Tài liệu Toyota tundra – new features

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TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES 13 NEW FEATURES J1UR-FE ENGINE 1. Description The 1UR-FE engine is a 4.6-liter, 32-valve DOHC V8. This engine uses the Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent (Dual VVT-i) system, Direct Ignition System (DIS), Acoustic Control Induction System (ACIS), Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent (ETCS-i), air injection system and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) control. These control functions achieve improved engine performance, fuel economy, and clean emissions. 12CEG01Y 12CEG02Y 14 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES " Engine Specifications A No. of Cyls. & Arrangement 8-cylinder, V Type Valve Mechanism 32-valve DOHC, Chain Drive (with Dual VVT-i) Combustion Chamber Pentroof Type Manifolds Cross-flow Fuel System SFI Ignition System DIS Displacement cm3 (cu. in.) Bore × Stroke mm (in.) Compression Ratio 94.0 × 83.0 (3.70 × 3.27) 10.2 : 1 Max. Output (SAE-NET)*1 Max. Torque 4608 (281.2) 231 kW @ 5600 rpm (310 HP @ 5600 rpm) (SAE-NET)*1 Intake Valve Timing Exhaust 443 N⋅m @ 3400 rpm (327 ft⋅lbf @ 3400 rpm) Open –18_ to 22_ BTDC Closed 70_ to 30_ ABDC Open 62_ to 30_ BBDC Closed – 8_ to 24_ ATDC Firing Order 1–8–7–3–6–5–4–2 Octane Rating 87 or higher Research Octane Number (RON) 91 or higher Tailpipe Emission Regulation LEVII-ULEV, SFTP Evaporative Emission Regulation Engine Service Mass*2 (Reference) LEVII, ORVR kg (lb) 216.1 (476.5) *1: Maximum output and torque ratings are determined by revised SAE J1349 standard. *2: The figure shown is the weight of the part without coolant and oil. 15 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES " Valve Timing A : Intake valve opening angle : Exhaust valve opening angle Exhaust VVT-i Operation Range Intake VVT-i Operation Range 22_ TDC 8_ 18_ 24_ 70_ 62_ Intake VVT-i Operation Range Exhaust VVT-i Operation Range 30_ 30_ BDC " 12CEG03Y Performance Curve A 320 240 300 220 280 Torque N⋅m (ft⋅lbf) 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320 340 320 300 280 260 240 260 240 180 220 160 200 180 120 140 100 100 80 60 40 2000 3000 4000 5000 Engine Speed (rpm) 140 160 120 1000 200 Output (HP) kW 80 60 40 20 20 0 0 6000 12CEG53Y 16 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES 2. Features of 1UR-FE Engine The 1UR-FE engine has achieved the following performance through the use of the items listed below: (1) High performance and reliability (2) Low noise and vibration (3) Lightweight and compact design (4) Good serviceability (5) Clean emission and fuel economy Item Engine Proper Valve Mechanism Lubrication System (1) (2) (3) A taper squish shape is used for the combustion chamber. f An aluminum alloy cylinder block containing an engine coolant distribution pathway is used. f f Spiny-type liners are used in the cylinder bores. f f Cylinder block water jacket spacers are used. f The piston skirt is coated with resin. f f A No. 1 oil pan made of aluminum alloy is used. f f Timing chains and chain tensioners are used. f Hydraulic lash adjusters are used. f Roller rocker arms are used. f f f f f f f f f A linkless-type throttle body is used. f f An intake manifold made of plastic is used. f f A step motor type EGR valve is used. f A water-cooled type EGR cooler is used. f Stainless steel exhaust manifolds are used. f f f Ceramic type Three-Way Catalytic converters (TWCs) are used. Fuel System Ignition System f f A carbon filter is used in the air cleaner cap. Intake and Exhaust System (5) f An oil filter with a replaceable element is used. A water-cooled type oil cooler is used.* (4) f 12-hole type fuel injectors are used to improve the atomization of fuel. f The Direct Ignition System (DIS) makes ignition timing adjustment unnecessary. f f f Long-reach type iridium-tipped spark plugs are used. f f f f (Continued) *: Models with towing package 17 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Item (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Charging System A segment conductor type generator is used. Starting System A planetary reduction type starter is used. f Serpentine Belt Drive System A serpentine belt drive system is used. f Blowby Gas Ventilation System A separator case is provided between the cylinder block and the intake manifold. f An magnetic Resistance Element (MRE) type crankshaft position, a camshaft position, and VVT sensors are used. f The Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent (ETCS-i) is used. f f The Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent (Dual VVT-i) system is used. f f The Acoustic Control Induction System (ACIS) is used. f f Engine Control System f f f f The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) control is used. f An air injection system is used. f A starter control (cranking hold function) is used. An evaporative emission control system is used. f f 18 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES 3. Engine Proper Cylinder Head Cover D Lightweight yet high-strength aluminum cylinder head covers are used. D An oil delivery pipe is installed inside the cylinder head covers. This ensures lubrication to the sliding parts of the valve rocker arms, improving reliability. D Large baffle plates are built into the cylinder head covers. As a result, the speed of blowby gas flow is reduced, and the oil mist is removed from the blowby gas. Due to this, the amount of oil lost is reduced. Cylinder Head Cover RH Cylinder Head Cover LH Oil Delivery Pipe Baffle Plate Baffle Plate Oil Delivery Pipe Cylinder Head Cover Gasket LH Cylinder Head Cover Gasket RH 12CEG04Y Cylinder Head Gasket D 3-layer steel-laminate type cylinder head gaskets are used. A shim is used around the cylinder bore of each gasket to help enhance sealing performance and durability. This results in improved fuel economy, reduced consumption rate of engine oil and reduced emission of exhaust gases. D The surface is coated with highly heat-resistant fluoro rubber to support high power output. A Front Right Bank A Shim A – A Cross Section Left Bank 04E1EG07C 19 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Cylinder Head D The cylinder head structure has been simplified by separating the cam journal portion (camshaft housing) from the cylinder head. D The cylinder head, which is made of aluminum, contains a pentroof type combustion chamber. The spark plug is located in the center of the combustion chamber in order to improve the engine’s anti-knocking performance. D The port configuration is an efficient cross-flow type in which the intake ports face the inside of the V bank and the exhaust ports face the outside. D A siamese type intake port is used. The port diameter gradually decreases toward the combustion chamber to optimize the airflow speed and intake pulsation. D An air injection port is provided for the air injection system. Intake Valve Camshaft Housing A Intake Side Intake Side Spark Plug Hole Exhaust Valve Exhaust Side Exhaust Side A Bottom Side View A – A Cross Section 080EG31TE 04E1EG09C Air Injection Port Front Exhaust Side View 04E1EG10C — REFERENCE — Siamese Type Independent Type 036EG28TE 036EG29TE 20 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Cylinder Block 1) General D The cylinder block is made of aluminum alloy. D The cylinder block has a bank angle of 90_, a bank offset of 21 mm (0.827 in.) and a bore pitch of 105.5 mm (4.15 in.), resulting in a compact block in its length and width considering its displacement. D Spiny-type liners are used. D An engine coolant distribution pathway is provided between the left and right banks. The engine coolant sent by the water pump passes through the engine coolant distribution pathway and flows to the cylinder head and water jackets of both banks. The engine coolant distribution pathway also cools the engine oil in the main oil hole located directly below the pathway. D A water passage is provided between the cylinder bores. By allowing the engine coolant to flow between the cylinder bores, this construction keeps the temperature of the cylinder walls uniform. D Plastic cylinder block water jacket spacers are inserted in the water jacket. They control the flow of the engine coolant in order to attain a uniform temperature around the combustion chambers. D Installation bosses of the 4 knock sensors are located on the inner side of the left and right banks to enhance the accuracy of the knock sensors. D Air passage holes are provided on the bulkheads of the cylinder block. As a result, the air at the bottom of the cylinder flows smoother, and pumping loss (back pressure at the bottom of the piston generated by the piston’s reciprocating movement) is reduced to improve the engine’s output. Water Passage 21 mm (0.827 in.) 105.5 mm (4.15 in.) #1 Engine Coolant Distribution Pathway Knock Sensor Boss #2 #4 #6 #3 #5 #8 #7 Top Side View Air Passage Hole 90_ Main Oil Hole 12CEG05Y 21 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES 2) Spiny-type Liner D The liners are the spiny-type which have been manufactured so that their casting exteriors form large irregular surfaces in order to enhance the adhesion between the liners and the aluminum cylinder block. The enhanced adhesion helps heat dissipation, resulting in a lower overall temperature and heat deformation of the cylinder bores. D The shape of the cross-hatching of the liner surface has been optimized to improve oil retention performance, resulting in reduced friction. Irregularly Shaped Outer Casting Surface of Liner Cylinder Block Cylinder Block A Enlarged View of Cross-hatching A Liner A – A Cross Section 12CEG06Y 3) Cylinder Block Water Jacket Spacer The temperature in the intake side of the cylinder bore tends to be lower. For this reason, a wide cylinder block water jacket spacer covers the cylinder bores in order to suppress the flow of the engine coolant and prevent excessive cooling. On the other hand, the temperature of the exhaust side of the cylinder bore tends to be higher. A cylinder block water jacket spacer covers the lower area of the cylinder bores in order to direct the engine coolant to the upper area of the cylinder bores where the temperature is higher. This makes the temperature around the cylinder bores more uniform. As a result, the viscosity of the engine oil (which lubricates the area between the wall surface of the cylinder bore and the piston) decreases, thus reducing friction between the cylinder bore and the piston. Cylinder Block Water Jacket Spacer Water Jacket Intake Side Exhaust Side Front Cylinder Block Water Jacket Spacer : Engine coolant flow : Engine coolant Cross-sectional Image of Cylinder Bore 12CEG07Y 22 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Piston D The pistons are made of aluminum alloy. D A compact combustion chamber is provided on top of the piston to achieve stable combustion. Together with the pentroof type combustion chamber of the cylinder head, this achieves a high compression ratio, resulting in both high performance and excellent fuel economy. D A taper squish combustion chamber is used to improve anti-knocking performance and intake efficiency. In addition, engine performance and fuel economy are improved. D In order to reduce weight, cast holes are provided on the bottom of the piston head near the pin bosses as shown in the illustration below. D The piston skirt is coated with resin to reduce friction losses. D A Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) coating has been applied to the surface of the No. 1 compression ring and oil ring, in order to improve its wear resistance. D By increasing the machining precision of the cylinder bore diameter in the block, only one size of piston is required. Resin Coating PVD Coating Taper Squish Shape No. 1 Compression Ring Weight Reduction Area No. 2 Compression Ring Oil Ring PVD Coating 12CEG17I Service Tip The same pistons are used for both right and left banks. When installing a piston, the front mark should face the front of the engine. 23 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Connecting Rod and Connecting Rod Bearing D Connecting rods that have been forged for high strength are used for weight reduction. D Knock pins are used at the mating surfaces of the bearing caps of the connecting rod to minimize the shifting of the bearing caps during assembly. D Plastic region tightening bolts are used on the connecting rods. D Resin-coated aluminum bearings are used for the connecting rod bearings. The connecting rod bearings are reduced in width to reduce friction. Oil Jet Resin Coating Knock Pin Plastic Region Tightening Bolt 12CEG11Y Crankshaft D A crankshaft made of forged steel, which excels in rigidity and wear resistance, is used. D The crankshaft has 5 main bearing journals and 6 balance weights. Balance Weight Balance Weight Engine Front No. 1 Journal No. 3 Journal No. 2 Journal No. 4 Journal No. 5 Journal 036EG02TE 24 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Crankshaft Bearing and Crankshaft Bearing Cap D The crankshaft bearings are made of aluminum alloy. D The crankshaft bearings are reduced in width to reduce friction. The bearing lining surface is coated with resin to improve wear and seizure resistance. D The upper crankshaft bearing has an oil groove around its inside circumference. D The crankshaft bearing caps use 4 plastic region tightening bolts of different sizes in the inner and outer sides to secure the journals. This makes the crankshaft bearing caps more compact and lightweight. In addition, each cap has been tightened laterally to improve its reliability. Plastic Region Tightening Bolt Upper Main Bearing Oil Groove Resin Coating Crankshaft Bearing Cap Lower Main Bearing 12CEG08Y Crankshaft Pulley The crankshaft pulley uses torsional damper rubber and has been optimized to reduce noise and vibration. Torsional Damper Rubber 04E1EG18C 25 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Oil Pan D The No. 1 oil pan is made of aluminum alloy. D The No. 1 oil pan is secured to the cylinder block and the transmission housing to increase rigidity. D The shape of the oil pan baffle plate has been optimized to ensure the proper space between the crankshaft and the engine oil surface. This enhances the separation of oil flow and ventilation gases, thus reducing friction and improving lubrication performance. Oil Pan Baffle Plate No. 1 Oil Pan No. 2 Oil Pan 080EG02TE 26 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES 4. Valve Mechanism General D Each cylinder of this engine has 2 intake valves and 2 exhaust valves. Intake and exhaust efficiency has been increased due to the larger total port areas. D This engine uses roller rocker arms with built-in needle bearings. This reduces the friction that occurs between the cams and the valve rocker arms that push the valves down, thus improving fuel economy. D A hydraulic lash adjuster, which maintains a constant zero valve clearance through the use of oil pressure and spring force, is used. D To ensure highly accurate valve timing, separate primary timing chains are driven by the crankshaft in order to rotate the intake camshafts of the left and right banks. The exhaust camshafts are driven by the intake camshaft of the respective bank via secondary timing chains. D This engine has a Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent (Dual VVT-i) system which controls the intake and exhaust camshafts to provide optimal valve timing in accordance with driving conditions. Using this system, lower fuel consumption, higher engine performance, and lower exhaust emissions have been achieved. For details of Dual VVT-i control, see page 78. Exhaust Camshaft Intake Camshaft Secondary Timing Chain Valve Rocker Arm Valve Spring Retainer Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Compression Spring Valve Guide Bush Valve Spring Seat Valve Primary Timing Chain Secondary Timing Chain 12CEG18Y 27 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Camshaft D The camshafts are made of cast iron alloy. D Oil passages are provided in the intake and exhaust camshafts in order to supply engine oil to the VVT-i system. D VVT-i controllers are installed on the front of the intake and exhaust camshafts to vary the timing of the intake and exhaust valves. D Together with the use of the roller rocker arms, the cam profile has been optimized. This results in increased valve lift when the valve begins to open and when it finishes closing, helping to achieve enhanced output performance. VVT-i Controller No. 2 Camshaft (Exhaust) Increased Valve Lift No. 1 Camshaft (Intake) No. 3 Camshaft (Intake) Optimized Profile of Camshaft Lobe Timing Rotor VVT-i Controller No. 4 Camshaft (Exhaust) Timing Rotor Oil Passage VVT-i Controller Cross Section of End of Intake Camshaft Oil Passage Cross Section of End of Exhaust Camshaft 080EG34S 28 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Timing Chains and Chain Tensioners D Both the primary and secondary timing chains use roller chains with a pitch of 9.525 mm (0.375 in.). D A chain tensioner is provided for each primary timing chain and secondary timing chain in each bank. D Both the primary and secondary chain tensioners use oil pressure and a spring to maintain proper chain tension at all times. The tensioners suppress noise generated by the timing chains. D The chain tensioner for the primary timing chain is a ratchet type with a non-return mechanism. Furthermore, an oil pocket creates oil pressure when the engine is started, and simultaneously applies oil pressure to the chain tensioner. This prevents the timing chain from flapping and reduces noise. Primary Chain Tensioner LH Gasket Secondary Chain Tensioner RH Main Spring Ball Ball Spring Chain Tensioner Oil Pocket (Primary) Chain Damper RH Secondary Chain Chain Slipper LH Tensioner LH Secondary Timing Chain RH Plunger Primary Chain Tensioner RH Secondary Timing Chain LH Spring Chain Slipper RH Chain Damper LH Cam Cam Spring Primary Timing Chain RH Primary Timing Chain LH 080EG23S 29 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Timing Chain Cover D The timing chain cover has an integrated construction consisting of a cooling system (water pump and water passage) and a lubrication system (oil pump and oil passage). Thus, the number of parts has been reduced, resulting in a weight reduction. D A chain oil jet is provided in the oil pump cover to lubricate the timing chains. Water Pump Swirl Chamber Water Pump Gasket Timing Chain Cover Oil Pump Cover Chain Oil Jet Water Pump Timing Chain Cover Front Side View Oil Pump Chamber Oil Pump Rotor Back Side View 12CEG12Y Hydraulic Lash Adjuster D The hydraulic lash adjuster, which is located at the fulcrum (pivot point) of the roller rocker arms, consists primarily of a plunger, a plunger spring, a check ball, and a check ball spring. D The engine oil supplied from the cylinder head and the built-in spring actuate the hydraulic lash adjuster. The oil pressure and the spring force, that act on the plunger, push the roller rocker arm against the cam, in order to adjust the clearance between the valve stem and rocker arm. This prevents the generation of noise during the opening and closing of the valves. As a result, engine noise has been reduced. Plunger Oil Passage Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Cam Roller Rocker Arm Oil Passage Check Ball Check Ball Spring Plunger Spring 04E1EG24C Service Tip Valve clearance adjustment is not necessary because hydraulic lash adjusters are used on this model. 30 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES 5. Lubrication System General D The lubrication circuit is fully pressurized and oil passes through an oil filter. D A cycloid rotor type oil pump is used. D An oil filter with a replaceable element is used. D A water-cooled type oil cooler is provided as optional equipment. Oil Delivery Pipe (Cylinder Head Cover) Camshaft Timing Oil Control Valve Oil Pump Oil Filter Oil Strainer Oil Cooler* *: Models with towing package 12CEG19Y 31 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES " Oil Circuit A Main Oil Hole Cylinder Head LH Chain Cylinder Block Oil Jet Oil Filter Crankshaft Journals Oil Cooler*1 Crankshaft Pins Oil Pump Connecting Rods Primary Chain Tensioner Camshaft Timing OCV*2 Intake Camshaft Journals Oil Jets Camshaft Timing OCV*2 Exhaust Camshaft Journals VVT-i Controller Secondary Chain Tensioner Cylinder Head RH Hydraulic Lash Adjusters Primary Chain Tensioner Intake Camshaft Journals VVT-i Controller Secondary Chain Tensioner Exhaust Camshaft Journals Hydraulic Lash Adjusters Relief Valve Oil Pan *1: Models with towing package *2: Oil Control Valve 04E1EG26C 32 TOYOTA TUNDRA – NEW FEATURES Oil Pump D A compact cycloid rotor type oil pump, directly driven by the crankshaft, is used. D This oil pump uses an internal relief method which circulates relief oil to the suction passage in the oil pump. This aims to minimize oil level change in the oil pan, reduce friction, and reduce the air mixing rate in the oil. Timing Chain Cover To Cylinder Block Oil Pump Cover Crankshaft Oil Pump Rotor (Cycloid Rotor) Oil Filter From Relief Oil Oil Strainer 12DEG14I Oil Jet D 4 oil jets for cooling and lubricating the pistons are provided in the cylinder block, in the center of the right and left banks. D These oil jets contain a check valve to prevent oil from being fed when the oil pressure is low. This prevents the overall oil pressure in the engine from dropping. Oil Jet Check Valve Oil Oil Jet Cross Section Cylinder Block 12CEG09Y
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