97 年 1 月 TOFEL 听力 (Page159)
1. (A) His mother was on her lunch break.
(B) His mother can't talk about her new job.
(C) His mother doesn't like going to lunch.
(D) His mother's new job keeps her busy.
2. (A) She thinks the man should drive to town.
(B) She likes to pass cars.
(C) The man should mind his own business.
(D) The traffic won't be detoured after tomorrow.
3. (A) See his professor about the paper.
(B) Try to get better grades.
(C) Be on time for his appointment.
(D) Pick a different topic for his paper.
4. (A) She doesn't like fresh vegetable.
(B) She doesn't have time to go to the market.
(C) She has already been shopping.
(D) She only has enough for herself.
5. (A) She prefers to exercise in the morning.
(B) It's important to warm up before exercising.
(C) The man should start running daily.
(D) The man should continue his exercise program.
6. (A) The party doesn't interest him.
(B) He may already have plans.
(C) He'd like to bring a guest to the party.
(D) He'd rather come another time.
7. (A) She is embarrassed.
(B) She had forgotten all about the test.
(C) She just got one question correct.
(D) She is very pleased.
8. (A) He prefers to go to the concert tonight.
(B) He doesn't like to go to movies at night.
(C) The others should do what they like.
(D) They should go to more movies and concerts this year.
9. (A) The books slipped off the table.
(B) He forgot to get the books.
(C) He reminded Ron about the books.
(D) Ron should pick up the books.
10. (A) She left them at home.
(B) She needs them right now.
(C) They might be hard to read.
(D) They are incomplete.
11. (A) Wait until the sale is now.
(B) Watch for the ad on television.
(C) Return his suit to Conrad's.
(D) Buy a new suit.
12. (A) The woman should return his tape player by Friday.
(B) The woman should buy him a new player.
(C) By Friday he should be able to borrow a tape player.
(D) He can't wait until Friday for exams.
13. (A) Start looking forward to her history class.
(B) Mail her letters immediately.
(C) Stop thinking about her exams.
(D) Study instead of writing letters.
14. (A) She's looking forward to her history class.
(B) She's surprised how long her reading assignment is.
(C) She thinks the book is too expensive.
(D) She's late for her history class.
15. (A) She is away for a few days.
(B) She recently hurt herself.
(C) She tore her skirt on a hook.
(D) She seldom stops studying.
16. (A) Sit further back.
(B) Sit closer together.
(C) Find their reserved seats.
(D) Find seats closer to the screen.
17. (A) His paycheck is late.
(B) The book bag is too expensive.
(C) He can't lend the woman any money.
(D) The woman doesn't need a new book bag.
18. (A) Buy an Italian cookbook.
(B) Go to an Italian restaurant.
(C) Take a night flight to Italy instead.
(D) Cook some Italian dishes on Saturday.
19. (A) Move to a cheaper apartment.
(B) Find a person to share their apartment.
(C) Hire a new worker.
(D) Write an accurate description of a friend.
20. (A) The man should buy a watch in a jewelry store.
(B) The jewelry store doesn't have a good selection of watches.
(C) The man has been looking at poorly made watches.
(D) The watches in the jewelry store are even more expensive.
21. (A) He isn't ready to work on the next lab experiment.
(B) He's surprised the woman chose him.
(C) He doesn't understand why the experiment didn't work.
(D) Finding a lab partner is difficult.
22. (A) Both games are played worldwide.
(B) Chess is more difficult.
(C) Both games can be learned by children.
(D) He can't compare the two games.
23. (A) All of the applicants received fellowships.
(B) The dean is waiting to see her.
(C) Her fellowship is being delayed until her grades are available.
(D) Her fellowship was announced first.
24. (A) He can't see very well.
(B) He's not feeling well.
(C) His eye doesn't hurt very much.
(D) His eye isn't healing very quickly.
25. (A) Join an engineering firm.
(B) Start his own company.
(C) Join the woman in graduate school.
(D) Go to business school.
26. (A) He should move the desk back.
(B) He should go to the doctor.
(C) He should have had someone help him.
(D) He should have known the desk was heavy.
27. (A) Buy a new television for the woman.
(B) Check to see if the woman's television has been repaired.
(C) Fix the woman's television.
(D) Order parts for the woman's television.
28. (A) He wants to learn to play the clarinet.
(B) He wants to play in the band.
(C) His hand is performing next week.
(D) He wasn't playing very loudly.
29. (A) She also plans to get a pet.
(B) Dan is allergic to cats.
(C) Animals will soon be allowed in Dan's building.
(D) Dan will get a lift to his apartment from a relative.
30. (A) He wants to know how the concert was.
(B) He disagrees with the woman.
(C) He likes to play the piano.
(D) He also enjoyed the music.
31. (A) Planning a sightseeing tour.
(B) Writing to his uncle.
(C) Arranging his class schedule.
(D) Looking through a language textbook.
32. (A) Get the university's approval in advance.
(B) Follow Susan's advice about traveling abroad.
(C) Take more French courses to improve his skills.
(D) Make inquiries about the requirements for teaching chemistry.
33. (A) He's fulfilled his graduation requirements.
(B) He wants to change his field of study.
(C) He needs to get better grades.
(D) He needs to earn a graduate degree.
34. (A) The benefits of new reflectors.
(B) Identifying different varieties of quartz.
(C) A particular kind of heating device.
(D) Using solar energy for heat.
35. (A) Quartz heater.
(B) Sympathetic vibration.
(C) Infrared heat.
36. (A) He asks her for an example.
(B) He asks her to give a definition.
(C) He asks her how a quartz heater works.
(D) He asks her to explain his design.
37. (A) It heats only the objects in a room.
(B) It is lighter in weigh.
(C) It is more expensive.
(D) It is more common.
38. (A) It measures the temperature of a room.
(B) It collects sunlight.
(C) It moves air around the room.
(D) It directs radiation at objects.
39. (A) To interest students in a career in counseling.
(B) To recent counselors to work in the placement of office.
(C) To inform students of a university program.
(D) To convince local merchants to hire college students.
40. (A) A job listing.
(B) A resume.
(C) A permission slip.
(D) Their salary requirements.
41. (A) Refine their interviewing techniques.
(B) Arrange their work schedules.
(C) Select appropriate courses.
(D) Write cover letters.
42. (A) They pay the same wage.
(B) They involve working outdoors.
(C) They can be substituted for college courses.
(D) They're part-time.
43. (A) A painter and a sculptor.
(B) Paintings inspired by photographs.
(C) Early photographic techniques.
(D) The work of two photographers.
44. (A) He photographed her house.
(B) He photographed her paintings.
(C) He gave her advice on photography.
(D) He gave her advice on painting techniques.
45. (A) Painting.
(C) Photographing sculpture.
(D) Photographing people.
46. (A) It is the only record left of the painting.
(B) It is not an accurate representation of the painting.
(C) It has become more valuable than the painting.
(D) It was destroyed with the painting in a fire.
47. (A) Irrigating desert areas.
(B) Uses for cold seawater.
(C) Techniques for preserving the environment.
(D) The importance of conserving energy.
48. (A) Produce larger vegetables.
(B) Transport produce more quickly.
(C) Grow crops in nontraditional climates.
(D) Keep vegetables fresher for a longer period.
49. (A) To transport water to higher elevations.
(B) To provide air-conditioning.
(C) To bring nutrients to the soil.
(D) To adjust the soil temperature.
50. (A) It's another possible use for seawater.
(B) It's necessary for growing vegetables in hot climates.
(C) It's used to cool water used for irrigation.
(D) It's the primary use for electricity in the United States.
97 年 1 月 TOFEL 语法 (Page160)
1. _____ a necessary dimension for measuring astronomical space and the distance of heavenly
bodies form the Earth.
(A) Once in time
(B) Time is
(C) The time
(D) It is time
2. Jackie Joyner-Kersee, _____ the world record in the heptathlon in the 1988 Olympics, also
won the long jump in the year.
(A) whose setting
(B) which she set
(C) whoever set
(D) who set
3. The fossilized remains of a type of camel _____ a dog have been found in the Bad Lands of
(A) no more large
(B) no larger than
(C) not larger
(D) which no larger
Gorillas are quiet animals, _____ they are capable of making about 20 different sounds.
as well as
5. Although the Earth's chemical composition had been studied for years, only toward the end of
the nineteenth century _____ as a discipline in its own right.
(A) when geochemistry was recognized
(B) was recognized as geochemistry
(C) then recognized as geochemistry
(D) as geochemistry was recognized
6. Because the wood of the dogwood tree is very hard, _____ is used for objects, such as roller
skate wheels, in which hardness is desired.
7. In hot, dry regions, the Sun's heat causes the outer layer of rocks _____, a process called
(A) are expanded and peeled away
(B) to expand and peel away
(C) expands and peels away
(D) they expand and peel away
The lower _____ in a room, the more slowly our eyes focus.
the level of lighting
leveling of light
(D) lighting is level
9. _____ Sarah Orne Jewett, a nineteenth-century writer, read widely in her family's extensive
(A) That she received little education formally
(B) The little formal education that she received
(C) Little formal education that was received by
(D) Although she received little formal education
10. (A) In the early twentieth century, the "Model T" automobile was mass-produced and sold at
a price _____ could afford.
(A) the average person who
(B) that the average person who
(C) and the average person
(D) the average person
11. Not only _____ all the positive charge of an atom, it is also the site of the weight of every
(A) does the nucleus hold
(B) the nucleus holding
(C) the nucleus does hold
(D) holds the nucleus
The wind-rippled sand at California's Kelso Dunes resembles _____.
to be an ocean floor
as an ocean floor
an ocean floor
being an ocean floor
Fossil records indicate _____ existing in the past have become extinct.
that many species of organisms
many species of organisms that
many species of organisms are
there are many organisms
14. Experiments related to the sense of smell are more easily _____ than those related to
perception of color.
(A) setting them up
(B) to set up
(C) set up
(D) sets up those
The Pulitzer Prize has been _____ in American literature for more than seventy years.
the award most prestigious that
the most prestigious award
a prestigious award that most
most prestigious award
16. Those interested in covered bridges can find six of they between Keene and
Winchester, New Hampshire.
17. The Sun's energy is generated deep in the solar core by the synthesis of helium
from hydrogen through a sequences of thermonuclear fusion reactions.
18. Using carbon-dating techniques, archaeologists can determine the age of many
ancient objects by measurement the amount of radioactive carbon they contain.
19. The evolutionary adaptation of a particular species of animal over time occurs in
response to environmental conditions, including others animals.
20. Saturn is the second largest planet after Jupiter, with a diameter nearly ten times
those of Earth.
21. Ogden Nash often extended sentences over several lines produce surprising and
22. By the second month of life, most infant can turn their heads and move their eyes
to follow the movements of people and large objects around them.
23. Early movies had appeal immediate and became a means to present contemporary
attitudes, fashions, and events.
24. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., clergyman and civil rights leader, won the 1964 Nobel
Peace Prize for his work toward racially equality in the United States.
25. Leontyne Price ranks among the most celebration sopranos of her time.
26. Carrie Chapman Call was instrumental in passing the Nineteenth Amendment to
the United States Constitution gives women the right to vote.
27. Discovery in 1789 and isolated from other element in 1841, uranium is valued as a
source of atomic energy.
28. Ulysses S. Kay was among the United States composers visited the Soviet Union
in 1958 to participate in a cultural exchange program.
29. Alaska is fame for tall mountains and beautiful scenery.
30. True ferns have undergone remarkably little change during its long geological
history, which extends back to the Devonian period.
31. Diplomatic negotiations generally take place in embassies or in the foreign offices
of the countries which in ambassadors are accredited.
32. The novelist Shirley Hazzard is noted for the insight, poetic style, and sensitive
she demonstrates in her works.
33. Compare with the jagged estuaries of the Atlantic coast, the Pacific coast seems
almost uniformly straight.
34. Because of its low cholesterol content, margarine is a widely used substitute from
35. After the Boston Tea Party in 1773, coffeehouses in the North American colonies
became centers for gossip, gamble, and political criticism.
36. Studies by B.F. Skinner indicate that reward positively reinforces behavior and makes
that behavior likely more to recur.
37. Mathematical puzzles are common into history because they have been used a
intelligence tests and amusements.
38. Most authorities consider both dreaming while sleep and daydreaming to be forms
39. Genetic engineering is helping researchers unravel the mysteries of previously
incurable diseases so that they can get to its root causes and find cures.
40. The Montessori method of education stresses initiative and self-reliance to permitting
pupils to pursue independently whatever interests them, but within disciplined limits.
97 年 1 月 TOFEL 阅读 (Page 161-163)
Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural
pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with some of the most
dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and
distribution. The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during the middle third of the
nineteenth century led to significant improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of
shipments and communications, making possible a fundamental transformation in the production
and distribution of goods.
In agriculture, the transformation was marked by the emergence of the grain elevators, the
cotton presses, the warehouses, and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so many of the
nation's farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy against them. In manufacturing, the
transformation was marked by the emergence of a "new factory system" in which plants became
larger, more complex, and more systematically organized and managed. And in distribution, the
transformation was marked by the emergence of the jobber, the wholesaler, and the mass retailer.
These changes radically altered the nature of work during the half century between 1870 and 1920.
To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products
ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. There were the sweatshops in city
tenements, where groups of men and women in household settings manufactured clothing or
cigars on a piecework basis. And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where
individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that
coexisted within a single buildings. But as the number of wage earners in manufacturing rose
from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920, the number of huge plants
like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as did the size of the average
plant. (The Baldwin Works had 600 employees in 1855, 3,000 in 1875, and 8,000 in 1900.) By
1920, at least in the northeastern United States where most of the nation's manufacturing wage
earners were concentrated, three-quarters of those worked in factories with more than 100
employees and 30 percent worked in factories with more than 1,000 employees.
1. The word "domains" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
2. What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the
(A) New technological developments had little effect on farmers.
(B) The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.
(C) Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.
(D) Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.
3. The word "fundamental" in line 7 is closest in meaning to
4. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as part of the "new factory system?"
(A) A change in the organization of factories.
(B) A growth in the complexity of factories.
(C) An increase in the size of factories.
(D) An increase in the cost of manufacturing industrial products.
5. Which of the following statements about manufacturing before 1870 can be inferred from the
(A) Most manufacturing activity was highly organized.
(B) Most manufacturing occurred in relatively small plants.
(C) The most commonly manufactured goods were cotton presses.
(D) Manufacturing and agriculture each made up about half of the nation's economy.
6. The word "skilled" in line 16 is closest in meaning to
7. The word "presided over" in line 20 are closest in meaning to
(B) led to
(C) worked in
8. The author mentions the Baldwin Locomotive Works in lines 23-24 because it was
(A) a well-known metal-works
(B) the first plant of its kind in Philadelphia
(C) typical of the large factories that were becoming more common
(D) typical of factories that consisted of a single building
Stars may be spheres, but not every celestial object is spherical. Objects in the universe show a
variety of shapes: round planets (some with rings), tailed comets, wispy cosmic gas and dust
clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxies, and so on. But none of the shapes on this
list describes the largest single entities in the universe. These are the double radio sources,
galaxies with huge clouds of radio emission that dwarf the visible galaxies, sometimes by a factor
of a hundred or more. Stretching over distances greater than a million light-years, these radioemitting regions resemble twin turbulent gas clouds, typically forming dumbbell-like shapes with
the visible galaxy (when it is visible) in the center.
These double radio sources present astronomers with a puzzle. Their radio emission arises from
the synchrotron process, in which electrons accelerated to nearly the speed of light move through
magnetic fields. However, in view of the rate at which the radio sources emit energy, they should
disappear in a few million years as their electrons slow down and cease producing radiation.
Somehow new electrons must be continually accelerated to nearly the speed of light, otherwise,
by now almost none of the double radio sources would be observed.
With the advent of high-resolution radio interferometers during the late 1970's, part of the
answer became clear: the electrons are produced in jets that are shot out in opposite directions
from the center of galaxy. Remarkably narrow and highly directional, the jets move outward at
speeds close to the speed of light. When the jets strike the highly rarefied gas that permcales
intergalactic space, the fast-moving electrons lose their highly directional motion and form vast
clouds of radio-emitting gas.
Cosmic jets have ranked among the hottest topics of astronomical research in recent years as
astronomers strive to understand where they come from. Why should a galaxy eject matter at such
tremendous speeds in two narrow jets? And why are such jets not seen in the Milky Way?
9. The word "celestial" in line 1 could best be replaced by
The word "entities" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
In the first paragraph, the author describes objects in the universe in terms of their
Which of the following is the best representation of the clouds of radio emission
described in the first paragraph?
According to the passage, scientists do not fully understand why double radio sources
have not eventually disappeared
cannot be observed with a telescope
are beginning to slow down
are not as big as some planets and stars
The word "their" in line 22 refers to
According to the passage, what happens when electrons and gas collide in space?
The gas becomes more condensed
The gas becomes less radiated
The electrons disperse
The electrons become negatively charged
The author suggests that astronomers consider the study of cosmic jets to be
an obsolete scientific field
an unprofitable venture
an intriguing challenge
a subjective debate
In what lines does the passage compare the size of double radio sources with that of other
(A) Lines 4-6
(B) Lines 12-14
(C) Lines 19-20
(D) Lines 23-24
Where in the passage does the author mention a technology that aided in the
understanding of double radio sources?
(A) Line 2
(B) Line 7
(C) Line 17
(D) Line 21
The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses
specific double radio sources
an explanation of the synchrotron process
possible reasons for the presence of cosmic jets
the discovery of the first double radio sources.
The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited from its colonial predecessors was
far from a rich one, and in fact, in 1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans
and craftspeople. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious
icons of death into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial grounds. Some
skilled craftspeople made intricately carved wooden ornamentations for furniture or architectural
decorations, while others caved wooden shop signs and ships' figureheads. Although they often
achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained
artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we normally
think of as "sculptors" in today's use of the word.
On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign
sculptors, as in the 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina,
commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pitt. Wilton also
made a lead equestrian image of King George III that was created in New York in 1770 and torn
down by zealous patriots six years later. A few marble memorials with carved busts, urns, or other
decorations were produced in England and brought to the colonies to be set in the walls of
churches-as in King's Chapel in Boston. But sculpture as a high art, practiced by artists who knew
both the artistic theory of their Renaissance-Baroque-Rococo predecessors and the various
technical procedures of modeling, casting, and carving rich three-dimensional forms, was not
known among Americans in 1776. Indeed, for many years thereafter, the United States had two
groups from which to choose - either the local craftspeople or the imported talent of European
The eighteenth century was not one in which powered sculptural conceptions were developed.
Add to this the timidity with which unschooled artisans - originally trained as stonemasons,
carpenters, or cabinetmakers - attacked the medium from which they sculpture made in the United
States in the late eighteenth century.
What is the main idea of the passage?
There was great demand for the work of eighteenth-century artisans.
Skilled sculptors did not exist in the United States in the 1770's.
Many foreign sculptors worked in the United States after 1776.
American sculptors were hampered by a lack of tools and materials.
The word "motifs" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
The work of which of the following could be seen in burial grounds?
The word "other" in line 6 refers to
The word "distinct" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
The word "rare" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
Why does the author mention Joseph Wilton in line 13?
He was an English sculptor who did work in the United States.
He was well known for his wood carvings
He produced sculpture for churches.
He settled in the United States in 1776.
What can be inferred about the importation of marble memorials from England?
Such sculpture was less expensive to produce locally than to import
Such sculpture was not available in the United States.
Such sculpture was as prestigious as those made locally.
The materials found abroad were superior.
How did the work of American carvers in 1776 differ from that of contemporary
(A) It was less time-consuming
(B) It was more dangerous.
(C) It was more expensive.
(D) It was less refined.
Large animals that inhabit the desert have evolved a number of adaptations for reducing the
effects of extreme heat. One adaptation is to be light in color, and to reflect rather than absorb the
Sun's rays. Desert mammals also depart from the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a
constant body temperature. Instead of trying to keep down the body temperature deep inside the
body, which would involve the expenditure of water and energy, desert mammals allow their
temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height, and temperatures as high as 46
degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant's gazelles. The overheated body then cools down
during the cold desert night, and indeed the temperature may fall unusually low by dawn, as low
as 34 degrees Celsius in the camel. This is an advantage since the heat of the first few hours of
daylight is absorbed in warming up the body, and an excessive buildup of heat does not begin
until well into the day.
Another strategy of large desert animals is to tolerate the loss of body water to a point that
would be fatal for non-adapted animals. The camel can lose up to 30 percent of its body weight as
water without harm to itself, whereas human beings die after losing only 12 to 13 percent of their
body weight. An equally important adaptation is the ability to replenish this water loss at one
drink. Desert animals can drink prodigious volumes in a short time, and camels have been known
to imbibe over 100 liters in a few minutes. A very dehydrated person, on the other hand, cannot
drink enough water to rehydrate at one session, because the human stomach is not sufficiently big
and because a too rapid dilution of the body fluids causes death from water intoxication. The
tolerance of water loss is of obvious advantage in the desert, as animals do not have to remain
near a water hole but can obtain food from grazing sparse and far-flung pastures. Desert-adapted
mammals have the further ability to feed normally when extremely dehydrated, it is a common
experience in people that appetite is lost even under conditions of moderate thirst.
What is the main topic of the passage?
Weather variations in the desert
Adaptations of desert animals
Diseased of desert animals
Human use of desert animals.
According to the passage, why is light coloring an advantage to large desert animals?
It helps them hide from predators.
It does not absorb sunlight as much as dark colors.
It helps them see their young at night
It keeps them cool at night.
The word "maintaining" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
The author uses of Grant's gazelle as an example of
an animal with a low average temperature
an animal that is not as well adapted as the camel
a desert animal that can withstand high body temperatures
a desert animal with a constant body temperature
When is the internal temperature of a large desert mammal lower?
Just before sunrise
In the middle of the day
Just after sunset
Just after drinking
The word "tolerate" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
What causes water intoxication?
Drinking too much water very quickly
Drinking polluted water
Bacteria in water
Lack of water.
What does the author imply about desert-adapted mammals?
They do not need to eat much food.
They can eat large quantities quickly
They easily lose their appetites.
They can travel long distances looking for food.
Why does the author mention humans in the second paragraph?
To show how they use camels.
To contrast them to desert mammals.
To give instructions about desert survival.
To show how they have adapted to desert life.
The word "obtain" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an adaptation of large desert animals?
Variation in body temperatures
Eating while dehydrated
Drinking water quickly
Being active at night.
Rent control is the system whereby the local government tells building owners how much they
can charge their tenants in rent. In the United States, rent controls date back to at least World War
In 1943 the federal government imposed rent controls to help solve the problem of housing
shortages during wartime. The federal program ended after the war, but in some locations,
including New York City, controls continued. Under New York's controls, a landlord generally
cannot raise rents on apartments as long as the tenants continue to renew their leases. In places
such as Santa Monica, California, rent controls are more recent. They were spurred by the
inflation of the 1970's, which, combined with California's rapid population growth, pushed
housing prices, as well as rents, to record levels. In 1979 Santa Monica's municipal government
ordered landlords to roll back their rents to the levels charged in 1978. Future rents could only go
up by two-thirds as much as any increase in the overall price level.
In any housing market, rental prices perform three functions: (1) promoting the efficient
maintenance of existing housing and stimulating the construction of new housing, (2) allocating
existing scarce housing among competing claimants, and (3) rationing use of existing housing by
One result of rent control is a decrease in the construction of new rental units. Rent controls
have artificially depressed the most important long-term determinant of profitability - rents.
Consider some examples. In a recent year in Dallas, Texas, with a 16 percent rental vacancy rate
but no rent control laws, 11,000 new housing units were built. In the same year, in San Francisco,
California, only 2,000 units were built. The major difference? San Francisco has only a 1.6
percent vacancy rate but stringent rent control laws. In New York City, except for governmentsubsidized construction, the only rental units being built are luxury units, which are exempt from
controls. In Santa Monica, California, new apartments are not being constructed. New office
rental space and commercial developments are, however. They are exempt from rent controls.
What does the passage mainly discuss?
The construction of apartments in the United States.
Causes and effects of rent control
The fluctuations of rental prices
The shortage of affordable housing in the United States.
The word "They" in line 9 refers to
Which of the following was NOT a reason for the introduction of rent controls in Santa
(A) Rapid population growth
(C) Economic conditions during wartime
(D) Record-high housing prices
The phrase "roll back" in lines 11-12 is closest in meaning to
The word "stimulating" in line 15 is closest in meaning to
It can be inferred that the purpose of rent control is to
increase vacancy rates
decrease sales of rental units
The word "depressed" in line 19 is closest in meaning to
The information in the last paragraph supports which of the following statements?
San Francisco has eliminated its rent control laws.
Rent control leads to a reduction in the construction of housing units
Luxury apartments are rarely built when there is rent control
There is a growing need for government-subsidized housing.
According to the passage, which of the following cities does NOT currently have rent
(A) Santa Monica
(C) San Francisco
(D) New York City
The word "stringent" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
According to the passage, which of the following is NOT exempt from rent control?
Moderately priced apartments