Tài liệu The best guides to ielts writing (hướng dẫn tốt nhất cho viết ielts)

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Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa Collected and Shared by Tran Manh Trung – Foreign Language Department Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa Province ************************ THE BEST GUIDES TO IELTS WRITING ***************** *A list of 270 informal - formal words and phrases. *A considerable number of essential words and phrases for IELTS Writing 1 and IELTS Writing 2 * 44 gold rules for writing academic essays Thanh Hoa City 12/2012 1 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa A. FORMAL AND INFORMAL WORD LIST (Collected and selected by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University) Rules for formal writing are quite strict, though often unstated. Formal writing is used in academic and scientific settings whenever you want to convey your ideas to a wide audience, with many possible backgrounds and assumptions. Unlike casual conversation or emails to friends, formal writing needs to be clear, unambiguous, literal, and well structured. Table 01: Ord INFORMAL/EVERYDAY FORMAL/ACADEMIC VIETNAMESE MEANING 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 a lot of/ loads of/ plenty of a bit to get together to start/to begin big thing stuff to find out to do again to do well to set up to cut down on to go up to come up with to look into a great deal of /numerous/ several Somewhat (before adj. or adv.)/ slightly to collaborate with sbd on smth to initiate/to commence smth/v-ing large (number/percentage), considerable device/object material to ascertain/discover to repeat to succeed to establish to reduce to increase to create to investigate nhiều một chút ít cộng tác bắt đầu khởi đầu lớn, to lớn vật dụng/vật thể chất liệu, vật liệu tìm ra, tìm thấy lặp lại thành công thiết lập giảm bớt tăng lên tạo ra điều tra 2 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 37 38 to go up and down to bring up a question to get rid of to turn down smth to turn out smth to take smth back to put off smth to put up with to put away smth to put down to smth to come about to give up to go back/give back to give off smth to give away to carry out smth to seem to climb to help to stop to use to shorten to show to go to fluctuate to raise a question to eliminate to refuse to produce to retract (a statement) to postpone smth to tolerate to save to attribute to to occur to relinquish return to swh/ smth to produce (heat) to betray to conduct to appear to ascend to assist/ aid to cease to consume to decrease/ to abbreviate to demonstrate to depart dao động đưa ra vấn đề loại bỏ từ chối làm ra, tạo ra rút lại hoãn lại chịu đựng tiết kiệm, để dành quy cho, gán cho xảy ra từ bỏ trở lại/ trả lại sản sinh, tạo ra tiết lộ, phản bội tiến hành hình như, dường như đi lên, tăng lên (số lượng) giúp đỡ dừng lại dùng, tiêu dùng giảm bớt/ rút ngắn chỉ ra, chứng minh đi, khởi hành 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 to want to end to tell to keep to say no to free to mend/ to fix to desire to finish/ to terminate to inform preserve/ retain to reject to release/ to liberate to repair mong muốn kết thúc thông tin, cho biết giữ gìn/ giữ từ chối trả tự do, phóng thích sửa chữa 3 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 to need to live in the end at once at the same time at first on and off mainly next again and again so understanding lack chance sweat house sight friendly whole lively lucky childish wrong worse cheap dim mad to lay back in charge of enough better clear to require to reside finally/ultimately immediately simultaneously/ concurrently initially intermittently principally/primarily subsequently repeatedly therefore/ consequently comprehension deficiency opportunity perspiration residence vision amiable complete energetically/animated fortunate immature/ infantile incorrect/questionable inferior to inexpensive indistinct insane to relax responsible for sufficient superior to transparent 4 cần ở tại, trútại cuối cùng ngay lập tức đồng thời, cùng lúc đầu tiên gián đoạn, lúc cólúc không chủ yếu tiếp theo lặp đi lặp lại vìthế, vìvậy sự hiểu sự thiếu hụt cơ hội, dịp mồ hôi nơi cư trú (count) khả năng nhìn, thị giác thân mật toàn bộ đầy sinh lực/ sống động may mắn như trẻ con (tính cách) sai/ cóvấn đề thấp kém hơn rẻ không rõràng, mờ điên thư giãn chịu trách nhiệm đầy đủ tốt hơn, giỏi hơn rõràng Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 empty to ask for hot (topic) more and more to get bad to get worse horrible to come in to talk about to go down to come up with to look at to pin down to experience the influence of Let’s consider … I love/like/prefer On top of that Government must make laws In a nutshell Every coin has two sides by chance to try to swap as far as x goes to skip by accident kids O.K to make up for to catch on smth to go down with a disease vacant to require/ to request controversial Increasingly/ unceasingly/non-stop to obtain/ to receive disappointing to deteriorate unacceptable to enter to discuss to descend to suggest to examine to determine to be influenced It is important to consider … Personally, I favour … Another point is … There is a need for laws To state it briefly/ In brief There are advantages and disadvantages to Incidentally to attempt/ to endeavor to exchange in respect of / with respect to omit/not attend smth accidentally infants/offsprings acceptable/ satisfactory to compensate for to understand to contract a disease 5 trống không đòi hỏi, yêu cầu đang gây tranh cãi tăng lên không ngừng đạt được, lấy , mua tồi tệ, đáng thất vọng trở nên xấu đi không thể chấp nhận, kinh khủng đi vào thảo luận đi xuống, giảm xuống gợi ý, đưa ra xem xét quyết tâm , dứt khoát chịu ảnh hưởng hãy cân nhắc, xem xét Tôi thích, tôi ủng hộ một điểm khác nữa là cần cóluật về … tóm lại mọi vấn đề đều cóưu điểm vànhược điểm nhân tiện cố gắng trao đổi đối với, về phần bỏ qua, không tham dự ngẫu nhiên, tình cờ trẻ em được, chấp nhận được đền bù, bùlại nắm bắt, hiểu mắc bệnh Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 to go up to get in touch with to let somebody know to call off to sort out to deal with small to think of about to do (research) hard to keep up a lot stand for next prove rich the same as drink man old people crooks great, awesome sick of, fed up with feature before to think (that) Because Nobody can say I think that About And to increase to contact to inform to cancel to resolve to handle/ to address minimal/limited/ modest to conceive of/imagine an estimated, approximately, roughly to carry out, perform, undertake difficult, problematic,challenging to maintain a substantial amount, a considerable sum denote, represent adjacent confirm affluent, wealthy, prosperous equivalent to beverage (count) male senior citizens, retirees offenders, lawbreakers preferable, desirable dissatisfied with characteristic Prior to to assume (that) Owing to or due to the fact that/As a result of It is impossible to predict … It seems that/ It could be argued that Regarding/ Concerning as well as 6 tăng lên liên hệ. liên lạc cho biết huỷ bỏ, bãi bỏ giải quyết, đi đến quyết định giải quyết, xử lý nhỏ, bé nghĩ về, suy tính khoảng chừng tiến hành (nghiên cứu), đảm nhiệm khó khăn duy trì nhiều chỉ, thay cho kề cận khẳng định giàu có giống nhau, tương đương đồ uống đàn ông người cao tuổi tội phạm tuyệt vời, đáng ao ước không hài lòng đặc điểm trước cho rằng vì Không cóthể dự đoán trước nNười ta nói rằng Về, về phần còn, cũng như Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 but to write a cheque carefull/cautious to check to agree with to go over to hand / to give In accordance with to involve lost to make sure to order to pay to supply to take away when we get … Whenever we like / want One after the other There are no big differences between This shows that to put smth into action etc./ and so forth./ and so on. i.e e.g vs. nice/ cute smart come lifestyle 19th century workmate tired while/whereas to issue a checque prudent (imprudent)/prudential to verify to be bound by exeed to submit Pursuant to to entail inadvertently mislaid to ensure to authorise to settle to furnish to withdraw On receipt of … Without prior notice … At regular intervals No significant differences emerges between This demonstrates that To be implemented/ carried out among other examples namely, / that is, For example, versus/as apposed of attractive intelligent arrive way of life / manner of life The nineteenth century colleague exhausted 7 nưng, khi mà viết tờ ngân phiếu cẩn thận, thận trọng kiểm tra đồng ývới vượt quá, quámức trình lên, nộp Phùhợp với kéo theo, kèm theo vôtình thất lạc để đảm bảo rằng uỷ quyền trả tiền, thanh toán cung cấp lấy ra, rút (tiền) ra Khi nhận được … Không báo trước … Đều đặn Không cósự khác biệt đáng kể nào Điều này chỉ ra rằng Được tiến hành, được đưa vào hoạt động vàv.v tức là, chẳng hạn vídụ chống lại, ngược với hấp dẫn, lôi cuốn thông minh đến lối sống Không viết tắt đồng nghiệp mệt mỏi Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 drunk sad who to get your money back to pay your bills really to go up to to work breathing meat-eater chance wrong died out relevant relatives copy break mix preference to come across to do away with to build up to finish off to back up to put forward to put across to obey a law poor country That’s why/ why new dependence quarrel intoxicated dejected whom ( đại từ tân ngữ, sau giới từ) refund your payment to settle your account extremely to reach to function respiration carnivore opportunity erroneous extinct pertinent kindred imitate fracture blend predilection to find to abolish to accumulate to conclude to support/to advocate propose to express to comply with a law developing country For this reason, … / … the reason for … novel surbodination debate/dispute 8 bị say rượu buồn, chán nản ai lấy lại tiền trả tiền hoáđơn mua hàng, thanh toán cực kỳ, vôcùng lên tới (con số), đạt tới hoạt động sự hôhấp động vật ăn thịt cơ hội sai sót tuyệt chủng thích đáng, đúng chỗ họ hàng thân tộc bắt chước đập vỡ pha trộn sự thiên vị tìm thấy bãi bỏ tích luỹ kết luận ủng hộ đề xuất, đề nghị biểu lộ, bày tỏ tuân thủ pháp luật nước nghèo Vílýdo này mới sự phụ thuộc Cãi nhau Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 In the same way to look for way money to imagine place viewpoint fast/quickly how much when (conj) In/For many years to make smth better /to get better To put on weight verb + not + any + noun verb + not + many/much + noun to give as you can be seen wood to describe to learn by heart to go on may be somehow job to take on to give dad plane (not) smoke. to follow these guidelines. gran/granny/nana every year/ each year Similarly, to seek manner/solution currency to conceive / conceivably location stance rapidly/ as a matter of urgency to what extent (not applicable to price or amount) At the time of … During a considearble period of years to improve/to upgrade to gain weight verb + no + noun verb + few/little + noun to provide as can be seen timber to depict to memorise to continue possibly, perhaps in a certain way occupation employ donate, contribute father aeroplane to refrain from smoking to adhere to these guidelines. grandmother annually 9 Tương tự như vậy Tìm kiếm giải pháp tiền tệ tưởng tượng nơi, vị trí lập trường, quan điểm nhanh tới mức độ nào Khi mà Trong nhiều năm cải thiện, làm cho tốt hơn Tăng cân … không (cái gì) … không (cái gì) đưa cho, cung cấp như ta cóthể thấy gỗ môtả ghi nhớ tiếp tục cólẽ bằng cách nào đó nghề nghiệp thuê cho, tặng bố máy bay không hút thuốc theo sự chỉ dẫn bà hằng năm Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 glasses shop fridge TV/ telly boss change phone you back bin man and so on. / and so forth / etc. How often? present position to make up to blow up to give in to come arcoss like Can you … ? 261 262 263 264 265 268 269 270 Do you want to … ? I’d like to ask for … Thanks Sorry for … I don’t know whether … Do you know … ? I can’t I don’t want to … spectacles retail outlet refrigerator television employer transform return your call refuse collector among other examples. / or avoid using them How frequent ? current location to invent to explode to surrender to encounter such as Would you be able to … ? / Could you … ? I would appreciate it if you … / I wonder if you would like … ? I would like to request … Thank you I would like to apologise for … I am unable to say whether … Would you happen to know …? Unfortunately, I will not be able to … I would rather not … kính đeo mắt cửa hiệu tủ lạnh tivi ông chủ chuyển đổi gọi điện lại người thu rác v.v. Thường như thế nào? hiện tại vị trí làm ra, phát minh nổ tung đầu hàng bắt gặp, chạm trán như là… (liệt kê) Liệu ông/bàcóthể …? Ông bàcómuốn … ? Tôi muốn yêu cầu … Cám ơn Tôi xin lỗi vì… Tôi không biết liệu … Ông/bàcóbiết … Tôi không thể … Tôi không muốn Academic Language The term academic language commonly refers to the language that is used in formal situations such as classrooms, college or universities. Moreover, it is the language of textbooks and exams. Academic language is the language used by teachers and students in order to acquire new knowledge and skills. It differs in structure and 10 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa vocabulary from language used in daily social interactions. This means that academic language includes specialized vocabulary, as well as conventional text structures such as the use of nominal groups, i.e., groups of words that provide more information about particular concepts. For example, the language of linguistics includes words like morphology, language acquisition, or language learning. Features of Academic Language The uses of specific linguistic features depend on the discipline for which an assignment is written. For example, an essay in history may contain a number of past tense verbs than a paper that discusses the dialects spoken by a particular speech community in which the present tense verbs are used. The three features of academic languag are lexical, grammatical, and discourse”. 11 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa B. IELTS USEFUL LANGUAGE Writing Task 1: 1. THE LANGUAGE OF APPROXIMATION In report writing it is good style to use approximation. Approximation means describing numbers or statistics by using a fraction that is similar to the exact number. There are a number of reasons for doing this. Firstly, it is easier for people to understand and remember. Secondly, the numbers or statistics may be more detailed than necessary. Table 02: Ord 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 numbers/statistics 65 % 28 % 21 % 49 % 74 % 33.333 % 92 % 98,5 % 19.98 % 26 % 48.873 % 74.25 % similar fractions about two-thirds of just over a quarter of about a fifth of just under a half of almost three – quarters of a third of most of almost all about a fifth of just over a quarter of almost a half of nearly three - quarters Ord 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 numbers/statistics 1,043 115 9 2 4 6/7 749,982 1,256,890,534 101,997 248.112 1,695,193 97 12 similar fractions over a thousand over a hundred fewer than ten a small number a few several about three-quarters of a million over 1.2 billion about 100,000 a quarter of a million about 1.7 million just under a hundred Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 2. THE WORDS AND PHRASES TO DESCRIBE TRENDS: Table 03: Adjectives sharp sudden rapid abrupt dramatic steep significant steady considerable marked slight gentle gradual Adverbs sharply suddenly rapidly abruptly dramatically significantly steadily considerably markedly slightly gently gradually wildly 13 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa Nouns a rise an increase a surge a growth a peak a fluctuation a variation a period of stability a plateau to rise to increase to surge to grow to peak to skyrocket to fluctuate to vary to fall to decrease to decline to dip to dive to plunge Verbs a fall a decrease a decline a dip Phrases to show an upward trend to show a downward trend to hit the highest point to hit the lowest point to reach a peak to show some fluctuation to fluctuate wildly to remain stable to remain static to remain unchanged to stay constant to reach a plateau to level off to flatten out the highest the lowest the second highest the third highest 14 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa compared to compared with relative to 3. MORE WORDS AND PHRASES TO DESCRIBE TRENDS: A. Introduction 1. The graph (biểu đồ)/table (bảng)/ shows (cho thấy)/indicates (chỉ)/ illustrates (minh hoạ)/ reveals (tiết lộ)/ represents (trình bày) … 2. It is clear from the graph/table … 3. It can be seen from the graph/table … 4. As the graph/table shows … 5. As can be seen from the graph/table … 6. As is shown by the graph/table … 7. As is illustrated by the graph/table … 8. From the graph / table it is clear … B. Verbs 1. to constitute/ make up: tạo thành 2. to comprise: bao gồm 3. to account for: chiếm đến 4. to amount to : lên đến (số) 5. to stand at: giữ ở (số) 6. to treble: gấp ba lần 7. to double: gấp đôi 8. to increase three fold: tăng gấp ba lần 9. to halve: chia đôi, giảm đi một nửa 10. to diminish: sụt giảm, làm sụt giảm 15 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 11. to slow down: chậm lại 12. to remain the same/ unchanged: không thay đổi, giữ nguyên 13. to deplete: làm giảm 14. to lessen: giảm bớt, làm giảm bớt 15. to escalate: leo thang, tăng nhan 16. to stand at the same level: giữ nguyên 17. to fall to … %: giảm tới … % 18. to fall from … %: giảm xuống dưới … % 19. to fall by …%: giảm khoảng … % 20. to drop to … : giảm tới … % 21. to rise to … %: tăng tới … % 22. to rise by … %: tăng khoảng 23. to rise from … %: tăng từ … % 24. to increase at …% /reduce at … %: tăng/giảm … % 25. to increase to … /reduce to … : tăng/giảm tới … (số) 26. to remain relatively steady: vẫn duy trì tương đối ổn định C. Adverbs 1. exceptionally: cábiệt, khác thường 2. remarkably: đáng chú ý 3. moderately: vừa phải 4. extremely/enormously: cực kỳ, rất 5. substantially: to lớn, đáng kể 6. marginally: hơi, đôi chút 7. hardly/ scarcely: hầu như không 8. slowly: chậm 16 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa D. Prepositions and prepositional phrases 1. In/within the range of … and … :Trong phạm vi 2. For/During the first six months, …: Trong sáu tháng đầu 3. During the remainder of the year, …: Trong thời gian còn lại của năm … 4. During the first half of this century, …: Trong nửa đầu thế kỷ này … 5. Between 1950 and 1960, …: Giữa năm 1950 và 1960 … 6. In the period from 1960 to 1990, … :Trong giai đoạn từ 1960 to 1990 … 7. In the period between 1950 and 1960, … : Trong giai đoạn giữa năm 1950 và 1990 … 8. From that time on: Từ thời gian đó trở đi 9. Over a ten-year period, … : Trong giai đoạn 10 năm 10. Throughout the nineteenth century: Trong suốt thế kỷ 19 11. Unlike …: Không giống với … 12. In contrast to …: so với … /tương phản với … 13. In comparison with … : so sánh với … 17 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa E. Nouns and noun phrases 1. overview: cái nhì n khái quát, cái nhì n tổng quan 2. a large number /percentage of … : một số lớn /một tỷ lệ phần trăm lớn của … 3. the whole/total amount/quantity of … : tổng lượng của … 4. the total number of … : tổng số của … 5. An increase of … %: sự tăng lên … % 6. trend: khuynh hướng 7. correlation: mối liên hệ 8. a drop of … %: sự giảm … % 9. an increase in … : sự tăng về … 10. a slight increase: sự tăng nhẹ 11. a drop in …: giảm về …. F. Comparison 1. Comparing the figures for 1990 and 2000 …: So sánh các con số của năm 1990 và năm 2000 … 2. Compared to/with x, y is …: So với x, y thì … 3. Comparing with x, y is more …: so với x , y thì hơn… 4. Comparing X with Y we find that … : So sánh X với Y chúng ta nhận thấy … 5. Comparing x with y, it can be seen by us that …: So sánh x với y chúng ta cóthể thấy rằng … 18 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 4. Types of Trend 19 Collected and shared by Tran Manh Trung – Hong Duc University – Thanh Hoa 20
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