Tài liệu Toefl 2005-05

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Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) Đề thi TOEFL tháng 5 năm 2005 Section I 1. (A) The man should go to the museum by shuttle bus. (B) The next train leaves in25 minutes. (C) The train will arrive at the museum before 10:30. (D) The man just missed the shuttle bus to the museum. 2. (A) She forgot to study for the exam. (B) She had planned to go to the movie. (C) The man should have invited her to the movies. (D) The man should have studied for the exam. 3. (A) A' new building (B) Directions to the gym (C) Going to the library (D) New library hours 4. (A) Take a different history course (B) Use a computer in the lab (C) Help him write his paper (D) Return his computer as soon as possible 5. (A) She got her watch where her sister works. (B) She will help the man buy a watch. (C) She had to work hard to buy a watch. (D) The man should not buy a watch at her sister's store. 6. (A) Find out if classes are cancelled (B) Not go to classes tomorrow (C) Turn on the radio (D) Look to see if the storm has stopped 7. (A) No one has recently seen her (B) She is spending a lot of time in the library. (C) She is avoiding the man. 1 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (D) She went home for vacation. 8. (A) Try to fix what is wrong with the computer (B) Ask someone else for help with the computer (C) Turn on another computer (D) Let the woman use his computer 9. (A) She thinks the man should order the fish. (B) She wants the man to choose quickly. (C) She prefers the chicken (D) She cannot decide what to eat 10. (A) She should go home now to get the CD. (B) She can return the CD to Tom later. (C) She can borrow a CD from Tom when she sees him in class. (D) She should not have taken Tom's CD home with her. 11(A) Cancel her appointment at the clinic (B) Make an appointment at the clinic soon (C) Begin practicing for the German test next week (D) Arrange to take the German test at a later date 12. (A) Rent the apartment she saw first (B) Visit her new neighbors (C) Look at other apartments before deciding (D) Write a check for the rent 13. (A) He likes to play basketball (B) He is proud of his ability as a basketball player. (C) He does not want to watch the basketball game. (D) He is not on the basketball team. 14. (A) Buy both shirts today (B) Buy the green shirt (C) Return the shirt he bought last week (D) Not buy any shirts 2 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 15. (A) The woman did not accept the job offer. (B) The woman does not like her new job. (C) The woman is planning to start a new job. (D) The woman is looking for a job at a different bank. 16 (A) Go to the party with the man (B) Take her aunt to the party (C) Invite the man to the play (D) See a play with her aunt 17 (A) She is looking for another job (B) She will apply for financial aid next year. (C) She thinks she will not need financial aid. (D) She thinks she is not taking enough classes. 18 (A) It is the only kind the restaurant has left, (B) The woman does not have to pay extra for it. (C) It is a specialty of the restaurant. (D) He will replace it with a different dessert. 19 (A) A small town can have negative qualities. (B) It can be difficult to run a business in a small town. (C) His family owns a business in his hometown. (D) He would like to visit the woman's hometown. 20 (A) He would like more time to prepare next time. (B) He will not be able to attend the open house. (C) He enjoyed working as a volunteer (D) He will not be able to coordinate the program again. 21 (A) He will meet the man and woman before his psychology class, (B) He is in the same class as the man and woman. (C) He is late for an appointment with the man and woman. (D) He forgot to do his assignment for today's class. 3 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 22 (A) She is looking for a job on campus. (B) She can get the materials they gave out at the meeting, (C) She went to the meeting with her roommate. (D) She is too busy to help the man. 23. (A) He probably will not be able to follow the professor's advice. (B) He has not finished doing the research for his presentation. (C) He does not understand what the professor means. (D) He would like the professor to listen to him rehearse his presentation. 24 (A) He knows who will be performing in the musical. (B) He doubts that the theater group will perform a musical next year. (C) The theater group needs to select a new director. (D) The director has probably chosen the musical, 25 (A) He has been sick recently. (B) He is tired of looking for an apartment. (C) He wants an apartment near his work. (D) He has been looking for a new job for a long time. 26. (A) The woman would not vote in the elections. (B) Ben would be elected class president. (C) Ben would not run for class president. (D) The elections would be held later. 27. (A) He did not recommend the lecture. (B) He did not speak to the woman yesterday. (C) He is eager to go to the lecture. (D) He started to like astronomy only recently. 28. (A) She needs to continue studying. (B) She did not read the reviews. (C) She has already seen the movie. (D) She Intends to go see the movie. 4 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 29. (A) He thinks the dry weather will change. (B) He is already conserving water. (C) Ways should he found to use less water. (D) The dry weather will be worse than last summer. 30. (A) Everyone should already have the new manual. (B) The old manual should not be used anymore. (C) The new manual has not been completed yet. (D) The old manual will not be changed. 31 (A) The class reading list (B) Books about New York City (C) A book by Theodore Dreiser (D) A critical review of Sister Carrie 32 (A) It is set in the city instead of the country. (B) It does not try to teach a moral lesson. (C) It is about a woman working in a traditionally male role. (D) The main character gets into trouble. 33. (A) Some British reviewers wrote favorably about it. (B) Dreiser published it himself. (C) An editor revised it. (D) Dreiser rewrote it using a different style. 34 (A) How to learn a second language (B) The importance of early childhood education (C) Phases of language development in young children (D) Methods to help children develop their vocabularies 35. (A) They are difficult for children to pronounce. (B) They occur in all languages. (C) They are among the first sounds babies make. (D)They are sometimes used to refer to house pets. 5 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 36 (A) Their voice box is not positioned correctly yet. (B) Their hearing is not good enough yet. (C) They do not yet have the muscle control needed. (D) Their brains are not yet adequately developed. 37 (A) When children learn to say whole sentences (B) In the first month of life (C) When children start to go to school (D) When children learn to associate sounds with meaning 38 (A) Until what age vocabulary growth continues (B) How children are able to learn language (C) When die best time to start a foreign language is (D) How to identity children with language disorders 39 (A) The use of beads in Native American monetary systems (B) Communication over long distances in North America ' (C) Difficulties encountered by native couriers (D) Alliances between the Iroquois and the Algonquin 40. (A) Adverse traveling conditions delayed the courier. (B) The courier needed to hire a guide. (C) The fees of several couriers were included in the charge. (D) The letter contained a valuable item. 41. (A) The signing of a treaty (B) A wedding feast (C) The birth of a child (D) A funeral 42. (A) Planning a garden (B) Feeding pets (C) Attracting birds (D) Preserving eggs 6 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 43. (A) They use them in making nests. (B) They like to eat them, (C) They use them when mating. (D) They drink water from them, 44. (A) They are dried in the sun. (B) They are soaked in water. (C) They are cooled in the refrigerator. (D) They are baked in the oven. 45. (A) It makes them clean and free of germs. (B) It makes them more visible for the birds. (C) It makes them more nutritious. (D) It makes them softer. 46 (A) She is a good cook. (B) She collects birds' nests. (C) She likes to have birds visit her garden. (D) She is a professional gardener 47. (A) How to prevent landslides in populated areas (B) How to repair damage to houses caused by heavy rains (C) How geologists study landslides (D) Three materials needed for stable construction 48. (A) They can determine the cost of construction. (B) They can reveal unsafe conditions for building. (C) They can show where landslides have occurred. (D) They can measure the rate of water drainage. 49. (A) It often interferes with construction (B) It helps keep the soil in place. (C) It grows quickly after heavy rains. (D) It makes slopes unstable, 7 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 50. (A) Frequent landslides (B) Too much vegetation (C) Water draining from another slope (D) A wall that stops water from draining Section II PART A 1. The rock-fill dam, essentially an embankment like the earth -fill dam, uses rock instead of earth-----~, (A) and providing stability (B) to provide stability (C) stability is provided (D) provides stability 2. The telegraph, invented in the mid-nineteenth century, remained even into the 1970's-------of telecommunication. (A) a principal system (B) a system was principal (C) that was a principal system (D) a principal system when 3. Royal jelly, a secretion produced by worker bees, is fed to------- destined to become queen bees. (A) those that (B) be those (C) those of (D) those 4. -------is necessarily limited to areas of productive soils, tillable topography, and adequate moisture, where the growing season is long enough for plant germination and maturation. (A) Farm (B) Farming (C) When farming (D) To farm 5 - Among the most famous products of the Aesthetic Movement were the Tiffany lamps, first-------in 1899. (A) had been producing 8 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (B) had been produced (C) produced (D) were producing 6. Refrigerating meats-------the spread of bacteria. (A) retards (B) retarding (C) to retard (D) is retarded 7. The islands of the Florida Keys are joined to the mainland by an overseas highway-------a railroad destroyed in the hurricane of 1935 (A) replaces (B) and replaces (C) hat replaces (D) that it replaces 8. The------east of the Mississippi River is made up of the Lumbee people. (A) Native American nation largest (B) largest Native American nation (C) largest nation Native American (D) Native American largest nation 9. Kim Campbell was the nineteenth Prime Minister of Canada,--------. (A) heid the office the first woman (B) was the first woman to hold the office (C) the first woman to hold the office (D) and for holding the office the first woman 10.Type metal used in the printing industry varies in its components -------is generally a combination of lead, tin and antimony. (A) as (B) if (C) why (D) but 11.The author Mark Twain worked as a newspaper reporter in Nevada and California before moving to Hartford, Connecticut,-------he wrote most of his books. (A) where (B) which (C) in addition to (D) such as 12.Glaciers begin to form-------more snow falls during the winter than melts and evaporates in the 9 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) summer (A) is when (B) when there are (C) when (D) when does 13. The illusion of motion pictures rests on the eyes* tendency-------an image for a fraction of a second after the image has been withdrawn. (A) to retain (B) that retaining (C) to be retained (D) has retained 14. Through reproduction....... the properties of a species, (A) successive generations that carry on (B) that successive generations carry on (C) successive generations carry on (D) cany on successive generations 15, Four flags have flown over the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, New Mexico: ------ Spain, Mexico, the Confederacy, and the United States. (A) which of (B) of mose being (C) those of (D) Those that of PART B 16. Nearly 100 million tons of fish, mollusks, squid, and crustaceans are extracted from the ocean every years. 17. In the Missouri Ozark Mountains more than 10,000 springs can be found, some among the most largest in the world. 18. The first high school in the United States, which opened in 1821, was the English Classical School, locate in Boston, Massachusetts. 19, Artificial satellites can perform many task and send back data or pictures to Earth. 20. By the 1880’s, world demand for cotton had begun fall off. 21. The early Quakers adopted a distinctive and simply style of dress. 22. At present, about 300 different varieties of dinosaur have been identified from bones found on every of the continents. 10 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 23. A black hole warps the surrounding space-time fabric as severely that nothing that comes within its event horizon can escape from its gravitational grip. 24. By using special equipment, seismologists can determine the size and location of an earthquake and the fault to which it originated. 25. For most bees, life revolves around the scent, colorful, and nectar of flowers. 26. Portrait artists sometimes intentional alter the appearance of their subjects by refining their images to emphasize or minimize particular physical qualities. 27. May Sarton's first two novels had European settings, but after 1955 New England provided the background for most her fiction. 28. Methane gas in the upper atmosphere account for the planet Uranus' greenish hue. 29. As adolescents gain weight, the amount and distribution of fat in their bodies will change, and so it will the proportion of bone and muscle. 30. Raccoons prefer swampy areas or woods near water; either they avoid very high elevations, very arid regions, and purely coniferous forests. 31. By 1996, the United States population exceeded 261 million, with a median age of thirty-four, making it one of the oldest national population on Earth. 32. In medical and dentistry, radiography is invaluable for diagnosing bone damage tooth decay, and internal disease, 33. Water droplets in clouds are very small; they must coagulate or grow before they falling as rain or snow. 34. One of the most powerful tools available to labor unions has been the ability to strike in order to settle its disputes with management. 35. The velocity of a river is control by the slope, the depth , and the roughness of the riverbed. 36. By selectively breeding plants, researchers have created strains of plants that are more resistance to disease. 37. Much governmental and international organizations throughout the world are concerned with the development of guidelines for daily nutritional requirements 38. When a ray of light passes from one transparent medium, such as air, into other, such as glass, it is bent. 11 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 39. Logic, whether modem, tradition , or ancient, limits its concern strictly to problems of validity. 40. Cable cars in hilly San Francisco are pulled along by an endless cable between the rails, which is driven by machinery in a centrally powerhouse. SECTION III Questions 1-9 With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, knowing the age of rocks became a necessary prerequisite to finding industrial minerals, such as coal, iron, and the other materials that fueled and sustained the great Western industrialization of the eighteenth Line and nineteenth centuries. It was in the mining regions where engineers, who needed a 5 better system for organizing the various types of rock scattered across Earth's surface, first grappled with scientific approaches to understanding the age of various rocks—and the age of Earth. They realized that if the various rock units could he dated by their 10 15 20 25 relative ages, correlations among even widely separated rocks could be established and from this, some order recognized. The pioneering European geologists first believed that identifying a rock's type would give them a strong clue to the age of the rock formation and that one of the most powerful clues came from the hardness of a given rock. Specific rock types were thus assumed to have formed at characteristically different rimes, the softest rocks having formed the most recently. This crude type of dating was first used to understand the way mountains were formed, In the mid-1700's it was thought thai there were three distinct types of mountains in Europe, each formed by a different type of rock and each created at a different time. According to this theory, the oldest were the Alps, which had interior cores composed of very hard, crystalline rocks (such as granite, schist, or basalt). These mountains were called Primitive. Sitting on the flanks of the Primitive mountains were younger, smaller, Secondary mountains composed of layered sedimentary rocks such as limestone. They were often rich with fossils and intermediate in hardness. The youngest Tertiary mountains were composed of softer mudstones and sandstone. Rock type, hardness, and size thus established mountain type, and rock type also became a proxy for age. However, study soon exposed the fallacy of these early notions. It was discovered that some of the very high mountains were composed of the softest sediments and that even hard volcanic rock was sometimes found in very low mountains. By the early 1800's, it was understood that rock type was of no help in establishing age. 1, What does the passage mainly discuss? (A) An early attempt to find reliable rules for dating rocks and mountains (B) The search for different rock types to be used in industry (C) Changing views about what caused high mountain ranges to form (D) A controversy about rocks between mining engineers and geologists 2. The word "grappled" in line 6 is closest in meaning to (A) competed (B) struggled 12 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (C) agreed (D) searched 3. According to the passage, how could knowing the age of rocks benefit industry'? (A) It reduced the dependence of industry on coal. (B) It helped miners find new types of minerals. (C) It helped people in their search for industrial minerals. (D) It made it possible to mine rocks under Earth's surface. 4. According to the passage, mining engineers were the first to realize that (A) various types of rock were scattered across Earth's surface (B) rocks in different locations could be related by their age (C) there were wide differences in the appearance of different types of rocks (D) older rocks were better suited for industrial use 5. The word 'They" in line 21 refers to (A) crystalline rocks (B) the flanks (C) the Primitive mountains (D) layered sedimentary rocks 6. Why does the author mention rock type, hardness, and size in lines 22-23? (A) To describe the development of European geology (B) To explain the differences between mudstone and sandstone (C) To introduce the new theories that were about to emerge in the 1800's (D) To summarize the characteristics thought to distinguish mountain types 7. According to the passage, pioneer geologists believed that to determine a rock's age, it was helpful to know (A) how deep under the surface the rock was located (B) how much power was needed to remove the rock (C) how rough the rock's texture was (D) how soft the rock was 8. According to the passage, early geologists believed which of the following about Primitive mountains? (A) They had interior cores of sandstone and mudstone, (B) They contained a large number of fossils. (C) They had been formed during the same limited period in Earth's history. (D)They were smaller than the Tertiary mountains. 9. The word "proxy" in line 23 is closest in meaning to (A) substitute (B) preparation 13 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (C) product (D) choice Questions 10-18 Some people are concerned that our soils arc becoming depleted of trace minerals by continuous agricultural use and hence that foocte are becoming depleted in vital minerals. This is a complex issue about which not a great deal is known, but the lack of evidence of Line mineral deficiencies in our population speaks to the adequacy of our soils. Furthermore, 5 soils are replenished in trace minerals by rainwater and especially by irrigation water that is obtained from rivers or wells that draw water from other soil or rock formations far away from the farm, On the other hand, agricultural practices that remove the total crop from the field year after year with no replenishment of trace minerals can over time result in a crop poor in 10 these minerals. Of course, the fanner could supply chemical fertilizer to the fields* but with most fertilizers this practice would replenish only potassium, phosphates, and nitrogen. 15 20 Rotating a "green manure" crop such as clover, which is plowed under after the end of the growing season, would renew only nitrogen in the soil, not trace elements. There is a growing realization, therefore, (hat so-called organic farming makes good commercial sense and would help minimize mineral depletion: Organic fanning essentially refers to farming that does not depend on chemical fertilizers; rather, soils are invigorated by applying manure and by plowing in crop wastes, such as corn stalks and bean vines, and compost. These techniques return organic material and trace minerals back to the soils and are to be commended. However, for maximum yields, a chemical fertilizer may be required in addition to manure and plant waste. Some critics of modern farming methods fear that the hardier varieties of fruits and vegetables that have been developed to make shipment easier have resulted in loss of vitamin content. This concern is unfounded because the creation of vitamins by plants is an automatic biological process. Any variety of plant will make the full complement of vitamins it needs, regardless of species. 10. The word "vital" in line 2 is closest in meaning to (A) effective (B) ideal (C) unique (D) necessary 11 The author mentions clover in tine 12 as an example of a (A) plant that is typically grown on organic farms (B) crop that can be rotated and used as fertilizer (C) crop that replaces both nitrogen and trace elements in soil (D) plant that has been thoroughly depleted of nutrients in recent years 12. The author mentions all of the following as an example of ways to renew trace minerals in the soil EXCEPT (A) plowing crop wastes into the soil 14 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (B) organic farming (C) using appropriate water (D) growing the same crop year after year 13. The word "essentially" in line 15 is closest in meaning to (A) probably (B) biologically (C) basically (D) automatically 14. Which of the following does the passage identify as examples of plant waste products? (A) Potassium and phosphates (B) Clover (C) Trace elements (D) Com stalks and bean vines Questions 19-29 Animation traditionaily is done by hand-drawing or painting successive frames of an object, each slightly different than the preceding frame. In computer animation, although the computer may be the one to draw the different frames, in moat cases the artist will Line draw the beginning and ending frames and the computer will produce the drawings 5 between the first and the last drawing. This is generally referred to as computer-assisted animation, because the computer is more of a helper than an originator. In full computer animation, complex mathematical formulas are used to produce the final sequence of pictures. These formulas operate on extensive databases of numbers that define the objects in the pictures as they exist in mathematical space. The database 10 15 20 25 consists of endpoints, and color and intensity information. Highly trained professionals are needed to produce such effects because animation that obtains high degrees of realism involves computer techniques for three-dimensional transformation, shading, and curvatures. High-tech computer animation for film involves very expensive computer systems along with special color terminals or frame buffers. The frame buffer is nothing more than a giant image memory for viewing a single frame. It temporarily holds the image for display on the screen, A camera can be used to film directly from the computer's display screen, but for the highest quality images possible, expensive film recorders are used. The computer computes the positions and colors for ihe figures in the picture, and sends this information to the recorder, which captures it on film. Sometimes, however, the images are stored on a large magnetic disk before being sent to the recorder. Once this process is completed, it is repeated for the next frame. When the entire sequence has been recorded on the film, the film must be developed before the animation can be viewed. If the entire sequence does not seem right, the motions must be corrected, recomputed, redisplayed, and rerecorded. This approach can be very expensive and time consuming. Often, computer-animation companies first do motion tests with simple computer-generated line drawings before selling their computers to the task of calculating the high-resolution, realistic-looking 15 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) images. 19. What aspect of computer animation does the passage mainly discuss? (A) The production process (B) The equipment needed (C) The high cost (D) The role of the artist 20.According to the passage, in computer-assisted animation the role of the computer is to draw the (A) first frame (B) middle frames (C) last frame (D) entire sequence of frames 21. The word "they" in line 9 refers to (A) formulas (B) databases (C) numbers (D) objects 22. According to the passage, the frame buffers mentioned in line 15 are used to (A) add color to the images (B) expose several frames at the same time (C) store individual images (D) create new frames 23. The phrase "nothing more than" in lines 15-16 is closest in meaning to (A) increasingly (B) simply (C) paiticularly (D) instantly 24. According to the passage, the positions and colors of the figures m high-tech animation are determined by (A) drawing several versions (B) enlarging one frame at a lime (C) analyzing the sequence from different angles (D) using computer calculations 25. The word "captures" in line 21 is closest in meaning to (A) separates (B) registers 16 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (C) describes (D) numbers 26. The word "Once" in line 22 is closest in meaning to (A) before (B) since (C) after (D) while 27. According to the passage, how do computer-animation companies often test motion? (A) They experiment with computer-generated line drawings. (B) They hand-draw successive frames. (C) They calculate high-resolution images. (D) They develop extensive mathematical formulas. 28. The word "task" in line 28 is closest in meaning to (A) possibility (B) position (C) time (D) job 29. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage? (A) Computers have reduced the costs of animation. (B) In the future, traditional artists will no longer be needed. (C) Artists are unable to produce drawings as high in quality as computer drawings. (D)Animation involves a wide range of technical and artistic skills. Questions 30-39 The first Europeans in the Delaware Valley, a region located near die Atlantic Coast of North America, were Scandinavians. They came to the short-lived colony known as New Sweden, founded in 1638, Loose organization and local autonomy fostered a cultural Line fusion between native and settler cultures that proved one of the most notable—and least 5 understood—developments of early North American history. The Native Americans were both fanners and hunters; Native American women farmed gardens of corn, beans, and squash, while Native American men hunted for furs, hides, and meat. Such a gender 10 15 division of labor was much like that practiced by Scandinavian settlers. In the harsh environment of northern Europe, Scandinavian women had been accustomed to practicing forms of shifting cultivation, and they immediately understood Native American horticulture. Colonial women of the Delaware valley quickly adopted the crops of the Native American women, while Native American women welcomed European tools, such as metal hoes, and farm animals, such as pigs and chickens. Similarly, Scandinavian men quickly adapted to hunting in North America, In France and England, unlike Scandinavia, hunting had been long reserved for the nobility, and so few French and English settlers had much experience in handling firearms or 17 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 20 25 understanding the patterns of game animals. But Scandinavian men were familiar with hunting and receptive to learning the hunting methods of the local Native Americans. In turn Native Americans readily incorporated European steel knives, firearms, and linen hunting shirts into their hunting routines. The most common symbol of pioneer North America, the log cabin, emerged in the Delaware Valley, and ought to serve as a symbol of this composite culture. Construction with logs was a tradition brought to North America by Finnish settlers of New Sweden, It was quickly picked up by other settlers, for with the resources of the American woods, a few tools, and a little training, several men could erect a rough shelter in a day, or a solid house in a week, What is truly fascinating is that Native Americans quickly learned these construction techniques and probably did as much as colonists to spread the practice of log construction across the frontiers of colonial North America. 30. Which one of the following questions does the passage answer? (A) What role did Native American men play in teaching their agricultural methods to Scandinavian settlers? (B) How did the interaction between Native Americans and Scandinavian settlers benefit both groups? (C) What hardships did the Scandinavian women settlers experience in North America? (D) What caused a rivalry between the English and Scandinavian settlers in North America? 31. The word "fostered" in line 3 is closest in meaning to (A) encouraged (B) predated (C) predicted (D) rejected 32. In line 4, the word "notable" is closest in meaning to (A) social (B) predictable (C) remarkable (D) early 33.According to the passage, the Native American and Scandinavian cultures of the Delaware Valley initially had all of the following in common EXCEPT (A) loose organization (B) farming experience (C) metal fanning tools (D) local autonomy 34. According to the passage, why were Scandinavian women easily able to understand Native American horticulture? (A) They had prior knowledge of most Native American plants. (B) They had used similar cultivation practices in Scandinavia. 18 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) (C) They were helped by Native American and colonial men, (D) hey were able to use Native American farming tools. 35. Why does the author contrast English and French settlers with Scandinavian settlers in lines 14-18 ? (A) To suggest that they learned at least some hunting skills from each other (B) To illustrate that it is hard to decide who established the earliest North American hunting techniques (C) To explain why the Scandinavians were able to adopt Native American hunting techniques more easily (D) To show how Native Americans might have acquired steel knives and firearms 36. What does the author imply about French and English settlers? (A) Most of them did not come from the nobility. (B) Most of them hunted with advanced firearms. (C) They taught hunting skills to Scandinavian settlers. (D) They provided Native Americans with linen hunting shirts. 37. In Line 18, the phrase "receptive to" is closest in meaning to (A) suspicious of (B) ready for (C) dependent on (D) new lo 38. The word ''emerged" in line 21 is closest in meaning to (A) enlarged (B) disappeared (C) remained (D) developed 39. Why does the author state in lines 21-22 that the log cabin ought to serve as a symbol? (A) It could be built by using the available resources of the Delaware Valley. (B) It was built across the frontiers of colonial North America. (C) It uses a construction technique brought to North America by Scandinavian settlers. (D) It is a good example of the cultural mixing of native and settler cultures. Questions 40-50 At the turn of the twentieth century, Americans who wished to travel between cities either for work or for pleasure had limited options. The steam railroad offered the best, the most reliable and the fastest means of transport. Electric railways (trams and trolleys) Line provided reasonable intraurban and short-distance intercity travel They also offered some 5 longer routes, but only in certain parts of the country. Horse-drawn coaches were neither 19 Hp Group (www.hp-vietnam.com) 10 15 20 a competitive nor a comfortable alternative given the deplorable slate of the nation's highways; and though bicycles were popular in both town and country, they, too, were hampered by poor road surfaces. It took the mass production and ownership of cars, together with increased attention to road construction, to bring the major breakthrough in travel in the 192Q*s. And alongside the rapid spread of the popular and individualistic auto came the slower, but significant, growth of bus transport. Not only did buses largely replace trams and trolleys in urban mass transit, they also opened up new avenues of intercity travel both to those Americans who couH not afford cars and to those car owners who preferred to leave distance driving to others. No particular date marks the beginning of the American intercity bus industry because so many individuals were attracted to it at about the same time by the large profits available to those who could cany fare-paying passengers over public highways- These ubiquitous bus pioneers came from all walks of life. Few knew much about transport or about business, but they were willing to take a chance on a new venture that had low entry costs. Frequently driving used vehicles, these drivers concentrated on local services operated on a consumer-demand basis with the driver taking cash fares. There were no formal schedules or routes. People became aware of the new service by word of mouth or newspaper advertisements, but a regular commitment was not guaranteed. Bus drivers frequently did not start until they Had a full load; and those who traveled on the early buses were content with reaching iheir destination rather than enjoying a fast or comfortable journey. 40, What is the main topic of the passage? (A) The difficulties with various forms of public transportation in the 1920's (B) The effect of poor roads on the development of rail transportation (C) The differences between intraurban arid intercity transportation at the aim of the century (D) The early development of bud transportation 41 What does the author imply about horse-drawn coaches at the turn of the twentieth century? (A) They were not available within cities. (B) They did not provide as good service as the railroads. (C) They were more popular than bicycles. (D) They were strong competitors of trams and trolleys. 42. The word "deplorable" in line 6 is closest in meaning to (A) unusable (B) worn (C) awful (D) difficult 43. The word "hampered" in line 8 is closest in meaning to (A) restrained (B) supported (C) favored 20
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