Tài liệu Teachings on peace and harmony of the 14th dalai lama and selected peace advocates (sum)

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Thai Nguyen University Socialist Republic of Vietnam Batangas State University Republic of Philippines PHD. CANDIDATE: TRAN THI NHI TEACHINGS ON PEACE AND HARMONY OF THE 14TH DALAI LAMA AND SELECTED PEACE ADVOCATES Major: English Language and Literature SUMMARY OF Ph.D DISSERTATION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE THAI NGUYEN, 2014 The Dissertation was completed in: THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Advisor: Dr. Maria Luisa A. Valdez Reviewer No.1: ............................................. Reviewer No.2: ............................................. Reviewer No.3: ............................................. The Dissertation will be evaluated at the State Council held at: ……………………………………………………………………….. At: hour ... date ... month ...year 2014 Dissertation can be found at the libraries: - National library of Vietnam; - Learning Resource Center - Thai Nguyen University; - Library of International Training and Development Center; - Library of Batangas State University, Philippines. 24 1 6. That the members of the community may realize, through this Chapter I paper, that peace and harmony is most effective when it highlights THE PROBLEM the positive interdependence existing among the people, groups, organizations and nations. 7. That future researchers conduct other literary studies on the theme Introduction There exist myriad problems in the current world which threaten of peace along lines of this research for academic enhancement. This the existence of humanity. Violence is accelerating everywhere. would bring a wider crosssection of views of life and to substantiate Ceaseless wars and conflicts are taking place in several regions, the present study. killing thousands of people and causing suffering for millions of human beings. Furthermore, more and more modern weapons with massive destruction capacity are being produced, threatening the whole mankind in every minute. Meanwhile, the world is also faced with terrorism, environmental pollution, racial religious conflicts, political disputes, social and economic inequality, the large gap between the rich and the poor, diseases and poverty. Making the situation worse, these problems happen in every continent without exception, and tend to happen to not only one nation or a few nations but also bigger groups of nations. For example, the United States and Western countries have recently experienced terrorist attacks, civil unrest and violent massacres; the political disputes between Russia and other European countries around the issues related to Ukraina has resulted in the embargo and trade and business sanctions which creates hardships for of millions of citizens in the European continent; the rise of terrorist country self-called Isis has created turmoil and terrible violence in Middle East and North Africa; constant conflicts in the China Sea are threatening the stability and the maintenance of peace in the South East Asia. 2 All of these catastrophic events beg the question of how to save humanity. As stated in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and 23 peace and harmony can access the academe and spawn peace and nonviolent-related activities in the curricula that will educate the academic community of the beneficial outcomes of these virtues to Cultural Organization (UNESCO) constitution, the statement that all people. “Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that 2. That the working professionals integrate the recommendations of the defenses of peace must be constructed” is an appeal for a this study in the mainstream of their disciplines, their lives and the psychology of peace, a movement which seeks to find a the solution world. And, organize workplace peace initiatives to nurture and to conflicts without violence but via mutual and harmonious challenge people of all ages working in various sectors of society to relationships. live peaceful and harmonious lives. Accordingly, peace education is a principal means to maintain and 3. That media practitioners and professionals be inspired to develop promote peace. To establish and foster a culture of peace is a an intervention strategy that incorporates educational messages on necessity for any nation, including Vietnam - a country vulnerable to peace and harmony into popular media such as soap operas and other peace. media programming on the television and radio to change cultural Aligning with UNESCO constitution, the country has been a long attitudes, norms and behaviors that would benefit audiences. time advocate for peace, maintaining and promoting education for 4. That college instructors of literature may use this analysis as one peace via its education policies implemented in both informal of their methodologies in teaching literature specifically the teaching and formal education. appropriate materials, media, and literary theories and approaches in Peace education as a social movement can be traced back from literary analysis in their literature classes and to develop their religious traditions. For centuries, peace and peaceful resolution of students’ appreciation and sense of value in order to guide and allow conflict was primarily discussed in the teachings of religious leaders them to crystallize and synthesize what philosophy of life is best to such as Lao Tse, Jesus Christ, the Buddha, the Dalai Lama, and learn and to live by. Bahau llah, who taught that people were supposed to promote peace 5. That the students of literature realize the significance of peace in their lives and in the world as a whole. education and may be inspired to treat literature as a work of art The contribution that religious figures can make to peacemaking distinguished from other texts through content and form, and has been increasingly studied and recognized. Peace education has intensify their appreciation of prose and poetry as well as inspire evolved from radical values in religious traditions of love, them to engage in literary analysis as an academic activity. 22 Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn: 3 compassion, tolerance and charity to modern theories revolving interpersonal relations and environmental issues (Harris, 2002). Buddhism, the religion which was introduced to Vietnam about 1. The 14th Dalai Lama simplifies the thousand-year Buddhist two thousand years ago, despite ups and downs, has tremendously philosophical wisdom and turns it into the principles which are influenced all facets of Vietnamese culture, especially the spiritual comprehensible and relevant to any ordinary person in the modern life and the system of moral values. Historically, most Vietnamese time who wants to practice them in the daily life in order to attain have dentified themselves with Buddhism. Buddhism was introduced peace. to Vietnam as being a peaceful way, aimed at seeking justice, 2. Powerful and distinctive concepts of peace are found in Rumi, compassion, freedom for humans from sufferings. These beliefs are Tagore, Pope John Paul and Ikeda’s poems and proses. close to the long standing cultural values of the Vietnamese and 3. Although the selected peace advocates represent four different suitable with Vietnamese people, who advocate peace and always religions and they come from different cultures, much common desire happiness and freedom for their nation. Therefore, the religion conception is found in their teachings on peace. was easily accepted and quickly spread by the Vietnamese. 4. All the teachings on peace by the selected peace advocates which Throughout the country, there exist thousands of Buddhist emphasize “learning to live in harmony together” the universal and pagodas in the cities and the countryside, playing an important part in permanent moral values and principles which promote a spirit of the spiritual life and making an identified culture of the Vietnamese respecting cultural pluralism, cultivate human good qualities and people. These pagodas function not only as the place for communal responsibility must be integrated in education so that the young activities but also a place for ideological teachings to be conveyed. generation’s peace spirit is fostered, energized and enlivened through Buddhism has been considered as the national religion of literature and culture. Vietnam. During the Ly dynasty in the eleventh and twelfth century, Recommendations Buddhism was so popular and vibrant that half of the Vietnamese From the findings and conclusions of this study, the researcher offers the following recommendations: population at that time followed it. In the 20th century, the country experienced a series of harsh 1. That the academic managers educational policy makers and historical events, affecting the development of the religion. However, administrators utilize this study as a frame of reference when they with recent changes in economics and social developments, the prepare developmental priorities, programs, projects and policies in picture of religious life within Vietnamese people has become more the educational institutions. This would ensure that the value of vivid. If in the past, only old women went to the temples and 4 21 practiced Buddhist rituals, nowadays, there seems to be an increasing 14th Dalai Lama and Daisaku Ikeda for Buddhism, Mawlana Rumi interest in practicing the religion in both men and women, and in for Islam, Pope John Paul II for Christianity and Tagore for non- both old people and young ones. This trend likely creates a a formative religion, much common conception is found in their favorable environment to promote peace education for the whole teachings on peace. Their perspectives to the existence of human nation in general and for its young generation in particular. It is beings and the world and their concepts on peaceful and harmonious undeniable that Buddhism has deep roots in Vietnamese culture, relationships are universal despite the time and geographical distance. since its principal beliefs and values can be found in various facets of Regarding peace and harmony at three aspects - intrapersonal, Vietnamese culture, from folklore, arts and literature to many aspects interpersonal and international, these peace advocates all desire of everyday life. The religion has been imbedded in the common life peace, seek ways to attain peace for the humanity and bring man back of the Vietnamese communities. to the original soul which is infinite and beautiful part of human The core value in the philosophy of Buddhism largely recognized beings. Peace is radical need and ultimate goal of man. by the Eastern Buddhist countries and recently by Western countries To achieve peace, man needs to cultivate good qualities such as is its interpretation of peace and harmony, its nature and the way to love for nature and for human beings and responsibility with himself, attain it. with his community and with the whole of mankind. They all For centuries, Buddhist countries have practiced the doctrine and followed the teachings of Buddha. However, in the modern era where emphasize the respect of various races, diverse cultures and different religions as a necessity for a peaceful and harmonious world. rapid development in information technology is at hand, it is very 4. With the contemporary world full of conflicts and violence timely to contemplate if the Buddhist philosophy on peace and today, there is a necessity to devise a form of education which can harmony is still appropriate for the hectic and busy and frenetic life help resolve its problems and turns it into a safe, peaceful and happy style experienced by people in the present day. home for mankind. All the teachings on peace by the selected peace The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, a Tibetan Buddhist monk, advocates which emphasize “learning to live in harmony together” has been the primary proselytizer and advocate of the philosophy of should be one of the major issues in education today. The universal peace and harmony from the perspective of Buddhism in recent and permanent values and principles which promote a spirit of times. Notably, he has been successful in making relevant the respecting cultural pluralism, cultivate human good qualities and thousand-year wisdom of Buddhism to the specific and practical appraise responsibility must be integrated in education so that the teachings for the modern life of the new millennium. young generation’s peace spirit is fostered, energized and enlivened through literature and culture. 20 5 present time, the Dalai Lama calls for a sense of universal Beside the Dalai Lama, there have been a great number of peace responsibility and proposes a spiritual revolution as a solution to advocates, including religious figures, political leaders, literary achieve peace and harmony for human beings at all levels - personal, writers and philosophers, who have advocated the teachings of peace community and global. and harmony in their books, sermons and speeches. All of this have 2. Powerful concepts related to the value of human life and provided a basis for a trend and a growing movement for peace and humanity are found in Rumi, Tagore, Pope John Paul and Ikeda’s harmony in modern times. Because of the importance of this peace writings and speeches. movement, the researcher has decided to focus on studying the Rumi’s thought that human beings must delve deeper into the soul works of the Dalai Lama and a few other selected advocates of the and need to accept the physical differences to find the commonality peace movement to have a deeper and holistic view on understanding of humanity can be instrumental in creating peace and harmony in of the concepts of peace in current time and discuss the implications society. of this movement for life in modern times, particularly its impact on Tagore, as a symbol of harmony, sees the beauty of the universe Vietnamese student values. in the face of diversity and the bond between human beings and nature. Through his poems, he prays for the whole humanity to live in peace and harmony by discarding all evils and taking up good deeds. Daisaku Ikeda promotes dialogue as a principal means to peace and he stresses value of man in contribution to the well-being of the Statement of the Problem This study is an analysis of the teachings on peace and harmony of the 14th Dalai Lama and selected other notable peace advocates and to integrate their viewpoints into a global peace education perspective. community of three levels - the local community, national Specifically, the study seeks answers to the following questions: community and global community. Ikeda also encourages the 1. What are the teachings on peace and harmony held by the 14th transmission of the value of peaceful coexistence and wisdom gained Dalai Lama? from generation to generation. 2. What are the peace concepts that may be drawn from the works of Pope John Paul considers freedom of conscience, justice, truth, the following peace advocates: respect for rights and responsibilities as crucial values to ensure 2.1. Mawlana Rumi; peace and harmonious existence. 2.2. Rabindranath Tagore; 3. A noticeable finding from the research is that although the selected peace advocates represent different religions, namely, the 2.3. Pope John Paul II; and 2.4. Daisaku Ikeda? 6 3. What are the common aspects on the teachings of peace held by 19 This study employed the qualitative method of research and these individuals ? sociological and philosophical approaches as the bases for analysis. 4. How may the varied teachings on peace be integrated in a global This paper also involved content analysis, which is a systematic peace education perspective and program? technique in analyzing message content and message handling. The representative literary works were analyzed: Dalai Lama’s Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study The Power of Compassion, Infinite Compassion for an Imperfect This study analyzes the philosophy of nonviolence as embodied in World, Beyond Religion - Ethics for a Whole World, Ancient the selected literary pieces of the 14th Dalai Lama and the selected Wisdom, and Modern World - Ethics for the new Millennium. Other peace advocates Mawlana Rumi, Rabindranath Tagore, Pope John elected writings analyzed were: Rumi’s Nasnavi, Tagore’s Gitanjali Paul II and Daisaku Ikeda and focuses on its implication for and Nationalism, Pope John Paul’s Messages on the World Peace Vietnamese students’ values. This study employs the qualitative Day and Daisaku Ikeda’s For the Sake of Peace – Seven Paths to method of research in analyzing the selected writings and speeches of Global Harmony: A Buddhist Perspectives. the personages and uses sociological and philosophical approaches as Findings the bases for analysis. The results of analysis and interpretation revealed the following: This study is anchored on Gultung’s theory on peace. Other 1. The 14th Dalai Lama’s teachings are a reinterpretation and approaches in literary criticism that may be employed in the analysis restatement of the thousand-year Buddhist philosophical wisdom into such as the Formalist Criticism, Biographical Criticism, Historical principles that are comprehensible and relevant to any ordinary Criticism, and Psychological Criticism are not part of this study. person in the modern time, enabling people to practice them in the The researcher also uses content analysis, which is a systematic daily life to attain peace. technique in analyzing message content and message handling. The The Dalai Lama states the universal issues: that human beings data analysis in this study centered on pattern seeking and the regardless social classes, races, religions, occupations or cultures, all extraction of meaning from the selected peace advocates’ selected want happiness and do not want sufferings, that all religions share literary narrative or image data. common purpose: bringing happiness and releasing human beings Much effort was focused on the task of recording data or making from misery; they all encourage good human qualities like love, notes through concepts and categories; altering or creating new codes compassion, tolerance, kindness, honesty and responsibility and or more subtle categories; linking and combining abstract concepts; reject cruelty, greed, selfishness, envy and hatred. Through his extracting the essence; organizing meaning; creating theory from discussion on the problems which challenge the humanity in the 18 CHAPTER IV 7 emerging themes; writing an understanding; and drawing conclusions. This chapter presents a thorough analysis of the selected works to answer the questions raised in chapter I. The essential features in the treatment of materials were considered by the researcher in the conduct of this study. The general rules cited by Stott (2014) as regards the seven CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION standards a piece of literature should have in order to be considered literary served as a in the selection of works under study. Applying these standards the following literary works were This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions and analyzed: Dalai Lama’s The Power of Compassion, Infinite recommendations of the study. Compassion for an Imperfect World, Beyond Religion - Ethics for a Summary Whole World, and Ancient Wisdom and Modern World - Ethics for This study is an analysis of the teachings on peace and harmony the new Millennium. The selected writings Rumi entitled Nasnavi, of the 14th Dalai Lama and selected peace advocates, and the varied Tagore’s Gitanjali and Nationalism , Pope John Paul’s Messages on teachings on peace that may be integrated on a global peace the World Peace Day and Daisaku Ikeda’s For the Sake of Peace: education perspective. Seven Paths to Global Harmony – A Buddhist Perspective were also Specifically, the study seeks answers to the following questions: 1. What are the teachings on peace and harmony held by the 14th Dalai Lama? 2. What are the peace concepts of the following peace advocates: included. These prose and poetry pieces constituted the primary resource materials for of the study. However, since these individuals are not only well-known literati but also social figures, religious leaders and philosophers; this 2.1. Mawlana Rumi; study also analyzed essays, works and recorded speeches, to provide 2.2. Rabindranath Tagore; as comprehensive an assessments of their ideas as possible. 2.3. Pope John Paul II; and 2.4. Daisaku Ikeda? 3. What are the common aspects on the teachings of peace held by Significance of the Study This approach - using literary analysis as a tool for eliciting these advocates? the meaning and significance of the materials analyzed makes this 4. How can the varied teachings on peace be integrated on a global study extremely beneficial to academic managers, working peace education perspective? professionals, media practitioners, college instructors of literature, 8 17 students of literature, members of the community, and other with in the different selections; and the varied teachings on peace that can be integrated on a global peace education perspectives. These prose and poetry pieces constituted the primary sources of the study. They were chosen to parallel the criteria spelled out for the purpose. These works have been subject to critical analysis far less frequently than these selected peace advocates’ most popular books. In subjecting the materials to internal and external criticism and analysis, the meaning and trustworthiness of the statements in the primary and secondary sources were carefully charted and analyzed. In this analysis, the researcher was free to defend her understanding and appraisal of each literary piece. This reflected her personal response to the suitability of the language to the theme, the relevance of the language to the situation, and the appropriateness of the language to the literary pieces under study. To attain congruency between the theories used in explaining the concept of peace and harmony, coding and categorization were conducted. In this study, the categories which served as coding units include the following: the teachings on peace and harmony as reflected in the selected works of the 14th Dalai Lama; the peace concepts that may be drawn from the works of the aforementioned peace advocates; the intrapersonal, interpersonal and international aspects on the teachings of peace dealt with in the different selections; and the varied teachings on peace that can be integrated on a global peace education perspective. Direct references drawn from the selections served as the primary texts and were compared with the theoretical statements discussed. These passages from the chosen letters and speeches substantiated the theoretical basis of the study. researchers. Academic Managers. This dissertation will help policy makers such as those from Vietnam’s Ministry of Education and Training, include developmental priorities, programs, projects and policies in the educational institutions to ensure that the concepts of peace and harmony can access the academe. This will also inspire them to develop peace-related activities in the curricula that will educate the academic community of the beneficial outcomes of peace and harmony to all people regardless of gender, race, nationality and religious backgrounds and to serve as a bridge builder in interfaith encounter. Working Professionals. This study will be beneficial for them in the sense that the selected works have showcased how the 14th Dalai Lama’s and the selected peace advocates’ activism which helped shaped the people’s understanding of peace as a philosophy of life. Likewise, they may be motivated to bring peace awareness in the mainstream of their disciplines, their lives and the world and be inspired to organize peace initiatives to nurture and challenge people of all ages working in various sectors of society to a nonviolent life. These initiatives may help the working people to embrace this advocacy, clarify life goals, and revitalize working relationships within their workplaces. Media Practitioners. This study may inspire them to introduce an intervention strategy referred to as entertainment education to change cultural attitudes, norms and behaviors that would benefit audiences. This strategy incorporates educational messages on peace and 16 9 appeal to the readers’ creative sides with beautifully crafted phrases harmony into soap operas and other media programming on the and sentences. television and radio to change the attitudes and behavior of the Finally, relative to style, the peculiar way in which the author sees audience. life, forms his ideas and how he expresses them were also College Instructors of Literature. This analysis will be helpful considered. The selected literary pieces reflect the writers’ view of in the instructor’s methodology in teaching literature as an inquiry the world and can suggest ideas and interpretations to the readers in a into using the appropriate literary theories and approaches in literary way they have never considered. analysis. This will lead to treating literary criticism as a worthwhile For the purpose of this study and to give philosophical credibility, exercise that includes, among others, the identification of a the following representative literary works were analyzed: Dalai meaningful themes and the investigation of literary devices to reveal Lama’s The Power of Compassion, Infinite Compassion for an such themes. In addition, this will provide them with opportunities to Imperfect World, Beyond Religion - Ethics for a Whole World, focus on the concept of peace and harmony in their literature classes Ancient Wisdom, and Modern World - Ethics for the new and open their students’ mind and hearts to the varied teachings on Millennium. The main selected writings of identified literary writers peace that can be integrated on a global peace education perspective. and philosophers Rumi entitled Nasnavi, Tagore’s Gitanjali and Students of Literature. Not only will this analysis give them an Nationalism , Pope John Paul’s Messages on the World Peace Day extensive and profound outlook in life with reference to peace and and Daisaku Ikeda’s: For the Sake of Peace: Seven Paths to Global harmony through the lives and experiences of the writers and the Harmony are also analyzed. characters in the selected literary pieces, it will also make them As these authors are not only well-known literati but also social realize that issues in relation to violence should not be tolerated. In figures, religious leaders and philosophers; they are all prolific addition, this paper will make them treat literature as a work of art writers and great orators. This study also analyzed their other works, distinguished from other texts through content and form, and including more informal written works and recorded speeches, for eventually intensify their appreciation of prose and poetry and inspire analysis under the theme of the research. The selections were chosen for their value in further clarifying the teachings on peace and harmony as reflected in the selected works of the 14th Dalai Lama; the peace concepts that may be drawn from the works of the selected peace advocates; the intrapersonal, interpersonal and international aspects on the teachings of peace dealt them to engage in literary analysis as an academic activity. Members of the Community. This paper will make them more aware of their social responsibility and peace work to curb violence that beset the community and the world today. This will make them understand that peace and harmony is most effective when it highlights the positive interdependence existing among the people, 10 15 groups, organizations and nations involved and the need for joint In relation to spiritual value, the quality of great literature which efforts to achieve mutual benefits. It will also make them aware that elevates the spirit was taken into consideration during the selection integrative agreements maximize mutual benefits; and that the use of process. The chosen representative literary works are thought to have a procedure of decision making that creates a synthesis or integration an underlying moral message that can potentially make the readers of various preferences of the involved parties or takes everyone’s better people. These moral values are often written between the lines perspectives and conclusions into account. Likewise, the analysis and can help the readers become better persons. will sensitive people to the fact that some of the belief systems and As regards universal appeal, the thought that great literature practices at home and the community are oftentimes not in appeals to all people regardless of race, creed, nationality or beliefs accordance with the establishment of valued roles in relation to peace was taken into consideration. The literary works chosen for analysis and harmony for young Vietnamese students, and thus should be appeals to a range of people across different age groups, nationalities, avoided. cultures and beliefs. Other Researchers. This paper may inspire them to conduct In connection with permanence, the quality that great literature more researches on ways that are most effective in integrating the endures was also considered. The selected prose’s and poems’ appeal nonviolent principles into the people’s dominant worldview. is lasting and they can be read again and again as each reading gives Researches on peace and nonviolence and tolerant values and fresh delight and new insights and open new worlds of meaning and worldviews might diminish the negative aspects of fear and mortality experience. salience that is usually associated with terror management. Likewise, With reference to suggestiveness, the value associated with the researchers will be benefitted by this study through the analysis and emotional power of great literature was noted. The selected literary treatment of materials, and through the careful investigation of both pieces can carry many associations that lead beyond the surface theme and form in literary genres. This paper may also show them meaning. The reader is left to establish what the author is suggesting the process of drawing out literary theories and utilizing critical and this captures the readers’ imagination by making them think approaches in literary analysis. about what they are reading and engaging them into the story or poem. With reference to artistry, the quality which appeals to the readers’ sense of beauty was likewise noted in the choice of representative works. The chosen works are well-written and they 14 11 seeking and the extraction of meaning from the 14th Dalai Lama’s Chapter II and the selected peace advocates identified narrative or image data. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Much effort was focused on the task of recording data or making notes through concepts and categories; altering or creating new codes or more subtle categories; linking and combining abstract concepts; This chapter is presented for the purpose of identifying the constructs of the study. extracting the essence; organizing meaning; creating theory from Conceptual Literature emerging The review of the conceptual literature yields four types of themes; writing an understanding; and drawing conclusions. Treatment of Materials The following essential features in the treatment of materials were considered by the researcher in the conduct of this study. To adopt a more systematic identification of selected works, several norms were adhered to. According to Stott (2014), there are generally considered seven constructs, which are used in the analysis and interpretation of the literary pieces dissected. These constructs include: the 14th Dalai Lama and his Significant Works; the Other Selected Peace Advocates and their Significant Works; Peace Education and Culture of Peace; and the Sociological and Philosophical Approaches in Literary Criticism. standards as regards how a piece of literature should abide to in order Research Literature to be considered literary. If a piece of writing is considered “literary” This section presents the published and unpublished researches this usually suggest that it is a scholarly article or classical writing that is extremely well written and is very informative. The said standards include intellectual value, spiritual value, universal appeal, permanence, suggestiveness, artistry and style. With regard to intellectual value, the worth connected to the stimulating influence of great literature was considered. The that are related to the present study. Synthesis of Literature Reviewed This section justifies the direct bearing of the conceptual literature to the present study followed by the presentation of the similarities and differences of the cited research literature to the present study. selections can help the readers understand their lives and realize Conceptual/Theoretical Framework truths about humanity and life in general. They likewise stimulate the This section presents the central theme or the main thrust of the readers mentally and enrich their thoughts particularly on peace and study. It serves as a guide in conducting the investigation. It is harmony. followed by a paradigm which is a diagrammatic representation of the conceptual framework of this study. 12 13 Definition of Terms This section presents the terms defined conceptually and Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY operationally for a better understanding and appreciation of concepts as they are used in the study. The following terms were defined: This chapter presents the research methodology in terms of the content analysis, global peace education perspective, harmony, research design and treatment of the materials studied. intrapersonal aspect, interpersonal aspect, international aspect, peace Research Design advocates, selected works, the Dalai Lama, and the 14th Dalai Lama. This study employed the qualitative method of research in analyzing the tenets of peace and harmony in the representative literary works chosen. According to Suter (2012), qualitative research is directed by the philosophical premise that one must consider the multiple realities experienced by the participants themselves to understand a complex phenomenon. These multiple realities experienced by the participant can be reflected in various ways, including the literary genre called letters and oratorical pieces. According to Ary, et. al. (2006), human experiences take their signification from social, cultural and political influences, and are therefore incapable of being separated from the said influences. Hence, in analyzing the representative literary works, the tenet of peace and harmony were considered. These provided substantial and significant interpretations of the author’s and characters’ motivations as regards the theme. Patton (2002) pointed out that the goal of qualitative data analysis is to uncover emerging themes, patterns, concepts, insights, and understanding. Thus, this study also involved content analysis, which is a systematic technique in analyzing message content and message handling. The data analysis in this research centered on pattern
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