Tài liệu The complete idiots guide to grammar and style

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Dear Reader, Did you nod off when Miss Nelson was explaining parts of speech? Snooze during the unit on punctuation? Go to the bathroom during capitalization? Still can't distinguish between "who" and "whom"? Tell when to start a new paragraph? Write an effective business letter, resume, or letter of complaint? Do you sometimes misplace your modifiers? Dangle your participles in your reader's face? Does grammar give you the willies? I'll bet the rules of English usage make you shake in your boots. If so, then this book is for you! Learning any new skill is daunting and difficult. Learning to use grammar and usage correctly and with confidence is no exception. But you've learned many other skills, and you know how important improving grammar and writing style can be to your career advancement and ability to communicate. I'm going to take you point-by-point through all the important English skills you need, from parts of speech to phrases, clauses, and sentences. You'll learn how to craft the documents you need, including business letters, resumes, personal letters, and e-mail missives. By the end of this book, you'll be using English with confidence and skill. You'll be able to write that dazzling proposal to win the contract—and finally get that promotion. Remember: Mastering the rules of grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling is well within your abilities. Best wishes, Laurie Rozakis, Ph.D. RS. The Complete Idiofs Guide to Grammar and Style has sold more than 100,000 copies since its publication in 1997! Thank you, dear readers, for recognizing my ability to make grammar easy—and fun—to learn. I very much appreciate all the kind e-mails and letters I get about this book, too. Your support is greatly appreciated. In this edition, I've added additional practice exercises, more writing models, and many tips for those of you whose first language is not English. These changes will make it even easier for you to master the basics of clear written and spoken communication. About the Author Laurie Rozakis earned her Ph.D. in English and American Literature with "Distinction" from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. A full professor of English and Humanities at Farmingdale State University, Dr. Rozakis has published a wide variety of reference books, biographies, young adult books, articles, and scholarship. In addition to The Complete Idiofs Guide to Writing Well, The Co?nplete Idiofs Guide to College Survival, and The Complete Idiofs Guide to Creative Writing, Dr. Rozakis' latest books include The Big Book of Dates (McGraw-Hill), Super Study Skills (Scholastic), and The AP English Literature and Composition Test (ARCO). Dr. Rozakis has also written parts of numerous language arts, speech, social studies, literature, reading, science, math, consumer education, and spelling programs for major publishers. These include Scholastic's Literacy Place, Scott-Foresman's Literature, Houghton Mifflin's Invitations to Literacy, and Prentice Hall's Literature. Grammar and Style Second Edition by Laurie E. Rozakis, Ph.D. ALPHA A member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. To my students, past, present, and future. Thank you for your hard work, determination, and support. You make teaching a privilege. Special thanks to Tom Kennedy, Fred Church, and all the other studentsfromyears gone by who stay in touch. Its gratifying to know you're happy, successful, and masters of grammar and style! Copyright © 2003 by Laurie E. Rozakis, Ph.D. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of information contained herein. For information, address Alpha Books, 201 West 103rd Street, Indianapolis, IN 46290. THE COMPLETE IDIOT'S GUIDE TO and Design are registered trademarks of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. International Standard Book Number: 1-59257-115-8 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2003105471 05 04 03 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Interpretation of the printing code: The rightmost number of the first series of numbers is the year of the book's printing; the rightmost number of the second series of numbers is the number of the book's printing. For example, a printing code of 03-1 shows that the first printing occurred in 2003. Printed in the United States ofAmerica Note: This publication contains the opinions and ideas of its author. It is intended to provide helpful and informative material on the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged in rendering professional services in the book. If the reader requires personal assistance or advice, a competent professional should be consulted. The author and publisher specifically disclaim any responsibility for any liability, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the contents of this book. Most Alpha books are available at special quantity discounts for bulk purchases for sales promotions, premiums, fund-raising, or educational use. Special books, or book excerpts, can also be created to fit specific needs. For details, write: Special Markets, Alpha Books, 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014. Publisher: Marie Butler-Knight Product Manager: Phil Kitchel Senior Managing Editor: Jennifer Chisholm Acquisitions Editor: Gary Goldstein Development Editor: Tom Stevens Senior Production Editor: Christy Wagner Copy Editor: Keith Cline Illustrator: Chris Eliopoulos Cover/Book Designer: Trina Wurst Indexer: Brad Herriman Layout/Proofreading: Becky Harmon, Mary Hunt, Ayanna Lacey Contents at a Glance Parti: No Uncertain Terms 1 Are You Grammarphobic? Probe your feeling about grammar and get clear definitions for grammar, usage, mechanics, and style. 1 3 2 Conan the Grammarian 13 Discover the most common grammar errors, assess your own writing strengths, andfindout how you can improve your writing—right now! PartZ: Under the Grammar Hammer 25 3 Parts of Speech: Coming to Terms 21 Play with the building blocks of language to grasp the underpinnings of writing and speech. This chapter teaches you all about nouns, verbs, conjunctions, and prepositions. 4 Terms of Endearment: More Parts of Speech 47 Master the rest of the gang, too: adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, and interjections. 5 Altered States: Verbs Learn how to use the basic English tenses—and why it's so important to do so. Also untangle the web of English verbs; learn how to form the irregular past tense. 59 6 Woe Is I: Pronouns and Case Who versus whom. (Or should I just shoot myself now?) 77 7 Multiple-Vehicle Wrecks: Pronoun Reference Discover how the meaning of a pronoun comes from its antecedent, the noun or pronoun to which it refers. 89 8 How to Write and Speak Good: Adjectives Versus Adverbs Good or well? Learn which part of speech to use when. 9 Reaching an Agreement: Matching Sentence Parts Find out how to match subjects and verbs, pronouns and antecedents. 10 Dazed and Confused: Common Usage Dilemmas Get a grip on dangling and misplaced modifiers, mixed metaphors, and split infinitives. 99 111 125 Usage and Abusage 137 11 Phrases: Prime-Time Players 139 Probe prepositional phrases, admire appositives, and visit with some verbals. 12 Clauses: Kickin'It Up a Notch 151 Learn about independent clauses, dependent clauses, adverb clauses, adjective clauses, and noun clauses. 13 Sentence and Sensibility 165 Discover how to avoid fragments, run-ons, and comma splices. 14 Coordination and Subordination: What to Say When the Cops Come 177 Select the sentence patterns that best convey your meaning. Tools of the Trade 15 The Writer's Tools: Round Up the Usual Suspects Find out which tools can help you write better—and how. 191 193 16 Punctuation: Commas Are Our Friends 203 Learn the nuts and bolts: end marks, commas, semicolons and colons, apostrophes, and the rest of the gang (quotation marks, slash and dash, parentheses, brackets, and ellipses). 17 Capitalization and Abbreviations: Go to the Head of the Class Master the guideposts of our language. 18 Guide to Spelling: Hooked on Phonics Bee a good speller. Style: All the Write Stuff 19 What Is Style, and How Do I Get Some? Define "style" in writing and learn why it is so important to crafting clear, effective prose. 223 233 2U 251 20 In Style 263 First, analyze the importance of audience to writing. Then discover the four kinds of writing: exposition, narration, argumentation, and description. 21 Stylish Sentences 275 Discover how to vary your sentence form and types to create a more polished and effective writing style. 22 Conciseness: The Department of Redundancy Department 287 Define "redundancy" and learn how to improve your writing style by simplifying your sentences. 23 Diction: Find the Right Word, Not Its First Cousin 299 Learn the different levels of diction and how to distinguish between confusing words. 24 Don't Go There: Words and Expressions to Avoid Find out why its so important to avoid sexist language, doublespeak, and clichés. Part 6: In Your Write Mind 311 325 25 Business Writing: Write Angles 327 Design effective documents for the world of work. These include resumes, cover letters, thank you notes, and good news and bad news letters. 26 Personal Writing: In Your Write Mind Write friendly letters, social notes, and letters of opinion. 345 Appendixes A Glossary 357 B Model Documents 361 C Guide to Grammar and Usage 367 Index 395 Contents Parti: No Uncertain Terms I 1 Are You Grammarphobic? How Can You Tell If You're Grammarphobic? Word Power War of the Words The Force Be with You Term Limits What Is Grammar? What Is Usage? What Is Mechanics? What Is Style? A Civil Tongue: Standards for Effective Communication 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 7 10 10 11 2 (onan the Grammarian Sweet Dreams Aren't Made of These Puppy Love Has It Come to This? Perversity Rules Let Me 'Splain It to You, Lucy Personal Writing Inventory Damage Control Mission Possible 13 13 14 14 15 18 20 23 23 Part 2: Under the Grammar Hammer 3 Parts of Speech: Coming to Terms Nouns: Prime-Time Players Possessive Nouns: 9/w of the Law Possess It! Plural Nouns: Two's Company, Threes a Crowd Too Much of a Good Thing? Combo Platter A Note on Nouns for Non-Native Speakers Verbs: All the Right Moves Action Verbs: Jumping Jack Flash Chain Gang: Linking Verbs 25 27 27 29 29 31 31 34 35 36 36 31 viii The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, Second Edition Mothers Little Helper: Helping Verbs Verb-O-Rama Conjunctions: The Ties That Bind All Tied Up Fit to Be Tied Prepositions: Good Things Come in Small Packages Joined at the Hip A Note on Prepositions for Non -Native Speakers 31 31 39 39 41 42 43 44 4 Terms of Endearment: More Parts of Speech U Adjectives: Happy Little Clouds 47 Spice Up Your Sentences with Adjectives 48 A Note on Adjectives for Non-Native Speakers 49 Have Fun with Adjectives 49 And in This Corner 49 Adverbs: Who Ya Gonna Call? 50 Have Fun with Adverbs 51 Conjunctive Adverbs: An Adverb Disguised as a Conjunction 51 Hunt and Peck 52 Pronouns: Pinch Hitters 53 Face the Music 55 Interjections: Zap! Pow! Wow! 56 Just When You Thought It Was Safe to Take a Shower 56 Seventh-Inning Stretch 51 5 Altered States: Verbs Shape Shifters Verb Tense: Nothing a Little Prozac Wouldn't Cure I Feel Your Pain: Principal Parts of Verbs A Class Act: Forming Past Tenses Now Ihayhh Lay Me Down to Sleep Party Pooper: Test Time All Tensed Up: Using Verb Tense Correctly Past Tense Back to the Future A Note on Verbs for Non-Native Speakers It s All in the Timing 59 60 60 61 61 64 65 66 61 68 68 10 Person, Number, and Mood Person Number Mood Active and Passive Voice: A Mistake Has Been Made Not So Fast 71 12 12 12 73 14 6 Woe Is I: Pronouns and Case Why Can't a Pronoun Be More Like a Noun? Head Case: The Three Cases The Rules Sorry, Wrong Number Seventh-Inning Stretch Who Versus Whom (or Should I Just Shoot Myself Now?) This Hurts You More Than It Hurts Me I Dare You Seventh-Inning Stretch 77 77 78 79 83 84 85 86 86 81 7 Multiple-Vehicle Wrecks: Pronoun Reference How's That Again? It Just Proves There's Someone for Everyone The Numbers Game Tag, You're It Location, Location, Location: Placement of Pronouns A Match Made in Writer's Heaven Possession and Pronouns Its a Lock It and They It Mania Who's on First? 89 90 91 91 92 93 94 94 94 95 96 91 8 How to Write and Speak Good: Adjectives Versus Adverbs They Walk Alike, They Talk Alike: You Could Lose Your Mind Graphic Proof Fm Ready for My Close-Up Now, Mr. DeMille Three Degrees of Separation Size Does Matter Good, Gooder, Goodest: Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs Keep Your Balance Other and Else 99 100 100 101 102 103 104 105 105 X The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, Second Edition Tough Sledding: Using Adjectives After Linking Verbs The Badlands Good News; Well News Once More into the Breach, Dear Friends A Note on Adjectives and Adverbs for Non-Native Speakers Don't Use No Double Negatives Don't Be Making No Mistakes 9 Reaching an Agreement: Matching Sentence Parts Anyone Got a Match? Singular Subjects and Verbs Plural Subjects and Verbs Seventh-Inning Stretch Collective Nouns Indefinite Pronouns The Pause That Refreshes Walk This Way Hide and Seek Playing the Numbers Matchmaker, Matchmaker, Make Me a Match Mix and Match Agree to Disagree Nose to the Grindstone 10 Dazed and Confused: Common Usage Dilemmas 106 106 106 107 108 108 109 III 112 112 113 114 115 116 118 119 119 120 120 121 122 124 125 Dangling Modifiers: Counterintelligence 126 Help Is on the Way 126 Man the Battle Stations 121 Misplaced Modifiers: Lost and Found 128 It Says What? 129 Quiz Show 130 Mixed Metaphors: A Dollar Late and a Day Short 131 Split Infinitives: To Boldly Go Where Everyone Else Goes ....133 The Good, the Bad, the Ugly 134 Hopefully 134 Like/As 134 Ending with a Preposition 135 Contents Usage and Abusaqe 137 Phrases: Prime-Time Players Phrases of the Moon Prepositional Phrases: The Big Daddy of Phrases Offspring 1 : Adjectival Phrases Offspring 2: Adverbial Phrases Appositives: Something More for Your Money Appositive Phrases The Moment of Truth Verbal Phrases: Talk Soup Part and Participle Gerund Phrases Infinitive Phrases: The Final Frontier 139 139 140 141 142 142 143 144 145 146 141 148 Clauses: Kickin'It Up a Notch Clauses: Phrases on Steroids Independent Clauses: Top Dogs Dependent Clauses: I Get by with a Little Help from My Friends I Know 'Em When I See 'Em Subordinating Conjunctions Link 'Em Together Looking for Love in All the Right Places Adverb Clauses: Hot Shots Follow the Leader Shape Up Your Sentences Adjective Clauses: Paint by Numbers Relative Clauses: Its All Relative Clauses Make the Sentence Noun Clauses: What's in a Name? Connect the Dots Getting Down and Dirty Sentence and Sensibility I Know It When I See It: The Sentence Seek and Ye Shall Find Hidden Treasures Sentence Structure: The Fab Four Simple Sentences: Simple Isn k as Simple Does Compound Sentences: Compound Interest Complex Sentences: Not So Complex at All 151 151 152 153 153 153 154 156 156 151 157 158 159 159 160 160 165 166 166 161 167 168 169 169 xi xii The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, Second Edition Compound-Complex Sentences: The Big Kahuna The Choice Is Yours Face the Music Sentence Functions: The Four Tops Alley Oops Fragments: Lost in Place Run-Ons and Comma Splices: It Could Be a Stretch Seventh-Inning Stretch 110 110 Ill 172 172 113 114 115 \k Coordination and Subordination: What to Say When the Cops Come 177 Coordination: All the Right Moves 178 Mix and Match 119 Dancing Cheek-to-Cheek 119 Don't String Me Along 180 Why Not Give It a Shot? 181 Subordination: What I Did for Love 182 Follow the Leader 183 Dice V Slice 184 Double Dare 184 Duke It Out: Coordination Versus Subordination 185 Parallel Structure: Trod the Straight and Narrow 186 Make It So 181 Time to Face Old Sparky 181 Parft: Tools of the Trade 15 The Writer's Tools: Round Up the Usual Suspects Pencil Pusher Using the Dictionary: You Could Look It Up Who You Gonna Call? Read the Labels Shop Till You Drop Specialized Dictionaries: Everyone s an Expert Computer Spell Checkers: Marvels of Technology Electronic Grammar Software: Help Is Only a Button Away The Thesaurus: War of the Words Lets Go Shopping Whiz-Bang Thesaurus Programs 191 193 193 194 195 196 196 198 199 200 201 202 202 Contents 16 Punctuation: Commas Are Our Friends 203 Punctuation Matters 203 Show Me the Money 204 Period, Question Mark, Exclamation Mark: The End of the Line 205 The Period: Do Not Pass Go, Do Not Collect $200 206 The Question Mark: Inquiring Minds Want to Know 206 Exclamation Marks: Gosh and Golly! 201 The Pause That Refreshes 201 The Comma: A Major Player 209 First Impressions Count 209 Sentence Interruptus 210 In Media Res 211 Dazed and Confused 211 Bean Counters 211 Constant Commas 212 The Semicolon: Love Child of the Comma and the Period ....213 The Colon: What a Party Animal 213 Semi-Tough 214 Quotation Marks: Quote/Unquote 215 A Little Dabba Do Ya 216 Not Separated at Birth: The Dash and the Hyphen (and Let's Add the Ellipsis for Fun) 217 The Dash: Long and Lean 211 The Hyphen: Short and Sweet 218 The Ellipsis: Dot, Dot, Dot 218 Parentheses and Brackets: Bosom Buddies 218 (Parentheses) 219 [Brackets] 219 Slash and Burn 219 Apostrophes 220 Once More, Dear Friends 221 17 Capitalization and Abbreviations: Go to the Head of the Class Capitalization: A Capital Idea Capital Punishment Rules to Capitalize By Capital Investment Abbreviations: Good Things Come in Small Packages 223 223 224 225 228 229 xiii xiv The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, Second Edition 18 Guide to Spelling: (looked on Phonics Bee a Good Speller If U Cn Reed This Quick and Dirty Tricks of the Trade Attaching Prefixes and Suffixes: Bits and Pieces Attaching Prefixes: Front-End Collision Attaching Suffixes: Rear-End Collision Go for the Gusto Contractions: Suck It In Follow the Rules! Spelling Rules ieeeeeeeeeeeee! See and Say Silent Letters Tricky-Dickie Word Endings Y/IUse Spelling Demons Ten Tough Spelling Words—and Ways to Make Them Tender Part 5: Style: All the Write Stuff 23} 234 235 235 237 257 231 241 241 242 244 244 245 245 246 246 246 2W 19 What Is Style, and How Do I Get Some? Style: Write On! The 3C's: Consistency, Coherence, Clarity Consistency Coherence Clarity I'll Have What's on His Plate Lie Like a Rug 2SI 251 253 253 255 251 258 261 20 In Style Audience: People Who Need People Inquiring Minds Want to Know I Share Your Tain Who's Who Culture Vulture Model Behavior Live and Learn Make It Your Own 263 263 264 264 266 268 269 210 210 Contents Four Play Exposition: Writing That Explains Narration: Writing That Tells a Story Argumentation: Writing That Persuades Description: Writing That Describes 270 271 272 272 275 21 Stylish Sentences Flexible Flyers Vary Sentence Types Vary Sentence Lengths Add Questions and Commands Focus on the Subject Add Details Use Vivid Verbs Invert Word Order Play with Pronouns Between a Rock and a Hard Place Punctuation and Style: Little Things Matter a Lot 27S 276 216 277 219 219 280 283 283 283 284 284 22 Conciseness: The Department of Redundancy Department Slash and Burn Thrift, Thrift, Thrift Eliminate Unneeded Words and Phrases Revise Sentences That Begin with Expletives Combine Sentences That Repeat Information Don't Say the Same Thing Twice Make Passive Sentences Active 287 287 290 291 294 295 296 291 23 Diction: Find the Right Word, Not Its First Cousin Diction: Proper Words in Proper Places Elevated Diction Edited American English Colloquial Language Slang Vernacular Tone-on-Tone Ten Distinctions Worth Making (or at Least Worth Being Able to Make!) Twenty-Five Headaches ¥mr You're On Homophones: Give Piece a Chance Grin and Bare Bear It 299 300 301 301 301 301 302 302 303 305 301 308 309 xv xvi The Complete Idiot's Guide to Grammar and Style, Second Edition Z*t Don't Go There: Words and Expressions to Avoid 311 Sexist Language: Political Roadkill 312 On Thin Ice 313 Nonsexist Language: Level the Playing Field 314 Top of Your Game 316 Spin Doctors 317 Jargon: uPhasers on Stun, Cap'n" 318 Bureaucratic Language: Piled Higher and Deeper 319 Inflated Language: Full of Hot Air 320 Euphemisms: Sleeping with the Fishes 320 Search and Destroy 321 The Cliché Expert 321 Gorgeous George 323 A Note on Words and Expressions to Avoid for Non-Native Speakers 324 Part 6: In Your Write Mind 32S 25 Business Writing: Write Angles Letter Perfect Form and Function Kissing Cousins Resumes and Cover Letters: Get on the Fast Track Resumes Shooting Yourself in the Foot Chronological Resume Skills Resume Cover Letters Bread-and-Butter Notes Good News, Bad News Good News Bad News 327 328 328 330 330 331 332 332 333 336 338 339 340 340 26 Personal Writing: In Your Write Mind Friendly Letters: My Baby, She Wrote Me a Letter Signed, Sealed, Delivered: Vm Yours Model Letter B & B Revisited I Feel Your Pain: Letters of Condolence 3ti 346 346 341 348 348
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