foreign speakers. 2. English language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. I. Hagen, Stacy A., 1956II. T itle. PEI 128.A97 2009 428.2'4—dc22 2008050357 Printed in the United States of America ISBN 13: 978-0-13-233331-3 ISBN 10: 0-13-233331-7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—CRIC— 14 13 12 11 10 09 ISBN 13:978-0-13-246450-5 (International Edition) ISBN 10: 0-13-246450-0 (International Edition) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10—CRIC— 14 13 12 11 10 09 For Larry B.S.A. For Andy and Julianna S.H. \ Contents P r e fa c e to th e Fourth E d it io n ................................................................................................................................xi A c k n o w le d g m e n ts .............................................................................................................................................. xiii C h a p te r 1 OVERVIEW OF VERB TENSES..........................................................................................................1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 C h a p te r 2 PRESENT AND PAST; SIMPLE AND PR O G R ESSIV E...........................................................13 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 C h a p te r 3 Simple p re s e n t....................................................................................................................14 Present progressive............................................................................................................14 Non-progressive verbs .................................................................................................... 16 Regular and irregular v e rb s............................................................................................. 20 Irregular verb list .............................................................................................................. 20 Regular verbs: pronunciation of - e d en d in g s............................................................27 Simple p a s t........................................................................................................................... 29 Past progressive ................................................................................................................. 29 Using progressive verbs with a lw a y s .........................................................................33 Using expressions of place with progressive v e r b s ..................................................34 PERFECT AND PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES ..............................................................3 6 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 C h a p te r 4 The simple te n se s .................................................................................................................... 2 The progressive tenses .......................................................................................................... 3 The perfect tenses ..................................................................................................................4 The perfect progressive tenses ........................................................................................... 5 Summary chart of verb ten ses.............................................................................................. 6 Spelling of - m g and - e d fo r m s ..................................................................................... 10 Present p e r fe c t....................................................................................................................38 H a v e and h a s in spoken English ............................................................................... 42 Present perfect vs. simple p a s t....................................................................................... 43 Present perfect progressive.............................................................................................46 Past perfect .........................................................................................................................50 H a d in spoken E n g lish .....................................................................................................53 Past perfect progressive.....................................................................................................55 FUTURE TIME ................................................................................................................................... 60 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 Simple future: w ill and b e g o in g t o ............................................................................61 W ill vs. b e g o in g t o .......................................................................................................... 63 Expressing the future in time clauses ......................................................................... 67 Using the present progressive and the simple present to express future t im e ........................................................................................................... 69 CONTENTS V 4-5 4-6 Future progressive ............................................................................................................. 71 Future perfect and future perfect progressive ..........................................................73 C h a p te r 5 REVIEW OF VERB TENSES ............................................................................................................ 76 C h a p te r 6 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEM ENT.......................................................................................................84 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 C h a p te r 7 NOUNS ...........................................................................................................................................100 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 C h a p te r 8 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 .................................................................................................................................135 Personal pronouns ....................................................................................................... 136 Personal pronouns: agreement with generic nouns and indefinite pronouns ......................................................................................................140 Personal pronouns: agreement with collective n o u n s ...........................................142 Reflexive p ro n ou n s....................................................................................................... 143 Using y o u , o n e , and th e y as impersonal pron ou ns.......................................... 147 Forms of o t h e r ............................................................................................................... 148 Common expressions with o t h e r .............................................................................. 152 MODALS, PART 1 ......................................................................................................................... 157 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10 9-11 9-12 Vi CONTENTS Regular and irregular plural n o u n s ........................................................................ 101 Possessive n o u n s............................................................................................................ 105 Nouns as adjectives .................................................................................................... 107 Count and noncount nouns ..................................................................................... 109 Noncount nouns ..........................................................................................................110 Some common noncount n o u n s ..............................................................................110 Basic article usage ....................................................................................................... 114 General guidelines for article u sag e.........................................................................118 Expressions of quantity used with count and noncount n o u n s......................122 Using a feu> and f e w ; a little and little .............................................................. 126 Singular expressions of quantity: o n e , e a c h , e v e r y .......................................... 129 Using o /in expressions of q u a n tity .........................................................................131 PRONOUNS 8-1 8-2 C h a p te r 9 Final - s / - e s : use, pronunciation, and sp e llin g .......................................................... 85 Basic subject-verb a g re e m e n t........................................................................................ 87 Subject-verb agreement: using expressions of quantity ........................................ 89 Subject-verb agreement: using t h e r e + b e ............................................................... 91 Subject-verb agreement: some irregularities ............................................................ 93 Basic modal in tro d u ctio n .............................................................................................157 Polite requests with “I ” as the s u b je c t...................................................................... 158 Polite requests with “y o u ” as the subject ...............................................................159 Polite requests with w o u ld y o u m in d ................................................................... 160 Expressing necessity: m u s t , h a v e to, h a v e g o t to ............................................. 164 Lack of necessity and prohibition: h a v e to and m u s t in the negative . . . . 165 Advisability: s h o u ld , o u g h t to, h a d b e t t e r ..........................................................167 The past form of s h o u ld ............................................................................................. 170 Obligation: b e s u p p o s e d t o .........................................................................................173 Unfulfilled intentions: w a s / w e r e g o in g t o ............................................................ 176 Making suggestions: l e t ’s , w h y d on 't, s h a l l H w e ............................................. 177 Making suggestions: c o u ld vs. s h o u l d .................................................................... 178 C h a p te r 10 MODALS, PART 2 ..................................................................................................................... 180 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 C h a p te r 11 THE PASSIVE 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-7 11-8 C h a p te r 12 Active vs. passive ............................................................................................................. 211 Tense forms of the passive ........................................................................................... 213 Using the passive .............................................................................................................214 The passive form of modals and phrasal m o d a ls .................................................. 220 Non-progressive p a ssiv e ................................................................................................ 227 Common non-progressive passive verbs + prepositions......................................229 The passive with g e t ........................................................................................................233 Participial ad jectives........................................................................................................236 Introdu ction....................................................................................................................... 242 Noun clauses beginning with a question w o rd ...................................................... 244 Noun clauses beginning with w h e t h e r or i f .........................................................249 Question words followed by infinitives .................................................................... 252 Noun clauses beginning with th a t ............................................................................253 Quoted s p e e c h ..................................................................................................................258 Reported speech: verb forms in noun clauses ........................................................ 261 Using - e v e r w o rd s .......................................................................................................... 268 ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 13-1 13-2 13-3 13-4 13-5 13-6 13-7 13-8 13-9 13-10 13-11 C h a p te r 14 ............................................................................................................................. 211 NOUN CLAUSES ......................................................................................................................2 4 2 12-1 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-5 12-6 12-7 12-8 C h a p te r 13 Degrees of certainty: present t im e ........................................................................... 180 Degrees of certainty: present time n eg a tiv e........................................................... 183 Degrees of certainty: past time .................................................................................. 186 Degrees of certainty: future tim e ................................................................................189 Progressive forms of m o d a ls ......................................................................................193 Ability: c a n and c o u l d ................................................................................................198 Using w o u ld to express a repeated action in the past ..................................... 200 Expressing preference: w o u ld r a t h e r .................................................................... 201 Combining modals with phrasal modals ............................................................... 202 Summary chart of modals and similar expressions ........................................... 204 ............................................................................................................2 7 0 Adjective clause pronouns used as the s u b je c t............................................270 Adjective clause pronouns used as the object of a verb ..........................273 Adjective clause pronouns used as the object of a p rep o sitio n .............274 Using w h o s e ................................................................................................................... 277 Using w h e r e in adjective clauses ..............................................................................279 Using w h e n in adjective c la u s e s ................................................................................ 280 Using adjective clauses to modify pronouns ......................................................... 283 Punctuating adjective clauses ...................................................................................... 285 Using expressions of quantity in adjective c la u s e s ...............................................290 Using w h ic h to modify a whole sentence ...............................................................291 Reducing adjective clauses toadjective p h ra se s.......................................................294 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART1 ..................................................................................301 14-1 14-2 14-3 Gerunds: introduction .................................................................................................. 301 Using gerunds as the objects of p reposition s.......................................................... 302 Common verbs followed by g eru n d s..........................................................................307 CONTENTS Vii 14-4 14-5 14-6 14-7 14-8 14-9 14-10 C h a p te r 15 GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES, PART 2 ............................................................................... 331 15-1 15-2 15-3 15-4 15-5 15-6 15-7 15-8 C h a p te r 16 16-4 In trod u ction ...................................................................................................................... 365 Using adverb clauses to show time relation sh ip s................................................. 368 Using adverb clauses to show cause and effect ....................................................373 Expressing contrast (unexpected result): using e v e n th o u g h ........................374 Showing direct contrast: w h i l e .................................................................................. 376 Expressing conditions in adverb clauses: z/-clauses ............................................ 377 Shortened j/-c la u se s .......................................................................................................378 Adverb clauses of condition: using w h e t h e r o r n o t and ev e n i f ...................379 Adverb clauses of condition: using in c a s e ......................................................... 381 Adverb clauses of condition: using u n le s s ........................................................... 382 Adverb clauses of condition: using o n ly i f ..............................................................383 REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING ADVERBIAL PHRASES ...............................................................................................................3 87 18-1 18-2 18-3 18-4 18-5 Viii CONTENTS Parallel structure ............................................................................................................352 Parallel structure: using co m m as................................................................................ 354 Paired conjunctions: b o t h . . . a n d ; n o t o n ly . . . b u t a ls o ; e it h e r . . . o r ; n e it h e r . . . n o r ...................................................................................... 358 Separating independent clauses with periods; connecting with a n d and b u t ....................................................................................................................... 361 ADVERB C LA U SES......................................................................................................................3 6 5 17-1 17-2 17-3 17-4 17-5 17-6 17-7 17-8 17-9 17-10 17-11 C h a p te r 18 Infinitive of purpose: in o r d e r to ..............................................................................331 Adjectives followed by infinitives................................................................................333 Using infinitives with to o and e n o u g h ................................................................... 335 Passive infinitives and gerunds .................................................................................. 338 Using gerunds or passive infinitives following n e e d ............................................ 339 Using verbs of p ercep tio n ............................................................................................. 341 Using the simple form after let and h e lp ........................................................... 343 Using causative verbs: m a k e , h a v e , g e t .............................................................344 COORDINATING C O N JU N C T IO N S................................................................................3 5 2 16-1 16-2 16-3 C h a p te r 17 G o + gerund ....................................................................................................................309 Special expressions followed by - i n g ........................................................................ 310 Common verbs followed by infinitives......................................................................313 Common verbs followed by either infinitives or g e ru n d s .................................. 317 It + infinitive; gerunds and infinitives as subjects ...............................................322 Reference list o f verbs followed by g eru n d s........................................................ 324 Reference list o f verbs followed by infinitives..................................................... 325 In trod u ction ...................................................................................................................... 387 Changing time clauses to modifying adverbial phrases .....................................388 Expressing the idea of “during the same time” in modifying adverbial phrases ............................................................................................................. 389 Expressing cause and effect in modifying adverbial p h rases.............................390 Using u p o n + - in g in modifying adverbial phrases ..........................................393 C h a p te r 19 CONNECTIVES THAT EXPRESS CAUSE AND EFFECT, CONTRAST, AND C O N D IT IO N ........................................................................................................................3 9 7 19-1 19-2 19-3 19-4 19-5 19-6 19-7 19-8 19-9 C h a p te r 20 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISHES 20-1 20-2 20-3 20-4 20-5 20-6 20-7 20-8 20-9 20-10 A p p en d ix Using because o f and due t o ...................................................................................... 397 Cause and effect: using therefore , consequently, and so ...............................399 Summary of patterns and punctuation .....................................................................400 Other ways of expressing cause and effect: such . .. that and so . . . t h a t ................................................................................................................... 402 Expressing purpose: using so that ............................................................................ 404 Showing contrast (unexpected r e s u lt)....................................................................... 406 Showing direct contrast .................................................................................................408 Expressing conditions: using otherwise and or (else) ...................................... 410 Summary of connectives: cause and effect, contrast, and co n d itio n ................411 .......................................................................4 1 6 Overview of basic verb forms used in conditional sentences ............................416 True in the present or fu tu re.........................................................................................417 Untrue (contrary to fact) in the present or future ................................................ 419 Untrue (contrary to fact) in the p a s t .......................................................................... 421 Using progressive verb forms in conditional sentences ...................................... 427 Using “mixed time” in conditional sentences ........................................................428 Omitting i f ..........................................................................................................................429 Implied co n d itio n s...........................................................................................................430 Verb forms following w i s h ........................................................................................... 434 Using would to make wishes about the future ...................................................... 436 SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR CHARTS .......................................................................... 4 3 9 Unit A: B asic A -l A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 G ram m ar Term inology ...............................................................................................439 Subjects, verbs, and o b jects............................................................................................439 A djectives............................................................................................................................ 439 Adverbs .............................................................................................................................. 440 Prepositions and prepositional phrases .....................................................................440 The verb be ....................................................................................................................... 441 Linking v e r b s .....................................................................................................................441 Unit B: Q u e s tio n s ......................................................................................................................................... 442 B -l Forms of yes /no and information questions .......................................................... 442 B-2 Question words ................................................................................................................443 B-3 Shortened yes/no questions ......................................................................................... 445 B-4 Negative q u e stio n s...........................................................................................................445 B-5 Tag q u estio n s.....................................................................................................................446 Unit C: C o n tractio n s ..................................................................................................................................447 Unit D: N e g a tiv e s ......................................................................................................................................... 448 D -l Using not and other negative w o r d s ..........................................................................448 D -2 Avoiding double negatives ........................................................................................... 448 D -3 Beginning a sentence with a negative w o r d ............................................................. 448 Unit E: Preposition C o m b in a tio n s ....................................................................................................... 449 E Preposition combinations with adjectives and v erb s.............................................. 449 CONTENTS ix Unit F: The S u b ju n ctive .........................................................................................450 F UnitG: The subjunctivein noun c la u s e s ....................................................................450 Troublesome V e rb s ...................................................................................450 G R a is e / r i s e , s e t ls it , la y H i e ............................................................................ 450 Listening S c rip t............................................................................................................... 451 Answer K e y ..................................................................................................................... 465 In d e x ................................................................................................................................517 A udio CD Tracking List ................................................................................................ 530 x CONTENTS Preface to the Fourth Edition Understanding and Using English Grammar is a developmental skills text for intermediate to advanced English language learners. It uses a grammar-based approach integrated with communicative methodologies to promote the development of all language skills in a variety of ways. Starting from a foundation of understanding form and meaning, students engage in meaningful communication about real actions, real things, and their own real lives in the classroom context. Understanding and Using English Gram m ar functions principally as a classroom teaching text but also serves as a comprehensive reference text for students and teachers. The eclectic approach and abundant variety of exercise material remain the same as in the earlier editions, but each new edition incorporates new ways and means. In particular: • W A R M -U P E X E R C I S E S F O R T H E G R A M M A R C H A R T S Newly created for the fourth edition, these innovative exercises precede the grammar charts and introduce the point(s) to be taught. They have been carefully crafted to help students discover the target grammar as they progress through each warm-up exercise. • L IS T E N IN G P R A C T IC E Numerous listening exercises help students interact with the spoken language in a variety of settings that range from the relaxed, casual speech o f everyday conversation to the academic content of classroom lectures. An audio C D accompanies the student text, and a full audio script can be found in the back of the book. • A C A D E M IC R E A D IN G S Students can read and respond to a wide selection of carefully crafted readings that focus on the target grammar structure. • E X P A N D E D S P E A K IN G A C T IV IT IE S Students have even more opportunities in this fourth edition to share their experiences, express their opinions, and relate the target grammar to their personal lives. T h e text often uses the students’ own life experiences as context and regularly introduces topics of interest to stimulate the free expression of ideas in structured as well as open discussions. • C O R P U S -IN F O R M E D C O N T E N T Based on the findings of our corpus researcher, Gena Bennett, grammar content has been added, deleted, or modified to reflect the discourse patterns of spoken and written English. xi Understanding and Using English Gram m ar is accompanied by • A comprehensive W o r k b o o k , consisting of self-study exercises for independent work. • An all-new T e a c h e r ’s G u id e , with step-by-step teaching suggestions for each chart, notes to the teacher on key grammar structures, vocabulary lists, and expansion activities and PowerPoint presentations for key chapters. • An expanded T est B a n k , with additional quizzes, chapter tests, and mid-term and final exams. • T e s t - G e n e r a t o r software that allows teachers to customize their own tests using quizzes and tests from the Test Bank. • A z a r In te r a c tiv e , a computer-based program keyed to the text, provides easily understood content, all-new exercises, readings, listening and speaking activities, and comprehensive tests. • P o w e r P o in t presentations for key chapters. Based on real-world readings, these lessons are designed for use in the classroom as “beyond-the-book” activities. They can be found in the new Teacher’s Guide or downloaded from AzarGrammar.com. • A C h a r t b o o k , a reference book consisting only of the grammar charts. • A z a r G r a m m a r .c o m . This Web site provides a variety o f supplementary classroom materials and is a place where teachers can support each other by sharing their knowledge and experience. • F u n w ith G r a m m a r , a teacher resource text by Suzanne Woodward with communicative activities correlated with the Azar-Hagen Grammar Series. It is available as a text or as a download on AzarGrammar.com. The Azar-Hagen Grammar Series consists of • Understanding and Using English Gram m ar (blue cover), for upper-level students. • Fundamentals o f English Gram m ar (black), for mid-level students. • Basic English Gram m ar (red), for lower or beginning levels. PREFACE / Acknowledgments a A revision o f this scope could not have been done without the skills of top-notch professionals. We began with a group of outstanding reviewers whose detailed comments guided our writing. We wish to express our gratitude for their thoughtful reviews. They areTonie Badillo, El Paso Community College; Edina Bagley, Nassau Community College; Michael Berman, Montgomery College; Elizabeth Bottcher, Columbia University; Eric Clinkscales,Teikyo Loretto Heights University; Cathy Costa, Edmonds Community College; Ms. Carlin Good, Columbia University; Deanna Cecil Ferreira, English Language Institute; Linda Gossard, D P T Business School E S L Program; Dr. Sheila Hakner, St. John’s University; Martha Hall, New England School of English; Jennifer Hannon, Massachusetts Community College; Alyson Hanson, Gateway Community College; Joan Heiman, Community College of Denver; Steven Lasswell, Santa Barbara City College; Linda Leary, Albany Education; Louis Lucca, LaGuardia Community College; Kate Masterson, Boston Center for Adult Education; Phyllis M cCollum, D P T Business School E S L Program; David Moody, El Paso Community College; Jan Peterson, Edmonds Community College; Antonina Rodgers, Northern Virginia Community College; Lenka Rohls, LaGuardia Community College; Rebecca Suarez, The University of Texas at El Paso; Ann Marie Tamayo, Queens Community College; and Kelly Roberts Weibel, Edmonds Community College. We would like to thank a terrific support team that allows us to do what we do with enjoyment and ease: Shelley Hartle, managing editor par excellence, who worked magic on every page; Amy M cCormick, Azar product manager, who oversaw our project and handled our myriad requests with unfailing grace, humor, and skill; Ruth Voetmann, development editor, whose attention to detail helped polish each chart and exercise; Janice Baillie, expert production editor and copy editor; Sue Van Etten, our skilled and multi-talented business and Web site manager; Gena Bennett, corpus researcher, whose findings helped keep us abreast o f the nuances and changes in spoken and written discourse; and Robert Ruvo, our invaluable production liaison at Pearson Education. Finally, we’d like to thank the dedicated leadership team from Pearson Education that guided this project: JoAnn Dresner, Anne Boynton-Trigg, Rhea Banker, and Sherry Preiss. For the new design of this fourth edition we were lucky to have had the combined talents of Michael Cimilluca from Lindsay Communications, Ann France from Pearson Education, and freelance artist KrisW iltse. Our appreciation also goes to illustrators Don M artinetti and Chris Pavely for their humor and inspired artwork. Finally, we would like to thank our families for their unflagging patience and encouragement throughout this extensive revision. Their insights and support are a continual source of inspiration. Betty S. Azar Stacy A. Hagen x iii Chapter 1 Overview of Verb Tenses □ Exercise 1. Let’s talk: interviews and introductions. Interview a classmate, and then introduce this person to the rest o f the class or to a small group of classmates. Use the given topics or topics of your own choosing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. □ name spelling of name country of origin birthplace current residence 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. reason for coming here length of time, both past and future, in this city/country field of study or work activities in free time comments on living here Exercise 2. Let’s talk: preview of verb tenses. (Chapters l -> 5) Work with a partner. Take turns asking questions with vohat + a form o f do. Help each other decide which verb tense should be used. When you finish asking and answering the questions, discuss your use of verb forms with the rest of the class. Example: every morning P a r t n e r A: What do you do every morning? P a r t n e r B: I (go to classes / eat breakfast / etc.) every morning. What do you do every morning? P a r t n e r A: I (eat breakfast / do my homework / etc.). P artn er A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. □ every day before you leave home since you got up this morning right now at (this exact time) yesterday by the time you got here today P artn er B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. last night tomorrow for the past five minutes at (this exact time) tomorrow by the time you go to bed tonight Exercise 3. Warm-up. (Chart l- i) Do you agree or disagree with each sentence? Circle yes or no. Discuss the verbs in blue. What information do the verb tenses provide? 1. 2. 3. 4. Warm air rises. I talk on the phone a lot. I sent an email today. I ’m going to make a phone call today. yes yes yes yes no no no no 1 1 -1 The Simple Tenses This basic diagram will be used in all tense descriptions. past ■ Tense Sim ple Present ■future Exam ples (a) It s n o w s in Alaska. (b) Tom w a tc h e s J V every day. XXXXX Sim ple Past XXXXX (c) It s n o w e d yesterday. Meaning In general, the simple present expresses events or situations that exist always, usually, habitually; they exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the future. A t one particular time in the past, this (d) Tom w a tc h e d T V last night. happened. It began and ended in the past. (e) A t one particular time in the future, this will ------ X------- Sim ple Future (f) □ It w ill s n o w tomorrow. It is g o in g to s n o w tomorrow. happen. Tom w ill w atch T V tonight. Tom is g o in g to w atch T V tonight. Exercise 4. Let’s listen and talk. (Chart l - i) CD 1 T rack 2 Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. Are the sentences true for you? Choose yes or no. Share your answers with the class, adding information if you like. Example: You will hear: I wore jeans to class yesterday. You will write: I _____ wore_____ jeans to class yesterday. yes You might say: I didn’t wear jeans to class yesterday. I wore a skirt. 1. my own dinner last night, yes no 2. a textbook yesterday. yes no yes no 3. 2 on the internet every day. 4. ____ home tonight. yes no 5. I ____________________a movie this weekend. yes no CHAPTER 1 □ Exercise 5. Warm-up. (Chart 1-2) Answer the questions. 1. What are you doing right now? Look around the room. What are your classmates doing right now? What is happening outside the classroom right now? 2. Where were you at two o’clock this morning? What were you doing? 3. Where will you be at two o’clock tomorrow? What will you be doing? 1-2 The Progressive Tenses be + -in g ( present participle) Form: Meaning: The progressive ten ses* give the idea that an action is in progress during a particular time. T he tenses say that an action begins before, is in progress during, and continues after another time or action. Present Pro gressive o o o (a) Tom is s le e p in g right now. __ _ un It is now 11:00. Tom went to sleep at 10:00 tonight, and he is still asleep. His sleep began in the past, is in progress at the present time, and probably will continue. (b) Tom was sle e p in g when 1 arrived. Tom went to sleep at 10:00 last night. I arrived at 11:00. He was still asleep. His sleep began before and was in progress a t a particular time in the past. It continued after I arrived. (c) Tom w ill be sle e p in g when we arrive. Tom will go to sleep at 10:00 tomorrow night. W e will arrive at 11:00. T h e action of sleeping will begin before w e arrive, and it will be in progress a t a p a rticular time in the future. Probably his sleep will continue. c cd f— i------------ — t Past Progre ssive o o o o o ^ V M - " Future Prog ressive o o o o o ^ V *T h e progressive tenses are also called the “continuous” tenses: present continuous, past continuous, and future continuous. □ Exercise 6. Let’s listen and talk. (Chart 1-2) Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. Are the sentences true for you? Choose yes or no. Share your answers with the class, adding information if you like. 1. At midnight last night, I 2. Right now I 3. Tomorrow I 4. Tonight at 9 :0 0 ,1 5. Last night at 9 :0 0 ,1 yes no about grammar. yes no in class at this time. yes no yes no yes no TV. TV. Overview of Verb Tenses 3 □ Exercise 7. Warm-up. (Chart 1-3) Answer the questions. 1. Have you eaten today? When did you eat? 2. Had you eaten before you went to bed last night? 3. Will you have eaten by the time you go to bed tonight? 1 -3 The Perfect Tenses Form: have + past participle M eaning: T he perfect tenses all give the idea that one thing happens before another time or event. Present Per feet (a) Tom ha s already eaten. Tom finished eating sometime before now. T he exact time is not important. (b) Tom h a d already eaten when his friend arrived. First Tom finished eating. Later his friend arrived. Tom’s eating was completely 8 § ------------X— 1 (time?) Past Perfec 0) > finished before another time in the past. O Ctf - x — x— Future Perf 11 E O 03 — X— X— □ First Tom will finish eating. Later his friend will arrive. Tom’s eating will be completely finished before another time in the future. Exercise 8. Let’s listen and talk. (Chart 1-3) * Listen to the sentences and write the words you hear. Are the sentences true for you? Choose yes or no. Share your answers with the class, adding information if you like. Track 4 4 Tom w ill already have eaten when his friend arrives. 1. I _____________________________ my homework already. yes no 2. Before I went to bed last night, I _____________________________ all my homework. yes no 3. By the time I finish this chapter, I __________________________________ several verb exercises. yes no 4. I _____________________________ all the English verb tenses. yes no 5. Before I began this class, I _____________________________ all the English verb tenses. yes no CHAPTER 1
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