Tài liệu Thiết kế hệ thống sấy cà phê thùng quay năng suất 200kg-giờ

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Thiết kế hệ thống sấy cà phê thùng quay năng suất 200kg-giờ
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"#$% &' (" !"# ) *+ *+ #, #20 30 45 T[ "3 4 E +# 1 U Z < M < 7=F C* 1 7 C@ [ "3 < 3 4 " + 7+ ^ _ ` 7Z 4* C =F ^ , L N ^ 4 + b < & , < N %D ; =; # 4 =; CS < " 3 4 " 05 _ 4=I N c" ] 4+* " 3 4 " CS C* C=I N C0 4 L CS #+ e ?+ C& (# C& 7= # 0 SQ < / e 7+ Cg < X 0 !"# ; _ " % 4 4/ C/" 3 C + " " N Q+ c X S 7< H # 0 7+ , > R b Ci j ,+ 3 CS X 0 S + D Cg < < 7S ; \ ] ^ _ ( " , !" J C ^ # C\ C=# [ < a+ Q F # ,+ !", L = 7< N N ^#N C; L N c" d# C& I > I 4=I #+ %& 4 EN ^#N < 4+* , ^ C=I = > < N , Y EN CS ; < " f !"# N V D # ' 4 " # !"< 78 8 (# ( ,+ Y * h 9 )*+ (,+ (-+. % < k N l _ ./ 012 ,3 4 563 7)89+.: ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, m 58;+. ?@ ! !A B2 7CD .EFE G5H2 IJ- K2F IL G5M 6", g 0 ^ / #" 4; H 4 #N H !",N 4; ! ; N 4; H 7 "N 4; n K; H !", 4 4; H + N @ N + 8 0 " CHN H (# o A#7# #B @ > D A # X +7#B ' AX9 X4 #B n ?=; 4; H H 4 4; H N 1 4 7" 8N H o @ N c# @" 1 N Qp 9# 9< > MH ' c Q > n q* #" 4+* < F 1 4 0 N 8 #+ 1 4 E 4; H c @" 9> 1 4 H r 7 "s c 4 E 8 MH 7 " (# o H Qp Q3 i > 4 D ' n G< 0 Y E 4; H H N @ 1 4 H 4 #N b 0 " f C& ' < #" X+ 4+* MH 4 # o 0 " 7f * 7 H Qp + 7# H * 7+ !"< 78 MH D 0 " " * MH 4 # ' " * < < + n 7+ 4 K; + / + (# c 0 ^ + HN 7+ 0 c# ^ Q/" t '# 7+ 0 ^ + 4; @ > OE !", =F 0 $N +& . =F 8 j 0 F+. 7N OP IQI G5*+ IB2 7CD IJ- K2F IL G5M 47R+5 75SD T K2F 78;E: L G5M I5X 4T: L G5M UYE 4T: QI ODCE UV UL +5W+ u MH !", 2. u 2J 2$ u 2 u K; ; u . $u2 u MH 7 " U u `NJ Uum u H4 # Uu. Uu l B2 7CD IJ- +5W+ IL G5M ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, v#+ g nt nO Q Q=i 5L+5 G5*+ 56- 5ZI IJ- +5W+ IL G5M F+. 75L+5 G5*+ 56- 5ZI IJ- +5W+ IL G5M 5L+5 G5*+ 56- 5ZI R+5 [\+. .] ^^. u =; mu$ u ) Q/" 2 u $m u %* $Nm u NJ u t7+ X l u $U u )#WX $ Aw7# #BN Ax+ " #B u )4+7+ X #9 u 7 + X44 X $ u # u )#WX # #9 mul u )#WX #9 $ u tX +y# J u E Ju . u # #7+ Ju$ u GX 4"4+ $ u u qX 9X 4"4+ uK 2 u )# 9 ut + # u f u #7 u O# # $ R+5 I5B7 U17 O_ IJ- IL G5M +5W+ ) C=I 0 7# ] 0 ) Q N 0 @" Q +, $ N @" 7E +, ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ R+5 [\+. 3.] ^^. mJ u $ $. u $UJ .u$ 2 $ u 2J 0 NJ *+ #, Q< /" u T D 4=I 7 u 7 Q" u ω$ z u z N.` CE CD ) 0 * + a (# .NJ N.` + NU. ω C0 CE + F # ω 4 CE L 7" M3 #4 {N ω z $ { = N $m − 2N.2. 4 τ + 7+ 4 τ4 . ρz UJ a CD 0 * ω = NJ Aω$ + ω B = NJ A + $ B = $U { $ .NJ = N $m − 2N.2. 4 + = JUNl ≈ U . N.` + NU. N$U 8 ! "# A ! E`E 75EP2 IQI G58;+. G5QG aF+ b2B7 IL G5M +5W+ , 9" V C' 4+* H < 4; #+ H 1 !"# * CS " C=I %S D 0 E < 7 => L #+ b # , C c CE C ACE L " /"B xg #" C0 < !"< 78 > = 7# N E N Y# # q+& < , L < 0 D = ^#N < 4+* < |+ 7+ [ "3 , 9" 0 => < ' u t => < , 9" =; u t => < , 9" n t => < , 9" =; g # C+* ' u : # C+* 9< => > 4+* H < 4; HN < F + > C c CE C u : # C+* 9# 9< N 4+* H < 4; H 7 " E / H 4 #N *+ n t => !", C 1 N + < => ! < , 9" j 0 E # C+* ' 4 #" c CE C Q < 9< 4+* H < 4; / !"# # C+* , 9" 0 < # "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, > H #+ t => < => < 0 j I C< c C=I ^ t => < 4=I > N Cg F "3 #+ > = C @" ' 3" F _ " (# < q # Z =; " ~Q => = " C> , N ' D _ 4=I N 0 @" * 4 "E + C @" F ; > 0 C @" ' 3" f @" =# ' N " /" @ & 4=I =; c * > N D @" _ CY H Q " @ } = #+ < [ => < ' I ; 1 + , N 1 %g F 7b f C=I F # , 9" N _ #+ 4=I , L #N < < N 9' , 9" ( < A => < PCS B cWd I52de+ aF+ a2B7 IL G5M +5W+ 4G58;+. G5QG f5/: " 3 ,+ !", !", 4+* 4 * G< => x~# K 7<+ G< " C=I Bd %0 ! "#$% &' (" #+ C=# ) + ,+ !", *+ *+ #, 58;+. _ " : z 5Z+ G58;+. G5QG aBd 5Z+ 75Eg7 [h aBd !"# 4 " Q CS * K+* C=I Q 7E 7\ 7+ #" " +* CS < 3 L Q* * 0 ' =; H 7+ D N 3 4 " C=I C,+ 7E * N 9b @" ; < N Q+ C0 7#+ CP * N D CE # N CE Cg C@" (# , L #+ + 7#N Y 0 S4 ; _ " 4; E`E 75EP2 G58;+. G5QG aBd +6+. %S NQ => < 0 N < 0 CE L => CD • , Q- C < " 7+ < , O& < CE 3 4 " _ 3 CE > 7+ < #+ Q- _ 4 Q+ C0 < " > =; 7 @ & 3 } _ X+ d# 4 ZC 0 R 4 < " ^# @ & 3 4 " 7=F F C0 0 RQ " S L ] 7+ 4Y 3 4 " 7# @ & C + 7=F )0 < CS *+ 7# CE 4 < " > =; ^# 3 4 " 7=F n:, < " (# < V < CD 0 0 n _ < " > =; 7+ 4 " € !"# < # C+* (# !"< 78 DP C X+ @" Q 7+ N * C=I 4 C CE #+ C N #" C0 7> 9"D 7+ !"< 78 C0N 3 4 " 9b ; < N R < !"< 78 7" @ 7" @ D 4 # > L F CE (# 3 4 " • C=I 3 " S C Q1 X+ @" Q T C @" Q N 3 4 " • C* C=I CE L / + !"< 78 ,+ !", 4 $ { ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, ; ij +.2dM+ O_ IJ- 75Eg7 [h )#4+7 WX7 A .N. )Nm {B , $ 6"* $ KY > 5Z+ 7QI +5W+ aBd UL aBd I5g ik aBd n) 1 < %D ; A j Y 0 4; 4 # + B 7+ !"< 78 " /" * p N < " /" CE #+ # 1 < 4 ' 0 n) 1 CE =F N CE 7+ D !"# C=I S" 4 #+ g # " D CE < + CE 7# H $ N 0 g 4="N * C=I 4 C CE #+ C N #" C0 7> 9"D 7+ !"< 78 C0N 3 4 " 9b ; < N R < !"< 78 7" @ 7" @ D 4 # > L CE < 7# H C=I 1 #+ + P Q+ < # C 4 H D CE < C 7+ • C=I !" C > E #" ' +< 4=" 4=I < 7+ !"< 78 45 " N 1 Q D CE C=I 1 > E • C=I S 7# 4* #" ' +< 9+ !"< 78 R ) 1 CE _ c + " 'N E 4 R 4 (# # 4 _ c + 3 4 " %D ; 3 4 " 4 / 0 E CE ' I CS C, ,+ ^ C=I < ' @ => N " f N < / 0 7+ * # 1 D (# < = #" D < n CE + $ z m ) n CE 7# z nAJ‚$ B )N ; 4 CE CD 0 + a (# D (# 3 4 " n CE 3 4 " + $z z .N. )N CE L ' ϕ zm { A z .N. ) ϕ z m {N < " ' !" S z `J` 3" Z %# K# B n %E L n %E L ! # C/" (# 3 4 " ƒ$ z { (# 3 4 " #" ƒ z$ { "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, q 4 ' :/" , C=# 3 4 " 4 p" c# !"# Cd# DN 3 4 " C=I C=# + 0 D 4=I V E „ $ 5Z+ 75lE .E-+ aBd M 9< C F # C0 # 7Y !"# 71 7+ ' +< 3 )< " D , =Z C F # "E + @" " D 4+* 3 4 " N 8 Q< N ' =; 8 1 (# 3 4 "N CE L C/" "D (# 3 4 "N 4+* N => < " N CE A CEN CE L => CD D CE < B t => < 9< C F # V , ' 0 R C=I 0 CE ' 9< u R =F 1 X+ R CD ; ; !"# # 1 F # 4 τz b R+5 7DQ+ K2Q 7)m+5 aBd O_ 752dg7 6"< 78 45 " 0 g 4=" S" Q p 7 Cg …uQ A 8 •B I (kJ/kgkkk) ϕ1 1 t1 2 t0 0 0 d0 = d1 n % S †A N ϕ B 4 7* n % S $A $N ϕ$ B 4 7* n%S A N ϕ B 4 7* M8 M ) t2 ϕ2 ϕ = 100% I2 = I3 d (g/kgkkk) d2 < < < ' + ' + "g ' #" !"< 78 R+5 7DQ+ 7)C+. 75QE f5/+. f5R [M+ +.DLE ' + 4 + 4 =F #+ > P C > + ; 7* < # =# 0 c" " @ C@ 8 3 ϕ z m {N < ! " ' !" S "#$% &' (" z `J` q 4 ) *+ 45 ' 7+ ' 0 S 1 ' 3" Z %# K# *+ #, " 9=Z + € z .N. ϕ −ϕ =U ] C0 # 0 = X9 A$ − z .N. ) N z −ϕ A `. + x 4 V B c mJ `J` − Nm N mJ `J z$2NlJ z N $2lJ … z n Q A J n$Nl` Bz .N.n N $2lJ A J z U$N.U$ ‡ ρ X+ 2 UN2 2 UN2 B = A$ − B = N mJ .JNJ + .JNJ + .N. Nm =U N NllU − Nm N mJ m` A `. + .N.B = D $ n$Nl` .N.B J z$N$22 . 'N x z m` ‡ R+5 7DQ+ 7)C+. 75QE f5/+. f5R ULD [2j+. aBd u K=I L / D > 7+ $ F ω −ω N − N$ = $ $ = = $ − ω$ $− N L u CE CD 0 + a = N $m − 2N.2. 4 τ + 7+ 4 τ4 C0 CE + F # 7" ω 4 CE L M3 .NJ N.` + NU. ω a CD 0 * ω = NJ Aω$ + ω B = NJ A + $ B = $U { $ .NJ = N $m − 2N.2. 4 + = JUNl ≈ U . N.` + NU. N$U 8 nQI ih+5 +5EP7 ik T ' # ' 1 } )- f5VE 75o+. aBd 7 # C\ 1 7=; ∆ ˆ= $ = 3 N b +< CE $ b ≤ +$ # ≤` CE ; C @" %S C, ,+ b # • 1 #+ + CE L => CD !"< a = !"< / 7* < \+ Y#N ‰ * 1 ϕ = A` ± JB{ " ϕ = N C0 ! X+ < c "#$% &' (" ) ρ ρ = = *+ *+ #, NU $ + N < " > =; # 7+ • _ N Q+ C0 =F CE • , 1 V CE + a N d# 4 z n $ z n $ z U n$ z ` +) T C0 # 0 u K=I c# L (# < #" !"< 78 45 " Q ] C& C S !"< 78 45 " 4 …z + # 0 S ' C=I Q c € 7 # C\ 0 $z m ) ⇒ $z N2UU` #7 ?+ 45 " Q$zQ z N $2lJ `J` N $2lJ `J $ ϕ$ = = = JN { A NU $ + $ B $ A NU $ + N $2lJB N2UU` …$z $nQ$ A J n$Nl` $B zm n N $2lJ A J n$Nl` m B z$$lN`. ‡ = ut < − = $$lN`. − $N 2 ` = N $m`2U J + $Nl` ` = " X+ L # 0 > =; \+ Y# Z CE z ` )  2 UN2  2 UN2   = X9 $ −  = X9 $ −  = N. `.J .J N J + .J N J + `     u %E L ϕ $ " => CD A NU $ + = 3 N ; Y !"< a C=I 1 4* K=I t < N Ul.m ϕ `J` N $m`2U `J = = lNU { B N. `.J A NU $ + N $m`2U B ϕ CE z ` ) CE L => CD (# 7# H + ; C @" # 1 4* z .l ) M; b # ' C=I c# L Q z N .$ ` L " \+ Y# (# > =; Z CE z .l ) 4 #7 ϕ CE z %E L => CD z UlN`2 { ≈ ` { = 3 N CE C=I 1 4* V .l ) 4 I 45 @ & 4=I %S S 7#N CE 0 I 45 # @ & 7#+ CP L b # , !"# ^# < " > =; 7 @ & Q* * z WA N ω B ) ' CE A u #B !" C =F CE Z / "D (# ?+ C0 CE ^ , C, ,+ ' @ & 4=I = 7 Y , C, ,+ CE A u #B C( 4; $ >8p+. ! O_ 752dg7 I*+ 75Eg7 "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, $ − = = $ $ = U$N `J N .$ ` − N $2lJ K z4 ƒzU$N `J ?R# < 4 E " z$ L JJ JA 7 .2lŠ ' +< # @" # ' C=I D ( S ' BN Q c# E 0 L Nϕ => ) 0 45 " => c N ] $ $ zAm +)‹J{B # 0 . N ] ( Nϕ ) z A.l+)‹` {B # 0 z $N$ U . ?+ C0 $z $N 2J u K=" 4=I S ' (# 7=; !"< 78 M$ V . M$ z $ K+z $N 2J $ JJ z $ m UN2`J u K=" 4=I #" !"< 78 45 " M V M +z K+z $N$ U $ JJ z $.`llN$. . u K=" 4=I S ' 7" 8 M + V M +z NJ AM$ n M Bz NJ A $ m UN2`J n $.`llN$.Bz $.. Nm . q# M +z $.. Nm .U z .NUl . 7=; #" !"< 78 q >8p+. +5EP7 I2+. IBG I5D K2Q 7)m+5 aBd O_ 752dg7 n K=I " D CS 4 # > $ L \+ + !z4 A…$u… BzU$N `J A$$lN`.u U$N.U$ Bz.J`UNJJ ‡ n K=I " D + , !"< 78 6z! ƒz.J`UNJJ z`$J.$ A ‡ B z$lmN` ƒ nQI ih+5 fRI5 758`I 75Eg7 [h aBd 75o+. K2-d )< Q^ 4 " # C/" n _ " :z n %E L # C/" (# 3 ƒ $z { n %E L "D (# 3 ƒ z$ { >8p+. r3 [YI )- 7)D+. K2Q 7)m+5 aBd ω$ − ω −$ ƒz: z z L $ − ω$ $ − nT D 4=I 3 4 " + :$zƒn: z n z nQI ih+5 fRI5 758`I IJ- 75o+. aBd s G< C S ' S ' !"# C=I ' X+ c = 7+ τ ρβ $ C0 M ! S ' "#$% &' (" !"# ) *+ *+ #, L :$ T D 4=I :$ z τ F # τz b β z A N ÷ N.B ρ T D 4=I 3 4 "C +$ + „ !"# N Œ NŒ b• D C @ C/ N 1 β z N J . 7 (# 3 4 " NŒ • = z 2NJ$. . UJ N J U n G< C C=F ' @" Q ) b # 1 Ž D K ? z .NJ # Kz .NJ? T C=I 9< C Z C‰ c M3 = π 2 .NJ π = 2 . .NJ .N$2 = 2 C0 C=F . 2 2 2NJ$. =. = $N$m .NJ π .NJ .N$2 ) 1 ? z $N ?+ C0 @" Q K4 K z .NJ ?z .NJ $N z 2N ⇒ • =. ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, ' 58;+. ! 0tI iRI5 7R+5 7DQ+ +5EP7 O C' (# ' + !"< 78 KN +< 9< C < 43 V 9< C C=I " " (# D } = "# +< 4 9< C " #+ 'Q " #+ 6N ‡ 7 > Z ' ' =; > , (# %g F !"# V _ 4=I (# D • ~Q " 9" ~ Q _ 4=I " #+ 7 (# D R+5 7u+ 75B7 +5EP7 u+ 75B7 +5EP7 vD U17 OEP2 aBd 3-+. )- +.DLE Q" 7 (# 7# H ω ) z ) A$u B n )# ω N Œ ‡ T• 7+ C0 ) uK Q" 7 (# 7# H Q" 7 (# =; )#u K ) uK Q" 7 (# )# z 2N$m A ‡ TB ) z N.` A #4 TBz $NJ2l$ ‡ T ⇒ ) z $NJ2l$ A$u N$ B n2N$m N$ z $NmU2m ‡ T ⇒ T C0 P Q+ 3 4 " # C V 6 z : )M A u B z $NmU2m A.lu .N.B z JmJJ2N` ‡ ! z z JmJJ2N` z l N``2 ‡ L u+ 75B7 +5EP7 )- 3/E 7)8l+. :, D CE < A B 7+ D / N CS ' P 7# 7=F b # , •A B #" ' +< 9+ 4=I R b # , )> Z CS , D CE 7+ 45 " •+N Œ • D CE ' 4 j D ^# 4=" 4=I 8 M + Q R Q+ (# ) b # C\ 1 β z N JN Q+ C0 Q R Q+ (# 0 S ' / Cb A$ − N JB π 2 T C0 D CE 45 " .NUl = = 2N.J •+z Nm2`m ) b # , D CE • QzA$u β B • z ! z •+ N`J .N$2 A$N B z Nm2`m 2 V 7+ "#$% &' (" !"< 78 ) R •z 2NJ *+ *+ #, )} = , D CE • S 7# 4* R 4 D CE S ' 7" D C @ C/ V = 3 < Q^ 4 " CS ' 3 CE QY g CE Q S 0 7+ 7=F I 4 CE 7" 8 (# + 7# H + W$z NJ A $n Bz NJ Am n .lBz JlNJ ) u CE Q S 4* CE ' 4 CE 7=F + z z .N. ) W + u 4 V a 0 @" Q δ z . # 0 D Qλ z `$NJm ƒ T = 3 0 C=F ' ? ?$z $N . $N ?+ C0N " ‘# \ !"# ? ?$’ 0 S 9X 7#+ CP CD 4=" ^# ; 7=F !"# < ‰ u t '# 7+ 4 7#+ CP CD 4=" =i c ; D CE < , V •z 2NJ T C0 D 7#+ CP CD 4=" =i c ^# ; @ & 7+ (# ' X+ c A` 2UB A 7 $22u Tq B α $ z UN$Jn2N$` •z UN$Jn2N$` 2NJz 2Nl$J ƒ T u 7#+ CP CD 4=" '# + ^# & ; ' 9" !"# X+ 4 7#+ CP CD 4=" R , 7D ?+ C0N α D 7#+ CP CD 4=" • C=I ' X+ c A` J B A 7 $2Ju Tq B N... α z $N`$J A • u W B 7+ C0 CE & + (# N CE =# • 4 u = 3 3 CE QY • , ‘# \ Ck c ! $z ! z ! . 7+ C0 !$z α $ A W$u •$B u λ !z A δ $ B − ! .z α A • u W B €C •$ 4 3 CE QY \ => 78 = A 7+ $ − CE & 7+ ‘# \ (# < Ck } 7 C c =# %=> 8 0 } , 7" @ B C0 4 D 7" @ V $ = $ $ $ + + α$ λ α δ ] !.z α A • u W BN # 0 !.z $N`$J A • u .N.B$N... # 0 = $ − ! $ δ λ "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, ‘# # 0 z JN ` ƒ T O3 CE QY !z JN ` AJlNJu .N.Bz $m$NlmJ ƒ ? ' #+ !"# • M8 b # ' 7" @ !"# = 4 7" @ !"# < ‰ N Q+ C0 Q ' #+ !"# V Q ' / 8 7 ' X+ C=F ' 7" 8 = 3 Q ' • V π Q ' D QD , # C/" N 7+ C0 ? z NJ A?$n? Bz NJ A$N n $N .Bz $N $J X+ #4 =π + π 2 = π $N $J 2N + π $N $J 2 = $mN$ ?+ C0 P 7# 7=F 6 V 6 z .NU ! •z .NU $m$NlmJ $mN$ z $$m`$N J ‡ $$m`$N J = = = JlN.U ‡ L 7+ D !"# N P P Q+ MK # C P Q+ H# 7# V 6 n 6 z JmJJ2N` n $$m`$N Jz ` 2 JNl` ‡ + = l N``2 + JlN.U = .J N$.2 ‡ L R+5 7DQ+ K2Q 7)m+5 aBd 75wI 7g R+5 .EQ 7)h 7u+. 7u+ 75B7 ∆ ∆= M; " vh+ !"< 4=I V ∆4 −A + V 7=F P P B = 2N$mUm .N.u .J N$.2z u J2NJm ‡ P P L P C* D (# P # P " NŒ ‡ L • nQI ih+5 IQI 75/+. aY IJa-2 K2Q 7)m+5 aBd 75wI BA B D ' V Cg …uQ b # C& C+* )+h+z ∆A f C=F z .l +) # • C=I C S ) S" Q p 7* < (# #" 78 R ] ) # 9< C C=I X # … N 4=I c# L Q L => CD ϕ #" !"< 78 R b # 0 S ' < c , ' ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, I(kJ/kgkkk) t1 I I2 1 1 (B) 2(C) t2 l 0 0(A) t 2`(C) 0 d2 d 2` d=d 0 1 %S ' < 7 Q- 9" D (# A $B = = + = J # 0 K=I c# L $ + = %E L ϕ = … $z + $Nl` (# Q # ' $N 2n $Nl` N $2lJz $N ..J ‡ = J + $Nl` .l = J`UNm. ‡ #" !"< 78 R Q" T V L L (# 7* < + => R N 7=; )Q9AQ$B # 0 A $B A $ − B $N ..J Am − .lB = N $2lJ + −∆ J`UNm. + J2NJm = N .. h # #" !"< 78 7=; !"< 78 d (g/kgkkk) CD A NU 0 S ' = $N 2 .ln N .. X+ c J`UNm.z $ 2N`U ‡ ϕ (# + `J` N .. `J = = ` NmJ { B N ` 22 A NU + N .. B #" !"< 78 R >8p+. 75wI 7g $ $ = = = J2N`.J − $ N .. − N $2lJ Kz4 ƒz J2N`.J z $ l2` z .N 2 l L $ >82 O8p+. 75x 7RI5 7)2+. [m+5 7)D+. K2Q 7)m+5 aBd 75wI ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #, n K=" 4=I 0 S ' Z 7* < 7=; !"< 78 M$ + S ' (# $ 0 Z 7* < $z m . ?+ C0 M$z $ Kz $N 2J .N 2 lz .N$``` . n K=" 4=I S ' Z 7* < 7=; !"< 78 M − $ n P = = A b $N 2J # C\ z $N$ U R M J`UNm.u 2N$mUm .N.z 2`lN `m ‡ # C ! Q+ # # C\ $z z ` {N q yEx3 7)- OCE .EF 75Eg7 Ue 7YI ik D CE 7+ !"< 78 R V .N. $ = = = .Nml.U Nm2`m = 3 , •z 2NJ ' P 4 + + ' 9< z 5Eg7 O1G [F+. IW+ [\+. +5EP7 %S 43 , V # ' u 4=I " #+ ! = A $ − B = UUNl. A$$lN`.u U$N.U$ Bz .l UNU 2 ‡ n 4=I 0 ' !$ = b {N 7 ϕ S ' $ # ϕ$ z JN ) (# $ 0 Z 7* < z .l +) . = 3 M z Kz $N$ U .N 2 lz .N2 2 . n K=" 4=I S ' 7" 8 7+ !"< 78 M z NJ AM$n M Bz NJ A.N$```n .N2 2Bz .N. $ . % 4 E 7+ # _ c CS 1 !"* 0 7 B A − B = J2N`.J $N 0 S 9X 4 L L ..J A.lu .N.Bz mmmN$. ‡ L n P 4=I 0' P < P !“ !“z !$n! n! n! z 2`lN `mn mmmN$.n l N``2n JlN.Uz .`$lNJ2 ‡ L M@ " f 4=I " #+ ! P 4=I 0' < P !“ , V #" € C Q+ @" 45 Q+N 0 S Q+ 7+ !"< 78 ' +< b # C\ 4 7Y D +& # D Q+ 7# Cg N b # C\ * ∆ = # D " CD ∆ = − ” V − ” = .l U NU 2 − .`$l NJ2 = $m` N m q# # D => CD ε V ∆ $m`N m ε= = = 2N`l{ ’ $ { .l UNU 2 # D 7+ ! ' +< 4 "#$% &' (" + ) ‡ L a *+ *+ #, F+. IW+ [\+. +5EP7 $ . 2 J U ` P P P P P # ?CE O8p+. 4=I 0' Q+ < Q+ 3 4 Q+ 4=I ' 4=I " D => CD y_ 5EP2 f{]f. r3 !$ 2`lN `m ! mmmN$. ! l N``2 ! JlN.U !“ .`$lNJ2 ! .l UNU 2 ε " 7=F +< #+ T U.N2U N`. `NJ $NJ lJN $ $ 2N`l 6"# D 4 " + 7+ , V 0 S P Q+ < # C P Q+ MK # C 4 C< S P 7# 7=F 7 aN 0 S H !"# M8 3 1 CE (# 7# H C0 E # 7Y !"# 71 T E D !"# b # / 4=" 5 C C@ q> ^#N !"# ' +< Cg < 0 S N CE + a (# 4; > 7 @" + ; CE M8 3 N 0 S 7+ ' +< q / !"# C C@ ! "#$% &' (" ) *+ *+ #,
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