Tài liệu Training program for occupational safety behavior in workplace of production company in hanoi basis for accident prevention and reduction

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Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam Southern Luzon State University Republic of Philippines Training program for occupational safety behavior in workplace of production company in Hanoi: Basis for Accident prevention and Reduction. A Dissertation Presented To The Faculty of Graduate School SOUTHERN LUZON STATE UNIVERSITY LUCBAN, QUEZON, PHILIPPINES THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY S.R. VIETNAM IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE DOCTOR IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pham Thi Ninh August, 2013 Acknowledgments I would like to express our most sincere thanks to the Management Board of the Southern Luzon State University, Thai Nguyen University, the teacher, the teacher of the school has helped me facilitate the learning process throughout. I would like to express sincere gratitude and profound Professor Melchor Milo Placino , enthusiastic teacher who have dedicated guidance, encouragement, spend time and exchange orientation for me during this research. I would like to express my sincere thanks to the Department of Employment Ministry of Labor - Invalids and Social Affairs, the LILAMA 69-2 company has helped me research material, through a questionnaire survey. I sincerely thank the Board of the University of Labor and Social affair (ULSA), colleagues in ULSA, classmates DBA1 facilitated enthusiastic help and share my experience to help complete the thesis. Finally, I would like to send the gift to the heart of my family has passed enthusiasm and encouragement to complete my thesis. i Table of contents Chapter I: Introduction 1.1. Background of the study………………………………………………………….1 1.2. Statement of the problem………………………………………………………....5 1.3. Significance of the study………………………………………………………….6 1.4. Research Method………………………………………………………………….6 1.5. Scope and limitation of the study…………………………………………………7 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Theoretical and conceptual framework...................................................................8 2.2. Review of related studies......................................................................................33 CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Research design and Location of the study……………………………………...36 3.2. Description of respondents………………………………………………………38 3.3 Data collection Procedure and data analysis method…………………………….38 3.4. Questionnaire design……………………………………………………………39 CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1. Profile of Respondents………………………………………………………….45 4.2. Data Analysis ……………..……………………………………………………46 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION, BEHAVIOR BASED SAFETY training program Development 5.1 Findings...………………………………………………………………………53 5.2 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………….54 5.3 Recommendations………………………………………………………………55 REPERENCE ……………………………………………………………………... 79 ii APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………………….81 APPENDIX B……………………………………………………………………….83 APPENDIX C...……………………………………………………………………..85 iii Abstract Safety issue in workplace is an urgent problem nowadays, because of unsafe conditions are occurring daily work in the company especially in the manufacturing sector. Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims is to determine the effectiveness of current safety program and recommend to built up safety training program on behavioral safety, the basis for accident reduction in one typical local big company in manufacturing and erection sector. This descriptive cross- sectional study was carried out on workers/ managers in LILAMA 69-2 company. A sample size of 394 was randomly selected. Data collection tool was a researcher –made questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Excel. With the findings from the study about the causes leading to accident, safety attitude and safety climate, workplace safety behaviors, the researcher believe to help the company management and also other local similar enterprises to improve safety program especially with launching Behavior Based Safety training program and finally to improve accident rate in workplace. iv List of tables: Page Table 2.1: The cause of labor accidents…………………………………... 34 Table 3.1: Questionnaire for measuring safety climate and behavior along 39 with Benchmarking……………………………………………………… Table 3.2: Safety Behavior Marking……………………………………. 43 Table 4.1: Worker survey………………………………………………. 46 Table 4.2: T-test paired two sample for mean……………………………. 48 Table 4.3: Managers and supervisor survey……………………………. 48 Table 4.4: Worker personal profile………………………………………. 49 Table 4.5: Types of Accident …………………………………………….. 50 Table 4.6: The cause lead to accident from LILAMA statistic……… 51 Table 4.7: Summary result of area: D, PATS, SATS, SATW………… 51 Table 4.8: Summary result of area: D, PATS, SATS, HSE……………. 53 Table 5.1: The example of critical behaviors ………………………….. 66 Table 5.2: The example of BSV check list and analysis……………….. 67 Table 5.3: How to do BBS observation………………………………… 68 Exhibit 1-1: Conceptual framework of the Study………………………. 6 Exhibit 2-1: Basis OB model……………………………………………. 10 Exhibit 2-2: Attribution theory………………………………………….. 13 Exhibit 2-3: Maslow’s hierarchy of need……………………………….. 17 v List of figures Page Figure 1.1: Rate accident and Time…………………………………… 1 Figure 4.1: Graph on responded result……………………………….. 47 Figure 4.2: Safety Attitude within Department – First question (worker 48 response) Figure 4.3: Safety Attitude within Department – Second question 48 (worker response) Figure 4.4: Graph- comparison the responded results from managers 50 and supervisor vs workers Figure 5.1: Describes the BBS processes……………………………. 63 vi vii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background: Safety behavior presents a paradox to practitioners and researchers alike because contrary to the assumption that self- preservation overrides other motives (Maslow, 1970), careless behavior prevails during many routine jobs, making safe behavior an ongoing managerial challenge. Studies in Industrial countries showed that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors and only 10% of those belong to unsuitable workplace and equipment (FGhofranipour, Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 38, No 2,2009,pp125). Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain.. Clearly, therefore, safe behavior in routine work poses managerial challenges. Figure 1.1 1 From the graph, we can see that the causes lead to the accident has been changed follows the time, from high rate on engineering approach to system it’s self and now a day human factor is the most contribution to accident causes. Changing the behavior of employee is challenge of manager. In case of Vietnam, occupational accident is a very important issue in industries, especially in recent years the number of occupational accidents occurring more and more as Industry is growing. Also, according to the report of the MOLISA (Ministry of labor, invalid and social affair), the material damage caused by occupational accidents occurring in the first 6 months of 2011 (expenses relating to medicine, funeral, compensations for families of deaths and injury, ...) was 143.331.800.000 vnd (2.62 times increase over the same period in 2010), damage to property was 17.609.900.000 vnd (7.89 times increase over the same period in 2010). Also, according this report the causes of workplace accidents due to no training in occupational safety for employees (7.8%), equipment is not safe (3.15%), not equipped with personal protective equipment for workers (1.39%), no procedures, safety measures (3.49%). Thus more then 80% of accidents occur which are attributable to human factors. That is the attitude, knowledge, behavior of workers for safe work With the purpose of this study, the author considers to have the research on one typical local big company on the field of production and erection in Hanoi area. The result of the study and recommendations could apply to others on the same field and area. 2 The company selected was LILAMA 69-2 who with more than 50 years of constant development, is known as one of the experienced for vessels, pipe manufacturer and erection contractor in Vietnam Being well aware of the strict requirements from client on the high quality services, LILAMA 69-2 has been focusing on developing its human recourses including qualified technical employees and engineers graduated from the prestigious universities in Vietnam to be good in both technical qualification and manufacturing experiences as well as investing more modernized facilities for manufacturing works at factory (More detail about company structure can find in chapter 3 of this thesis, but). The number of employees by end of 2012 was 1,180 staff and 120 leaders and managers. The company is 51% owned by state owned Group LILAMA and 49% by private share holders with 57 BVND chapter capital. Despite the company’s safety policy is “Ensure Safety in production with target Zero accident and by providing safety training and occupational health to 100% workers; daily supervision of safety and occupational health; 100% critical equipment to be maintained follow procedures etc..”, safety and occupational health status formally reported plus accidents/ incidents not formally recorded was on not good condition. Follows report of LILAMA 692, in 2010, 2011,2012, 1 serious accident were happened lead to die and many accidents or incidents not formally recorded Thoroughly analyzed three years incident and investigation data and identified that most of the workplace incidents are triggered by unsafe behaviors, persistence of inherited traditional beliefs and overconfidence of workers. It is obviously that the safety management system in the company is top down with very “state owned training style”. The behavior based safety is something not yet familiar within the companies. 3 1.2. Problem statement. In general, the study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of the safety program and recommend safety training program on the safety behavior of workers and the reduction or prevention of accident in a production company in Hanoi, Vietnam.) Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of workers in LILAMA 69-2 company. 2. What is the frequency and types/classification of work related accidents in LILAMA 69-2 company? 3. What is the leading causes of work related accident in LILAMA company? 4. What is attitude of workers among safety and the safety climate in LILAMA 69-2? 5. What is the behavior of the management of LILAMA 69-2 towards safety program in the company? 6. What safety program is appropriate to improve the safety behavior of workers and safety climate in LILAMA 69-2? 1.3. Significance of the study: The research studying about Behavioral Safety in Workplace of production company in Hanoi area – The selected company is LILAMA 69-2 and establishes Behavior Based Safety Training program for the company. With research result about safety climate, culture and behaviors and by introduction of Behavior Based Safety with its training program to managers and employees, the study and training program arms to promote: (i) the maintenance and promotion of workers’ health and working capacity; (ii) the improvement of working environment and work to become conducive to safety and health and (iii) development of work organizations and working cultures in a direction 4 which supports health and safety at work and in doing so also promotes a positive social climate and smooth operation and may enhance productivity of the undertakings. 1.4 . Research Methodology: 1.4.1. Data collection method The data needed for the research includes secondary data and primary data. Secondary data for the research is mostly collected via: - The reports and statistic of accidents from Ministry of labour and invalid (MOLISA). - Data from yearly Safety report of LILAMA 69-2 Primary data is collected by sending questionnaires to managers and employees of LILAMA 69-2 company and in-depth interviewing some managers and employees . The questions are to ask the employees / managers about their views on Safety Attitude within the company, Personal Attitude to Safety, Working conditions at workplace, Supervisor Attitude to worker safety, Job Loyalty shown by the employee, Serious Attitude to Safety, Training needed, Management attitude. Questionnaires to be sent by mail and though direct contacts to employees (supervisor, managers, workers). 1.4.2 Data analysis The analysis is mainly based on the outputs of data processing and the information collected from the survey. The method’s analysis and assess use Benchmarking and Cornell selected Index. Encoding of data: data will clean (hand with outline and missing value) before entering into computer using Excel. Data analysis and evaluation by using Excel program. 5 1.5. The scope and limitation of research: The research study is carried out in Vietnam and focused on LILAMA 69-2 which is operating in Hanoi area. This is the area which concentrate large amount of industrial companies and also many accidents were reported. With the fact that companies have different dimension about work character, knowledge of employees, scale of company, that why the author choose one typical local and big size company for the research. The result of this research also could apply to other companies in the area and on the same field. Conceptual framework of the study. Exhibit 1-1. Conceptual framework of the study Work Safe behaviors review Literature review/ learning Problems findings Problems Analysis Alternative solutions Development of training plan 6 Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Theoretical and conceptual framework 2.1.1 Definitions of Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness (Robbin, Stephen, Organizational Behavior, eight editions, A Simon and Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458). Organizational behavior is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. And because organizational behavior is specifically concerned with employment related situations, then it emphasizes behavior as related to job, work, productivity, human performance, and management. Organizational behavior includes motivation, leader behavior, interpersonal communication, group structure and processes, learning, attitude development and perception, change processes and work stress. Behavior generally is predictable if we know how the person perceived the situation and what is important to him or her. While people’s behavior may not appear to be rational to an outsider, there is reason to believe it usually is intended to be rational and it is seen as rational by them. An observer often sees behavior as nonrational because the observer does not have access to the same information or does not perceive the environment in the same way. Certainly there are differences between individuals. Placed in similar situations, all people do not act exactly alike. However, there are certain fundamental consistencies underlying the behavior of all individuals that can be identified and then 7 modified to reflect individual differences. These fundamental consistencies are very important because they allow predictability. 2.1. 2. Developing an Organizational Behavior Model A model is an abstraction of reality, a simplified representation of some real world phenomenon (Robbin, Stephen, Organizational Behavior, eight editions, A Simon and Schuster Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458). Stephen Robbins in his book “Organizational behavior” set up the model with three levels of analysis: Individual level; Group level; and Organizational system level. The three basis levels are analogous to building blocks; each level is constructed upon the previous level. Group concepts grow out of the foundation laid in the individual section, and then arrive at organizational behavior. The model of analysis of organizational behavior contents various dependent variables and independent variables. Dependent variable is a response that is affected by an independent variable. In this case productivity, absenteeism, turnover and job satisfaction are dependent variable. The independent variables can be clarified in individual – level variables, group – level variables, and organizational system variables. Individual – level variables: When individuals enter the organization, they are a bit like use cars. Each is different. Some are “low- mileage” – they have been treated carefully and have had only limited exposure to the realities of the elements. Others are “well – worn” having been driven over some rough road (Duncan, Jack, Organizational Behavior – 1978). This indicates that people enter organizations with certain characteristics that will influence their behavior at work. The more obvious of these are personal or biographical characteristics such 8 as age, gender, and marital status; personality characteristics; values and attitudes; perception; learning; motivation; and basis ability levels. These characteristics are essentially intact when an individual enters the workforce and have a very real impact on employee behavior. Group – level variables: The behavior of people in group is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way. The complexity of the model is increased when we acknowledge that people’s behavior when they are in group is different from their behavior when they are alone. Organizational systems level variables: Organizational behavior reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual and group behavior. Just as groups are more than the sum of their individual members, so are organizations more than the sum of their member groups. The design of the formal organization, work processes, and jobs; the organization human resource policies and practices, and the internal culture all have an impact on the dependent variables. 9 Exhibit 2 –1: Basis OB model (Robbin, Stephen –Organizational Behavior – eight edition) Human output Productivity Absence Turnover Satisfaction Human resource policies & practices Organizational culture Organization structure & design Work design & technology Org. system level Change & stress Group decision making Communication Other Groups Leadership Group structure Conflict Work teams Power and politics Group level Biographical characteristics Human input Personality Perception Values & attitudes Motivation Ability Individual learning Individual decision making Individual level 10 2.1.3 Perception, and why is it important for organizational behavior: Perception can be defied as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what one perceives can be substantially difference from objective reality. It need not be, but there is often disagreement. Why is perception important in organizational behavior? Simply because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. How do we explain that individuals may look at the same thing, yet perceive it differently? A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made. Perceiver: When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. Among the more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. The Target: Characteristics of the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Relationship of a target to its background influences perception, as does our tendency to group lose things and similar things together. 11 The Situation: The context in which we see objects or events is important. Elements in the surrounding environment influence our perceptions. Those elements could be: time, work setting, social setting. The attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. That determination, however, depends largely on three factors: Distinctiveness; Consensus; and Consistency. Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. If every one who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows consensus. Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person’s actions. Does the person respond the same way over time? In exhibit 2-2 summarizes the key elements in attribution theory. It would tell us, for instance, that if your employee generally performs at about the same level on other related task (low distinctiveness), if other employees frequently perform differently (low consensus), and if his performance on this current task is consistent over time (high consistency). 12
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