Tài liệu Truyền thông tin và những ứng dụng của mạng vanet

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BO GIAO DVC DAO TAO TRIAING DAI HQC THANG LONG --o0o- CHUYEN BE TOT NGHIVI TRUYEN THONG TIN VA NIIING irNG D1VNG CUA MANG VANET GM() vial' huirng din Sinh vien air hit'n MA sink vial' Chuyen nghanh : ThS. HOANG TRQNG MINH : NGUYEN VAN CONG : A14025 : TIN VIEN THONG HA NO! -version 2013 This is trial www.adultpdf.com MVC LTC Lta MO tau 1 CHU'ONG 1. TONG QUAN Vt H$ THONG MANG VANET 2 1.1. GIOI THIU CHUNG Vt MANG VANET 2 1.1.1. KIthi ni0m. 2 1.1.2. Tgi sao co hf thong Vanet? 2 1.2. NGUYEN TAC CO BAN VA THACH THITC 2 1.3. LJCH St' VA SU' PHAT TRIEN CUA VANET 5 1.3.1. Tit dA4 den' gifia nhiing nein; 1990 6 1.3.2. Tit mkt nhiing nOm 1990 den nay 7 1.3.3. Kit quci cia ceic dv an hien tai 11 16 1.4. ICET LUAN CHID ING 2. TRUYEN THONG TIN TRONG VANET 17 2.1. GIQI THEW 2.2. DO LUVING Vf mi 17 HIN HANH 18 2.2.1. Cam &in trong xe 19 2.2.2. Ccic hf that' Ig dinhvi nhtf Li mOt nguiejn thong tin. 19 2.3. TRUYEN TAI THONG TIN... 20 2.3.1. Ccii thien viec kit not mang 26 2.3.2. Truyea tai thong tin 28 2.4. TONG HIP CAC PHEP DO 30 2.5. TONG H1P D' Lieu DjA LY 33 2.6. ICET LUAN 43 CHVONG 3. NHONG ONG DUNG CUA VANET 44 3.1. GIen TIM 44 3.2. HAN CHE 44 3.2.1. Khci rang This is trial version www.adultpdf.com 45 3.2.2. Kit not 46 3.2.3. Cgnh tranh. 49 3.3. (ING DVNG 50 3.4. BIEN HOA TRUYEN THONG 51 3.4.1. He fixing tip trung khcich chri 52 3.4.2. Mo hinh ngcrng haw 52 3.4.3. TnOn thong trong VANET 55 3.5. XAC SUAT, TAP HQP THEO VUNG 57 3.5.1. Phcic thcio FM 57 3.5.2. Cc c ban phcir thcio cho kip h9p dir lieu trong VANET 58 3.5.3. Phcic than trgng that mem 59 3.5.4. Binh thOnh khu vitc ion hon tong h9p 60 3.5.5. Nghien csiu zing dim 61 3.6. TAP HQP THOI GIAN DI CHUYEN 62 3.6.1. nip h9p d4a3 Ira clam mOc 63 3.6.2. Danh gici chilt hi9ng thong tin 65 3.6.3. Ceti' 4 tnic king h9p ∈ me' c 66 3.7. KET LUAN 67 TONG KET 68 THUAT Nal VIET TAT 69 TAI LIEU TRAM 'MAO 71 This is trial version www.adultpdf.com DANH MIJC IliNH ANH, BANG BIEU Hinh 1.1 Bieu di mink hga cic cinh lbio nguy hiem 3 Hinh 1.2 MO hinh tong quan ye clic giii phip VANET 10 Wnh 1.3 Vi dy h§ thing the nghi§m tgi Michigan (2008) 12 Bing 1.1 I3in di ctia VSC-A eng dgng an town vi kich bin cic vy tai ngn 14 dutrc quan tam nhit Hinh 2.1 frng dieing phi bien dip tren VANET 18 Hinh 2.2 Trao diii thong tin ngim 23 Hinh 2.3 Tang him tOc (10 alit xe teen mlii phan dogn trong SOTIS 33 Hinh 2.4 H§ thing quan sit hru luvng 35 Hinh 2.5 Tang kip nhim cic bin ghi CASCADE 36 Ifinh 2.6 Cay hi phan 38 Ifinh 2.7 Thivi gian di Tour Eiffel den Arc de Triomphe 42 Hinh 2.8 M§t mting luid duirng phan clip trail tilting. 43 Hinh 3.1 M§t 'lc suit dui kit not vo tuyen 47 Hinh 3.2 Phi bien de lieu bing cich se dyng cic chuii vi xe di dOng 48 Hinh 3.3 Anh hir&ng cult cic don vi ben ii throng 49 Hinh 3.4 Phan phiSi cic thiet bi ngang hing teen mOi phin doin duirng 54 Hinh 3.5 The h§ vie how nhit cis tip hip phic thio FM 58 Hinh 3.6 wet him phic thio & tiling thii mem 60 Hinh 3.7 D§ chinh xic cis tin him & xa 62 Hinh 3.8 Ting Nip diem mic 64 Hinh 3.9 Thong tin ci sin & cic cip dO khic nbau 66 This is trial version www.adultpdf.com CHUONG 1. Tang quan vi he tilting mang Vanet Ltla MO DAU Ngay nay voi xu the ph& trien mph me ve tong nghe thong tin, dien tai van thong ket hqp v6i sq da clang va phong phd ye phuong tien k3 thuai da tao nen nhung hinh thai phat trien mai nham phuc vu cho den song con ngu6i. Thong tin lien lac duqc m6 rung v6i nhitng rinh vqc mai hira hen nhieu sq phat trien. Mang di dung thy bien trong xe hai cling la mOt rinh vqc dang duqc cac nu6c phat trien nghien ciru va dua vao sir dung nhi ► dua lei nhfang hieu qui, nhlang diem nhin m6i trong bu6c phat then cua xe hai. Be c6 the hieu has ve sir ph& trien, nhung buem tien cilia rinh vqc nay tOi mu6n giai thieu t6ng quan ye nhung khai niem, t6ng quan ve m8 hinh by thong cling nhu la ntang cong nghe duqc sir ch,mg trong m8 hinh mpg trong mpg di dOng thy bien cho xe hai (VANET). VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) la mOt (rug dung mang nhu the. 1)6 11 mOt he thong mpg s(r dung cac giao tiip khOng day phan tan gift nhieu diem truy c#p Ichic nhau ma khemg can ten bit dr mOt cc; s6 ha ding c6 djnh lac). Bit cu thiet bj cam tay vii co djnh nio nhu dien thoai di dOng, laptop, may nhin tin, cac tram v8 tuyen ca so deu c6 the la mOt kenh thong tin trong mang VANET tao thimh mpg town ciu, rung khip mqi nai. Cic thiet bj nay c6 the tich hqp vao cac d6i tuqng di chuyen (xe cu, tau thuyen,..) ho#c tl#t co djnh o cac diem khien cho viec truyen thong ce the dies ra o mqi lfic, mqi nai. M8i phuang den tham gia giao thong (duqc tich hqp mOt thiet bj c6 khi Wing kit n6i day) lit( thinh mOt nut ciia mpg. Bao cio bao gam ba chirong: Chuang 1: Glen thieu chung ve he thong Vanet va cac nguyen tic ca ban va thich thirc ctla VANET, trinh bay mOt ljch sir ngin gun cac hog dOng cilia VANET. Chuang 2: M8 to cac phuong phap de ph6 Wen thong tin va t#p Nip trong VANET can thiet de h8 trq cac img dung hieu qui va tien lqi. Chuang 3: Duqc xay dqng tree chuang 2 va tip trung vao cac img dung "Meng an tan" do d6 muc tieu chi yeti la hieu qui va tien lgi. MOc lqc nghien ciru de hall thanh chuyen de cim minh, nhung do !den thirc va th&i gian con hp chi nen trong chuyen de t8i khang tranh kh6i nhfkng thieu set. Toi rat mong nhon duqc cac d6ng g6p, nh#n xet tir phia flay co va cac ban. CuOi cling t8i xin chfin thimh cam an sir huong din va taco dieu kien ctla thiy Holing Trong Minh trong su6t qua trinh t8i lam bito c.ao nay! This is trial1 version www.adultpdf.com CHUONG 1. Ting quan ver ha th6ng mang Vanet CHU•ONG 1. TONG QUAN Vt HE THONG MANG VANET 1.1. GIO1 THIEU CHUNG Vt MANG VANET 1.1.1. Khdi niflm VANET (VEHICULAR AD-HOC NETWORKS) li mpg trong da cic xe (vehicule) se duqc trang bj thiet bj thu/phit, chang se ter thinh cic node nhu trong mpg ad-hoc. Cic xe se lien lac vai nhau (Car-to-Car Communication), hay M2M (machine-to-machine communication) de chia se thong tin lin nhau. ThOng tin ye traffic, ye tinh trang kit xe, thong tin ye tai not giao thong, nguy hiem can trinh...M0 chile xe ding c6 the trb thinh mOt Relay Node chuyen tii th8ng tin cho xe khic...VANET sfr chum chuin Wifi 802.11. a 1.1.2. Tgi sao eó h? thong Vanet? — Cong nghiap xe ngiy ding phit trier. —S6 vu tai non giao thong, On tic ngiy tang tang. —Cic phuang flan thiet bj phut vu cho giao thong chtra tai uu... 1.2. NGUYEN TAC CO BAN VA MACH Marc Khii niem co bin cda VANET la khang phi= tap: thuc thi tram deg nghe WLAN dian rang vi khong qui dit, tart li ket n6i giva cic may tinh vii nhau hoot vii intemet, vi vai nhieu cii lien no duqc ip dung len xe cO. Diu lien, thong to xem x& den co hOi. Neu cic phuong den c6 the truyen thong tnrc tap vii nhau vi v6i co so ha Ling, meo hinh hob toin moi cho nheng (mg clang an toin cba phuang den 06 the se duqc hinh thinh. Thtl hai, nheng thich thac mad da thrqc too ra Uri phuong tian tee do) cao vi mad trubng tic dOng llrc lan. Thir ba, nheng yeu ciu can phii c6 Ye an loin d6i yeti cic frog dung mad, bao gim nheng 10 vqng mad cho phin phii gei tin cao vi dO trg gei tin thip. Han naa, phin (mg mb flint cM khich hang vi su gin sit caa ha thing giim sit dem lei 10 vqng cao ye an ninh vi sir rieng tut. Them chi ngiy nay, chiec xe too ra vi phial tick luqng bfm de lieu, mac thl de lieu nay thubng china trong mOt chi& xe duy nhit. ce VANET, dim nhin (kha Whig nh$n biet xung quanh) cue cic phuang tian giao thong vi cue lii ACC duqc tang len ding Ice. Truyen thong VANET c6 the thuc hian true till) gala cic xe nhu Owen th8ng "mOt buoc", hoot phuang tian ce the truyen lai bin tin, do da cho phdp truyen thong "da Woe. De tang yang phtl sang hoc dO ben yang cult truyen thong, chuyen tie') lc ben thrtmg c6 the duqc trien khai. Co so ha tang ben throng clang c6 the duvc sfr dung nhu mOt deg vio internet vi do da de lieu vi th8ng tin net cinh c6 the duqc thu thap, luu Ire vi "6 mqi nor, vi du ca so ha ling mang cue coag nghe ditat town dim may sip tad. This is trial2 version www.adultpdf.com CHISONG 1. Tang quan ve he thong mung Vanet N6 dim bao ring mpg lien kit gift cic xe se thfic diy manh me b6i su phong phi caa cic Ung dung co the dugs kich hoot. Truoc het, cic ting dt,mg an toan chb dOng, tirc la cic ting dung phong ch6ng tai nun se duqc hiding lqi mOt cich true dip tfr truyin thong. Thir hai, bang cich thu thilp dtt lieu twig thii giao &Ong ter mOt yang rung han, luu luqng giao thong c6 the dirge cal thief', thstri gian di chuyin c6 the duqc giim cling nhtr nheng lchi thii hY cic phuang lien. Nhu n6 di duqc ghi chinh xic nhu cic nguyen 1 cult he th6ng giao th8ng thong minh (Intelligent Transportation System World Congress) nam 2008: Tiet kiem th6i gian. Cic 16p (mg dung "an tan" vi "hien qui" c6 the duqc sfr dung de phan loci cdc Ung dung dlra tren mix dich chinh cia chimg. Tuy nhien, cic khia can't an toile vi hieu qui khong the quan niem nhu cic tinh Wing tech r6i hoiln town. R8 tang, tai min xe c6 the din den tic nghen giao thong. MOt bin tin th8ng bio mOt vu tai non ce the duqc xem nhu la mOt thong bio an town * diem quan sit caa xe gin d6. Ban tin Wang tu c6 the duqc nhin cic phuong lien 8 xa han nhu mOt diu veto de tinh toin mOt 10 trinh thay the trong mOt (mg dung hieu qui giao thong. ....- .••• • 1, %••• ■-• / /1111 / ' r ollw—••■••411111 1■___ ----"111"1111111 rrn 40 4 Ifinh 1.1 Bilu (IS minh has cdc cdnh bdo nguy hiim Trong khii niem don giin, thiet ke vi tan khai cic VANET la met luc kq diy thich thirc ve ky thust va kinh to Mich thirc chinh ve ky thuUt bao g6m cic vin de sau: — Cie Sc il dam c6 ham cda kenh v8 twin dien. Cic kich ban hien nay mia VANET vbi nhieu die diem khong thu0n lqi cho vies phit trien truyen th8ng khong diy, vi du: nhieu doi tuqng phin inh co the lam suy giam dO mph vi chit luqng ctia song tin hieu nhen duqc. Ngoai ra, do tinh di dOns cia cic dii This is trial3 version www.adultpdf.com CHISONG 1. TOng quan ve hg thong mong Vanet trung xung quash ho#c chting tv gfri vi tv nkftn, hilt' Ong mb din phii duqc dua vio sv tinh toin. don vj phOi bqp. Vilc sir trung trvc tory& vi —Thies mOt sv quin dtmg ding bing vi hilu qui bang thong mkt kenh lchang day li mOt nhilm vp kh6 khan trong mOt mong ur t6 chrrc vi phan cep hoin toin. Vi$c thieu mOt thvc the c6 khi Wing ding bO h6a vi quip cic sv ki/n truyen tid cara cic of khic nhau co the din den sir dung kenh kern hilu qui vi din den s6 hrqng lon cic vv va ch?m g6i tin. khi Ring mfr ring, vi sw da ding cast Min kiln —Mb di ding cao, yen mdi trnimg. Nheng thich th(rc cia mOt mong tg t6 clac plan cep duqc die bilt nhin manh den t6c dO cao. Tinh di dOng cao li mOt thich thirc cho cic thuig toin t6i uu 1#p nhim s6r dung tot ban bang thong kenh hoc sb dung cic tuyen dutmg duqc dinh nghTa tru6c de chuyen tiep thong tin. —An ninh vi nhu cis rieng hr vi cfc m6i plan tam. C6 mOt thich thirc ve can d6i gifts nhu ciu ve bio m#t vi tinh rieng tu. MOt mkit, ben nh(in mu6n dim bio ring c6 the tin liking ngu6n thong tin. Wit khic, sir tin luting d6 c6 the mau than voi cic yeu ciu rieng to cfia ben gtli. limb ding. C6 mOt nhu ceu cho truyin thong tieu —Tien chain boa so chuin cho phep VANET lim vile qua cic kieu khic nhau vi cic chuin caa OEM. Tuy nhien, chic chin ring OEM se mu6n too ra vii sv kbic hilt v6i cling nghl VANET. Nhung raw tieu niy li c6 ye se khi kh6 khan. Mich thfrc chink ye mat klub ti xi —Phan tich vi xic dish &Nov cic lqi ich cult VANET cho an toils giao thong vi hien qua vin tii. Cho den nay, rit it vile da duqc thvc hi¢n de dinh gia tic dung c6a VANET nhu mOt ngu6n thong tin ve hinh vi lii xe. Re ring, nhung thich thirc lien quan trong vile giii quyet vin de dinh gii tic ding li m8 hinh c6a cic khia conh lien quan den yeti t6 con ngutri. —Phan tich vi xic dinh thrqc dic m6i (plan he chi phi - lqi lick adia VANET. Do thieu cic nghien ciru ye lqi ich c6a VANET, v#y plan tich chi phi - lqi ich kh6 ce the duqc thvc hiOn. Chien luqc trien khai thiet ke cho load hinh VANET li kitting dra tren mOt cc s6 141 tong hoc mOt nhtt cung cop dich vp nio. Vile thiet bj VANET ce dirge hay kh8ng con phv thuOc vio cic d6i tic truyen thong, cic hi thong mong hiln thOi c6 the h8 trq duqc hay khOng. —Nhing VANET trong kJ& trac hi thong giao thing thing minh. VANET 0 la mOt phlin cua mOt hi thong giao thong thong minh noi mi Wing yes t6 khic duqc sinh ra boi diet' khien den giao thong hay cic cic load bin tin bio 4 This is trial version www.adultpdf.com CHUt5NG 1. TOng quan ve he thong mpg Vanet hieu khic nhau. COng nhu vay, giao thong ci nhan vi Ong cling phii duac nim trong tii khoin trong mOt kiln cich chung. Bei vay, he thing hqp tic Nit sir cin duqc phit triin. Nhu co the thiy tfr danh sich 6 tan etc ring (twig, ky thuat vi vie khia cunh kink to xi hOi, linh Arc (mg dung xe vi cic Ong nghe lien mpg dua tren ding nghe tren mOt no lirc lien nginh trong truyin thong vi mang, thiet bj dien ter tong xe, quin vi van hinh throng b0, cling cep cic th8ng tin vi dick vv. Do de VANET ce the duqc xem nhu li mOt phin quan tong cia he thing giao th8ng dieing minh (Intelligent Transportation Systems) (ITS). Trong 'chi nhiiu du in khic nhau da thio luan chi& luqc tan lchai oho VANET, cic nghien c(ru chi yeti giii quyit nhitng thich thee ky thuat. Hien nay, mOt sir thay dii to rich dip can "ter dm% led" co dien Bing cich tap can "te tren xuong" Ly tueng nhit, ci hai phuang phip tiip can cutii ring se gap nhau• nhang gi duqc goi li mOt yeu ciu cho viec tan khai mang lui lqi ich co the duqc hi trq bOi nhing tier b0 cong nghe. 1.3. LOCH sir VA skr PHAT MIEN CUA VANET Lich sir cea viec sir dung song v8 tuyin vi hing ngoai cho truyin thong gifts xe vei xe vi xe vei ben dueng gin lien vei sir phit trim ctia 14 thing giao thong th8ng minh. Nhu them khio trong Shladover vi tong Lasky vi Ravani, cic khii niem ca ban oda tu dung Ma dueng b0 nhu viec se dung the ky thuat truyin %Ong vi dieu Ichien di giao thong duting b0 an tan, hieu qui vi than thien vei mOi truing. Sau de, vac cam' nheng am 1960, he thing tu dOng hes dating b0 dva tren song v8 tuyin duqc phit triin vi cheng minh Ki hY do, co rat nhiiu de lieu dugs quan sit: Chi di chinh li an tan, hieu qui vi than thien voi mOi trubng, tong tam lien tuc thay doi theo thin gian. Vi du, trong thei gian diu he thing hueng din tuyin dueng da duqc dieu tra. Sau do, he thing thu phi, nghien ciru lii xe tu dOng tre nen ph6 ban. Nghien ciru vi phit trier o khu vuc khic nhau, chi yiu 6 my, Nhat Bin, vi Chau Au, mi can o cic nai khic tren the giOi cing co anh huong. l>e tii de duqc dinh diu bei sir tap trong 'chic nhau cia 8 t8 vi cic cling ding giao thong van tii. MOt chi di nhit quin theo thei gian li "ngan sich - ai se tri phi?". MOt mat, nginh cong nghiep 8 to vi dien ter nghi ng6 cic ca se hu tang dog rung cho he thing dueng cao tic thong minh (Intelligent Vehicle - Highway Systems) (IVHS) se khong bao gib thich hien thuc. Mat khic, cic dan vi chi quin dueng cao tic nghi nge lieu tong nghe IVHS se cung cep giii phip thuc ti cho cic vin di dueng cao tic thqc sir. Trong phin du& day, se di cap din cic hoot dung buec tien quan tang lien quan din VANET. This is trial5 version www.adultpdf.com CHISONG 1. Ting quan ve hg th6ng mane Vanet 1.3.1. TIr &iu din giea nhihog nano 1990 O My, mot ho thing hutmg din &Ong dien to (Electronic Route-Guidance System) (ERGS) d8 duqc de xuit trong Rosen: "He thing djnh hutmg diem den. Ngutri dieu khien xe nhap vito mOt mA, dal dien cho dja chi dich c0a minh vao thiit bj xe. Sau d6 khi phuang tien tien den mil diem giao ma dich duqc chuyin den atic tram ben dtrong tai de n6 duqc giai ma, theo mOt chtrong trinh ltru tat, va mOt chi din dinh tuyen duqc truyen lai cho chiec xe." He thing truyen thong sbr dung tin só 170 kHz clOng Ang-ten yang duqc lip d*t tai nut giao %Ong va gin vao phia sau caa xe. Tic dO truyin catlieu bao cao la 2000 bit/gialy. Nhung nhang n8 luc ERGS bj chim dirt do cac ca so hu tang ben duong dit tien. Tai Nh.t Ban, he thing dieu lchien giao thong 8 te tan dien (CACS) duqc thuc hien 1973-1979 do ca quan deg nghiep Khoa hac va C8ng nghe dui BO Thucmg mai va C8ng nghiep Quic ti (MITI). Muc lieu cua CACS duqc trinh bay trong Kawashima vin con hien luc sau han 30 Min: —Giant un tic giao thong dubng Xi; —Giam khi thai gay ra bbd su tic nghen giao thong; —Phong ngta tai non; —Nang cao vai fro cling ding va xa hOi cila 8 t6. Be flat duqc muc lieu nay, bin muc tieu thuat di duqc de ra: — Huang din lai xe di then cac tuyin chgmg thich hqp nhit de tranh On tic va 8 nhiim khOng khi; — Cung cep th8ng tin lieu ich de hi trq lai xe an town; —Uu tien cac xe ding cling hotic truing hap khan cep; —Cung cap thong tin kip thin cho ngutri lai trong throng hqp khin cap. Cac du an CACS ding duqc thuc hien thi diem vei 98 thin bi ben dtrong A. 330 xe tht? nghiem (Nakahara vi Yumoto). Dii vai truyen thong ben throng thi xe, cac tram ben dubng str dung Ang ten Ong con cac phucmg tien giao thong sa dung Ang-ten 101 cho tic dO truyen tai ctia bao cao la 4.8 kbps. Tai chat' Au, de an Prometheus (chuang trinh giao &Mg chAu Au vai gia cao nhit chua mang lui hien qua vi an tan) ichoi xutmg vao nom 1986 va ra mit nom 1988 c6 * nghlit kich thick host ding nghien dru va phat tan trong rah vuc deg nghe th6ng tin va twin th8ng di dung cho xe c6 ding ca va nhang con duOng. Prometheus di drat hi trq boi 19 quic gia chau Au vb. cac Oy ban cling ding Chau This is trial6 version www.adultpdf.com CHYONG 1. Ten quan ye he thOng mpg Vanet Au (Walker nam 1992; Williams 1988). Nhu vi du neu trong Gillan, Prometheus di duqc t6 chi= tai cac he thong khhc nhau, bao g6m: — PRO-CAR: lai xe trq bb i he thong dien tb; — PRO-NET: truyen thong gitta xe yeti xe; — PRO-ROAD: truyen thong gifts xe va m8i trutmg. Trong Prometheus, truyin th8ng gitta xe va xe (long met vai Ire n6i b#1: bao cao cat' Dabbous va Huitema vin c6 the duqc chu Sr cep nh#t trong nhieu khia canh. Dabbous va Huitema phan Lich cac yeu ciu truyen thong Ara tren ldch ban dien hhih, vi du cho chin ttp that' &Si lin &Ong. Gii sfr mOt chain luqc quing ba dinh kjr va you ciu dO chinh xAc khoing cach va chum, ho chi ra ring met danh gin th#n tong t6c de truyin ban tin tang thai cda mii xe se djnh ki gfri 20 phien truyen tren mil giay ciut m6i Dabbous va Huitema cang cho thiy cac neu gam di you clu ve de chink xlic khoang cach va chum va gioi thieu cac phuang phap du dam 05 the lam Ohm ding ke s6 lin you ceu truyen tai. DA duqc tip trung tren clic he thong hog ding 6 bang tin 60 GHz. Su quan tam trong truyin thong gifts xe v6i xe tilp top 6 Nh#t Bin va my. cuoc khao sit trong Kawashima trich din hai bin bio cao thu#t cis JSK hiep hOi cling nghe dien tfr cho lai xe va 8 to (Association of Electronic Technology for Automobile Traffic and Driving) duqc xuit ban Nilo nam 1986 va 1988, Wong Ong, lc& qua thil nghiem truyen th8ng gitta xe vai xe. 6 My, nhu duqc nett trong Shladover, mOt trinh dieu khien chinh xuit hien de to ding lai xe va nhieu phuong den. Trong Sachs va Varaiya, cac you cau va thong se ky thuit de truyin th8ng giita xe v6i xe vi gitta xe yeti thiet bi ben diking de cho xe to gong duqc trinh biy. Tong kit du in hoot gag cha thtri ki nay tai My, Chau Au, va NIgit Ban cling nhu nhin ve twang lai doi vai he thong throng truyen cao tec th8ng minh (Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems) &gm dua ra beri Jurgen. 1.3.2. Tw min nhang nans 1990 din nay Nth sau cha nhiang nam 1990 la cet mec quan tong ghi lai met su thay doi 16n. Kit qua An ttrong ye trinh dieu khien hqp tic dOc 1#p duqc chimg minh tai San Diego, bin gioi thieu cOa cac dei tac California cho nang cao vfn tIi va doting cao tec (Advanced Transit and Highways) (PATH) vho nam 1997, giai dap 2 giai thieu ye nang cao tinh an town phucmg den (Advanced Safety Vehicle) (ASV) vho Mtn 2000 tai thanh phi Tsukuba, Nh#t Bin, va trong du in PROMOTE CHAUFFEUR European. TOp trung sau de chuyen tfr lai xe kit hop to quan sang he thong trq trinh dieu khien hqp tic. Ti My cac sang kill phucmg tien thong minh (Intelligent Vehicle Initiative) (NI) trong nhiang atm 1998-2005 (Hartman va Strasser ) t#p trung vao an tohn hieu qui hqp tac. Tai chau Au, cac du in CarTalk vi FleetNet cba Franz nghien This is trial7 version www.adultpdf.com CHUONG 1. Tong quan ye he thong mong Vanet ciru ding nghe va cac (mg dung he trq hqp tic Idi xe. T31 NhUt Ban, giai don 3 caa dg an tiring cep an tan phuang lien cling th6a then vai tr6 cult truyin thong lien phucmg tien de he trq hqp tic lai xe. Sq thay del tin 96: 5.9 GHz DSRC IChai niem ve VANET di bi inh huong bei nhtIng lien b0 trong Ong nghe va tieu chuitt hea ke tfr gitta nhting nam 1990. Nim 1999 la mOt "sir thay dei tan se" xay ra khi 1:Jy ban Truyin thong lien bang my phis be bang thong 75 MHz cua did 5,9 GHz cho truyin thong tam ngin chuyen dung (Dedicated Short-Range Communication) (DSRC).Thuet net truyin th8ng tam ngin chuyen dung (Dedicated Short-Range Communication) di duqc sir dung nhu mOt tht4t net tuang 14p ve Ong nghe cho =yen thong khong day tam ngin gifts cac xe va ca s8 ho ting. MOt rim sau, ASTM International thinh lep met nh6m lam viec de ghat trien cac yeu caw ve tieu chum DSRC tuang (mg. Trong nim 2001, Uy ban tieu chuin 17.51 cut ASTM chcm IEEE 802.11a la c8ng nghe v8 tuyen nen tang cho DSRC. Cac lieu chitin Wang ting di duqc dua ra trong nam 2002 vi sM di vac nam 2003 (ASTM E2213-03 2003). Cac ap lqc phai sir dung kenh duqc giao va tinh kha thi ¢ua cac deg nghe Ara chuin IEEE 802.11a thi lam tang ding ke cac hoot dung nghien cuu va phat tan. DUc biet, cling deng mong di dOng quan tam den chili de caa ming luoi xe di duqc hei sink. Nim 2004, IEEE bit ttiu deg viec stla 661802.11p va tieu chuin truy cUp lchong day trong m8i tramg xe CO (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) (WAVE) dqa tren cac lieu chitin ASTM (Jiang va Delgrossi). Dir an truyin thong an town phucmg On (Vehicle Safety Communications) (VSC) duqc he trq ben to ch(rc do luting an town va ch?m (Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership) (CAMP), cuc quan trj duting cao tec lien bang My (US Federal Highway Administration) (FHWA), va ban quart ly an town giao th8ng dtrong bO My (US National Highway D•ajjic Safety Administration) (NHTSA) khao sat ccIng nghe DSRC 5.9 GHz dang n6i trong nhUng clura tren chuin IFFF, nam 2002 den flint 2004 va ket luin ring phuang phalp dip 802.11a se c6 the M trq hiu hit cac (mg dung an town ma VSC di chcm. Cac bao cao cu6i cling mkt VSC (VSC 2006), cOng dun ra met ckh rO rang nhttng thach &tic cna truyen th8ng c6 dO trg thep vi if& sin sing cao colt cac kenh vo tuyen cling nhu cac yin de lien quan den Icha fling caa kenh nei chung. Nam 2004, HOi thao qu6c to ACM diu lien ve mong xe CO bit djnh (Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks) di din ra Philadelphia, sau de thuUt net "VANET" di duqc det ra. Cac dy in Mtn tai vi host dung Trong phin nay, di cep mOt cai nhin teng quan kh8ng day du ye cac dir an VANET dang dign ra va cac hoot dung 6 chau Au, Nht Ban, va Hoa Ky. Met cal nhin This is trial8 version www.adultpdf.com CHISONG 1. 'fling quan ve he thong mung Vanet t6ng quan cho they mirc dO hoot dung cao trong linh vvc nghien cuu vi phit tan VANET vi de chirng minh li cic deg nghe truyin thong khong day duqc bio dim li ca so cua lieu het cic hout Ong cila VANET tren toin the gioi (hinh 1.2). Trong chuang trinh khung se 6 cua EU, ben dv in duqc bit dau trong cic linh Arc ce lien quan den VANET: COOPERS, CVIS, PReVENT, vi SAFESPOT. Dv in he thong hqp tic cho an toil) duOng b0 th8ng minh (Intelligent Road Safety) (COOPERS, 2006-10) t#p trung vio img dung vin thong tien tier cho quin hqp tic giao th8ng. Tir gee go truyin thong, th8ng tin ch6 yeu lit truyin thong gitta xe vi cic from ben throng vi s>3r dung lieu chain CALM nhu giao dien truyin thong hung ngoui CALM. CALM li ISO TC 204 (ITS) Working Group 16 (Communication) trong "giao dien kheong day lien tic cho khoing cich tittnmg binh den". CALM nham muc dich trq truyin th8ng lien tic cho xe bang cich sfr dung cic phuang tien truyen thong khic nhau vi cic giao dien truyen th8ng. Cic dv in he thong co ser hit tang phuang tien hqp tic (Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems) (CVIS, 2006-10) di tip trung vio phit trier vi th(r nghiem trivet' thOng cfia phuang tien vol ca s8 hu tang vi theo lieu chat' CALM. CVIS lam cho vies sir dung WAVE WEE 802.11 c6 lien quan giao dien duqc hieu lii giao dien M5 (d6i voi "Microwave 5 GHz) trong khuen kh6 CALM. Dv in SAFESPOT (2006-10) nhim muc dich thiet ke hu thong hqp tic xi cho an tan &gong bto dva truyen th8ng gitta xe Wei xe vi xe vOi ca sO hu tang. Cic deg nghe truyin th8ng duqc s>Sr dung trong dv an SAFESPOT li IEEE 802.11a/p. Dv in PReVENT (2006-08) giii guy& phit tan cic Ong dung an toin dv plitong vi c8ng nghe trong dv an PReVENT tick hqp, cic dv in nho WILLWARN (Wireless Local Danger Warning) t#p tning vio cic cho de call truyin th8ng gift xe v6ri xe vi gitta xe yeti ca so hu tang. He thong WILLWARN dva tren IEEE 802.11a/p vi di sir dung nen tang truyin thong phit trien b Dirc do; in Network on Wheels (NOW). Ngoii ra, dv in Secure Vehicular Communication (SeVeCom, 2006 din nem 2008) di duqc dinh rieng de xic djnh cic mei de do vi quy djnh cu the phuang phip vi Icien trac de dam bio truyen thong xe Icheng day. This is trial9 version www.adultpdf.com CHIANG 1. Toting quan ve 4 thOng mpg Vanet Hinh 1.2 MS hinh tong quan 4 cdc gitii phdp VANET Hien nay, theo chucmg trinh 7 khung, huang ten cac thtl nghiem rinh voc duqc tai trqi, dac biet 11 do in PRE-DRIVE-C2X dang chitin 1)1 xay dung cac kh8i an that cho thir nghiem thimh c8ng hoot dung cua VANET a chAu Au. a TO Nhat Bin, mOt tieu chwin xe ca tilt truyin thong voi co at ha tang da duqc c8ng biS Mtn 2001 vi goi la "Dedicated Short-Range Communication System" (ARIB 001). He thong hoot dung 0 an s6 5,8 GHz, duqc doa tren da truy nhap phin chia theo thbi gian (TDMA) vi trong phom vi 30m. Moc Bich chinh cua he thOng la stt cb,mg trong vier thu phi dies fil nhtmg da duqc tan khai de h8 trq cho cac dich vo 'chic (ARIB 2004). Trong nam 2008, tren 20 trieu don vi bo mach din ter da duqc trian khai. Ti Nhat Bin, dim tren so thanh c8ng tren he thteg DSRC 5.8 GHz vi truyan thong tren cac xe dtra tren ha tin hang ngooi, nhiau do an vi clic hoot Ong ITS hien This is trial10 version www.adultpdf.com CHUONG 1. Tang quan ve he thong mong Vanet dang tham gia de chimg minh %/a tang cuing phuang tier, cot sa ha ting va truyen thong xe vii xe duai sang hen an town ITS 2010 Oa NI* Bin. An town xe nang cao sang kien, trong giai down 4, dang giai quyet xe, truyen th8ng xe bang each tray c#p vao mOt met he thong da nhiem (CSMA) dim tren phin ma ring eta ARIB STD T-75. Cruise - ha trq sang kit!' he thong duang cao t6c duqc xay dung tren he thong 5.8 GHz DSRC cling nhu he thong hi trq lei xe an town (DSSS) cling sir dung cOng nghe hang ngooi truyen thong cho xe ben 11 throng. Cac hoot ding Smartway tap Ming vao cac djch vu ITS va mOt nen tang djch vu thong thuang duqc cung cip tren diu trang cat' cac mang hi& hien ca. Trong thing 6 am 2007, n6 di duqc deg b6 kenh 10 MHz trong cac kenh tin s6 700 MHz se duqc phan b6 cho truyen thong lien quan den an tan lien xe toi NI* Ban vim am 2012. CO mOt s6 do an deg nghiep chinh phi 6 MI duqc thrc hien vi duqc (Lang tren bao. Hai trong s6 nhung do an de duqc m8 tit 6 duai day. Lin diu tien Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) duqc di ten thanh IntelliDrive, gin day met y tuang Ian dit duqc ch(rng minh. Thir hai la do an ang dung truyen thong an town phuang tien do kien se duqc kit thic vao cu6i am 2009. Ca hai du an tren d uqc sv tai trq ctla 130 giao thong Hoa KI vi mOt s6 nha san xuit 8 to va nhi cung cep. a Ngoii ra, hai do an khitc xirng clang duqc Op ngin mOt chr an dang din ra he thong an tan duqc tich hqp tren phuang lien lcham phi cac vim de giao dien ngutri-may vi mOt s6 img dung an town, vii khuyen cao ce khi Wing chang cheo hoc miu thuin, duqc xiy ra ding thai (Doi hoc giao thong vin di Michigan). Dv an tha hai li Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systemproject gam co ba thanh phin (McHale). Dv an canh bao vi phom 6 Michigan, do an Stop Sign Assist 6 Minnesota vi do an Signalized Left Turn Assist 6 California. Kid xe duqc trang bj CICAS-V den gin mOt ngit tu, cac phuang tien nhon duqc tin hieu vi *Ong tin thai gian tit tin hieu den giao nhau (DSRC). MoSi chi& xe sau da se do down kha Wing ring n6 dang 6 NI tri c6 den do, vi neu thich hqp, cash bao trinh dieu Ichien (Maile). Dv an nay di duqc len Ice hooch dill nghiem vii trinh diet' khien don gian (Maile). 1.3.3. Kit qua can ak dr tin hifn tqi a. TYch kw co sd• hg ling (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration) Trong ram 2005 130 giao thong van tai Hoa KI bit din di* nghiem met Meng mai. Da s6 cac m8i twang that nghiem nay duqc thtrc hien 6 cac yang ngooi 8 phia tay bic cia Detroit, MI. He thong bao gam 55 tram thiet bj trong yang 116.55km2 vi si dung 27 chi& xe. C6 bay ung dung duqc phat Wen vi tha nghiem: This is trial11 version www.adultpdf.com CIRIONG 1. Tong quan ve he thong mpg Vanet —Bio hieu trong xe (In Vehicle Signage): RSE lien tic hien thj ra cac bin tin thong bio ben trong phucmg lien giao thong; sir dft ligu ve vi tri — Thu thop de lieu them do: Phuung tier di lei cung cap cua hciltieu bang vi chia se yeti RSE, me sau da n6 duqc bien soon vi phin tich; — Thanh toin dies to - thu phi; —Thanh totin dien to - bai d8 xe; —Thong tin ngutri di chuyen/bang bit dinh huong; —Thong tin dinh ki (Heartbeat): RSE thu thep thong bio tang this dinh kjr (vi di nhu 100 msec) t r cac phuung tien bao gem ci tic dO xe vi vj tri; —Hien thj tin hieu giao thong: quing be tang thid den giao thong. kilmtre kite& an tole Tramphoenkitip, Nastier& tedsnyia Zhu vw the rung twin bee thuilouthies oetwais tro blyiniii cgaintied4,einbang &heath co p1ia talc Hinh 1.3 Vi du he tang thik nghiem tgi Michigan (2008) MOt s6 kit qui quan tong dtrqc rut ra nhu sau: — Ti le 18i gei tin la mot chic Wing mph me caa tom nhin thing. Khi elm nhin thing dtrqc duy tri, ti le 18i g6i tin yin 6 mac thip them chi 6 khoing each 100m. Khi tom nhin thing bj mit, ti le lai tang len nhanh chOng. — IPv6 yen hail tot. — Chi phi cho may thu GPS thip nhung dtrqc s* dung trong cac POC, !thong se cung cap cho phan lueng mac dO chinh xic. — Ma h6a goi tin tfr diu cuoi den diu cuSi thanh cong. This is trial12 version www.adultpdf.com CHIrONG 1. T6ng quan ye h'e' &Ong mang Vanet —Ung dung thong tin dinh Id lim viec tit cho phucmg tien trong khoing 100 m cua RSE (lily thuc vio tim quan sat thing) — He thing an ninh da duqc hien thi de 1km viec, nhung chua chic chin. Ngoii To, kiem tra quy m6 chua duqc thuc hien. —Quin 1S, tai nguyen elk mpg truyin thong cho cac img dung chgy deg thbi phirc top hun du kien. —Cii dot, ciu hinh va duy tri RSE philc top hon va kh6 khan hon du kiln. Khi giai dogn nay mkt chuong trinh 7 khung kit thfic, BO ngo3i giao giao thong v#n tai Hoa KS/ di thay vi tri vi di ten the chuong trinh 7 khung (Row). Ten mai cita no la IntelliDrive. NO se nhin monh c8ng nghe khemg day trong cic dich vu ve i'mg dgng an Win. Trich din "The Future of VII" (Row): Chuong trinh maxi trong tuong lai tip hung nghien ciru cic hoot dOng trong nfring yang nhu sau: —Cong nghe quit inh vi nhOn ding vi met s6 cac ceong nghe dem wing khac. Nghien ciru, trinh chin, vi danh gia cac cong nghe cac ling dung an town da kich hogt. — Sr thiet Ittp cila cac nen thil nghiem de h6 trq cac dui nghiem vi cluing minh cho veng stir dung chung vi rieng. —Su phat Wen cult Iden trim vi lieu chuin di me, ra nen tang cho truyen thong khong day di vi den phuang den. —Nghien cint ye van de phi k9 thu#t nhu trich nhiem phip ly, tinh bio m#t thong tin vi (mg chnig elk quy dinh. —Nghien cuu tren cac lqi ich phu thuec t6i tinh di ding va m8i truemg. Buck diu, du an Safe Trip-21 dua ra nam 2008 vi di thanh 16p cac trang web Connected Traveler lam tra kit n6i et California. Safe Trip-21 duqc thiet Ice de cai thien an town giao thong vi gikm iln tic bing cach xic dinh vi khai thic cong nghe hien co vi thich img cho cac nhu ciu giao thong v#n tai, vi g chimg minh ring nhing lien bO ding ke trong viec giai quyet yin de giao thong kheing co yen citu du to ca s6 hg ting lon. (SafeTrip-21 nam 2008). b. ling dong trayin thong an tint l'ing dung truyen thong an Willi xe (Vehicle Safety CommunicationsApplications) (VSC-A) la du an gita nam nhi sin =it 8 to (Daimler/Mercedes-Benz, Ford, GM, Honda vi Toyota) vi BO giao thong v#n tii Hoa trong ba nam. Day la du in truyen thong diu lien de theo dii an totin cho xe (2002-2004), vi tip trong vio This is trial13 version www.adultpdf.com CHUtiNG 1. TOng quan ve h4 thong mong Vanet cic phuung tien truyen th8ng va dinh vi Wang dpi v6i muc tieu to dieu kien cho cac (mg dung an Wan tuang thich (Ahmed Zaid). Do in VSC da xac dinh tam kich ban caa cic vu tai non "bang xep hung top composite", doa ten th6ng ke cua chinh ph6 Hoa Kp ve tin s6 vu tai non, chi phi, va cic khoan 16 trong cac nam hoot dOng. Tren co s6 nay, VSC Qua ra bay Ong dung an town de giai quyet nhung tinh huing tai non. Nhing Ong dung (Maile): M t di 'u lchi ma khong c6 phuang tien uu tien hoot dOng Dieu khi&n phuang tien duqc dung lai Cic phuang tien theo huOng ket not lcheng danh tin hieu Xe cO lai au, di ngtrqc chi& Dieu khien xe giam toc dO X x x x x x Phuang tien khong la tic X nhan (di nguqc chieu) Cac phuang tien thay d6i lan x x du6ng clang mOt huOng LTAP/OD toi cac nut giao x thong khong c6 den tin hieu. Bang 1.1 Ban do mkt VSC-A img dung an toan va kich ban cac via tai nap, dtryc quan tam nal — Den bao phanh Ichin cip (Emergency Electronic Brake Lights) (EEBL): canh &to ye xe phanh dOt ngOt 6 phia tru6c. — Canh bao dung dO phia tram (Forward Collision Warning) (FCW): earth bao xe phia sau sip va chom vao xe phia tru6c. — Cinh bao diem mu (Blind Spot Warning) (BSW)/Canh bao chuyen lan (Lane Change Warning) (LCW): canh bao cho xe biet c6 xe lchac dang di clang huOng mu6n thay d6i lan duting ma nim trong diem mu. Sau d6 khuyen cao cho dt ca cac xe nao dang n&m trong diem mu. This is trial14 version www.adultpdf.com CHUONG 1. Tang quan ve hg thing mpg Vanet — H8 trq di chuyin qua giao 10 (Intersection Movement Assist) (IMA): canh bao khi d6 khong phiti la thtii diem an town de vao xa 10. —Canh btio khong vuqt qua (Do Not Pass Warning) (DNPW): canh bit° khi chiec xe sip va cham va yeu ciu they d6i lan dutmg neu c8 the. — Ciuth bao met kiem sofit (Control Loss Warning) (CLW): Ttr tito ra canh bao khi xe met kiem sat. Cac xe Ichic se duqc doh bao phu thuOc vao moi de Oa. Trong filth vrc truyin thong, tip trong vao (Caminiti 2009): — Thong di0p thanh —Nang luqng tit* nghi0m. — Th8ng di0p ph6 Wen. — Hoot Ong da kenh. —Ph6i hqp va xac nhin tieu chuin. Nhi0m vu thong diep thanh phin di xtic djnh mOt thong di0p bao an total car ban trq tit ca cac ling dung an town (Caminiti). CEng vi0c nay anh hutmg manh me gin nhu hoan thank cac cuOc dam phan ve nh6m lam vi0c SAE J2735. Tieu chuin/ de nghj cuei cling duqc dua ra vao cuei nem 2009. CEng viec dul nghiem nang luqng kham phi Ong suit cao (> 20dBm) lam tang hi0u suit ling dung an tan, vi nang luqng thip (<20 dBm) chi ra dieu then tic nghen. So sanh tS7 18i g6i (PER) xung quanh mOt "ngit to khip kin" 'thong c6 tim nhin thing, chr an di the hiOn duqc pham vi truyin thong hiOn tai hon giam 18i ding ke stI dung truyen tai dies nang 33 dBm (tren danh nghia 20 dBm) (Caminiti). Dieu nay cung cep mOt dating di thu vi cho khan' phi, dic bi0t IA trong nhttng thach thirc dot ra boi cac thong tin truyen th8ng tim nhin thing duqc bao cao trong biva bao cao VIIC (Kandarpa). Cac ban tin ph6 tan se dieu tra vi0c sal dung c8ng suit, hic d), va dieu khien Ichfic de giam thieu sq tic nghen mpg va cal thien viec chuyen ban tin chi thien (Caminiti). Kit qua cuei cung di khong duqc tiet 10 tai thtri diem viet bai nay. Tuy nhien, kit qui c6 ngay sau khi holm thanh du an VSC-A tong thing 11 nam 2009. VSC-A da tich cuc tham gia cac tieu chuin Ichac nhau DSRC, bao gtan IEEE 802.11p, IEEE 1609, va SAE J2735 (Caminiti). Ngotli ra, VSC-A c6 mOt nhiim vu tip trong vao sq an town cita ban tin eta xe vai xe. Tranh phtua cling bit° mit chuyen dung. Dq an la &nit gia thuit than dubng cong elliptic chid 14 se (ECDSA) (Accredited Standards Committee), Ain d?ng ten thit tang the theo luttng thoi gian (Timed Efficient Stream Loss-Tolerant Authentication) (TESLA) (Perrig), va mOt phien ban situ di. This is trial15 version www.adultpdf.com CHUONG 1. TOng quan ve h'0 thin mpg Vanet 1.4. 'CET LU*14 Trong chuang nay, tea di trinh bay lchai quit ljch sir hinh thAnh va phat trien mia VANET, nhung nguyen tic co ban vA thach thirc ctia mpg VANET. This is trial16 version www.adultpdf.com
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