Tài liệu Teaching project for gifted students

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` Vinhphuc education & training service pham cong binh secondary school English group Teaching project For Gifted students Created by truong quang khanh September 2007 Part one Phonetics A. The aims: - To introduce to the sts the phonetic symbols, the transcription of a word, the sound of the word… - To improve the sts’ phonetic, stress, and intonation. - To help the sts do the phonetic exercises. - B. Teaching procedure: 1. The vowel sounds: There are 20 vowels in the English language, 12 of them are pure vowels (single vowels), and the left eights dipthongs (combination of two vowels). - The 12 pure vowels: / I - i: /, / e - æ/, / o - o:/, /  - a: /, / u- u:/, / ә - з/. - The 8 dipthongs: / ei - ai - oi /, / au - әu /, / iә - eә - uә / Practical Exercises Ex1: Classify /i:/ and /I/: Evening, tin, easy, eat, it, jean, since, this, meat, teach, film, interesting, tea, sea, seen, sit, seat, minute, fifty, cheese, chinese, free, three, be, she, pleased… Ex 2: Classify /a:/ and /  /: Cut, cup, cart, card, done, come, mar, march, must, darn, last, lust, heart, harm, hut, much, calm, farm… Ex 3: Classify /u:/ and / u/: Look, cook, book, soot, shoot, pull, pool, could, shoe, suit, stood, stewed, to, too, wooed, wood, food, cool… Ex 4: Classify / æ / and / e /: Dad, dead, man, many, mad, any, at, sat, head, hand, fan, can, land, dense, send, set, met, letter, stretch, fed, catch… Ex 5: Classify / o: / and / o / : Corn, cord, copy, swan, sworn, sod, soared, shot, stock, talk, spot, sport, chalk, shock, loss, got, caught, bought… Ex 6: Classify / з / and / ә /: Her, teacher, heard, shirt, first, fur, stir, prefer, refer, occur, skirt, hurt, learn, today, sir, sister, brother… Ex 7: Classify / au / and / әu /: Now, no, show, how, hoe, loud, load, tone, town, couch, know, noun, known, foal, fowl, rouse, rose, stout, stoat, found, phone… Ex 8: Classify / iә /, / eә /, / uә /: Hear, hair, sure, tour, wear, near, fear, year, stair, cure, beard, cheer, scared, careful, fierce, moor, shared, careless, theatre… Notes: Tripthongs and other vowel sequences: / aiә /: fire, hire, tyre, buyer, wire, flyer, iron,… / әuә /: slower, lower, grower, sower, mower,… / auә /: flower, power, tower, shower, sour, flour,… / eiә /: greyer, player, layer, payer, prayer,… / oiә /: employer, destroyer, royal, loyal, annoyance,… 2. The consonants sounds: There are 24 consonants in English, which are devided into voiceless and voiced consonants as they are shown below: 2.1. Voiceless consonants: / p /, / f /, /  /, / t /, / s /, / ∫ /, / t∫ /, / k /, / h /. 2.2. Voiced consonants: / b /, / v /, /  /, / d /, / z /, / Ʒ /, / dƷ/, / g /, / l /, /m /, / n /, / ŋ /, / r /, / w /, / j /. Practical Exercises Ex 9: Classify /  / and /  /: Think, thigh, though, thought, breath, breathe, bath, bathe, cloth, clothe, clothing, clothes, threaten, although… Ex 10: Classify / s / and / ∫ /: She, see, sugar, seat, sound, show, sure, suit, sugary, sunny, soon, saturn, shrink, scream, settle, surely… Ex 11: Classify / k/ and / t∫ /: Chess, chimney, choice, chaos, chemist, chest, chemical, chicken, cheap, catch, chemistry, school, scholar… Ex 12: Classify / s / and / z / : See, seat, please, measure, mouse, pass, mass, bags, close, has, sum, sick, tease, sues, rise, lays, eyes… 3. The consonant clusters: 3.1. / s / + / p, t, k, f, m, n, w, j / Spy, stay, sky, smile, snow, sleep, swear, suit, speak,… 3.2. / p / + / l, r, j /: Plough, play, proud, pray, pure, puritant,… 3.3. / t / + / r, w, j /: Tree, try, twin, twice, tune, tunic,… 3.4. / k / + / l, r, w, j /: Clerk, clay, crown, cry, quite, quick, cure, curious,… 3.5. / b / + / l, r ,j /: Blind, blow, blown, brown, bring, brick, beauty, bureau,…. 3.6. / g / + / l, r /: Glass, glance, grass, grow,… 3.7. / d / + / r, w, j /: Draw, dress, dwell, dwinkle, duty, duke,… 3.8. / f / + / l, r, j /: Fly, flat, free, frozen, few, fuse,… 3.9. /  / + / r, w /: Throw, throat, thwart, thwack,… 3.10. / v / + / j /: View, viewer,… 3.11. / ∫ / + / r /: Shrink, shriek,… 3.12. / m / + / j /: Music, mule,… 3.13. / n / + / j /: New, nude,… 3.14. / spr /: spread, spray, … 3.15. / str /: strand, stray, string,… 3.16. / skr /: scratch… 3.17. / spj /: spure, spurious, … 3.18. / spl /: splendid, split,… 3.19. / stj /: stupid, student,… 3.20. / skj /: skew, skewer,… 3.21. / skw /: square, squash,… 4. The homonyms: air ere heir aisle isle I’ll eight be bee beach beech bean ceiling sealing cell sell cheep choose chews choove site cite sight cord course coarse days daze dear doe dough fair fare feat for hair horse male four hare hoarse mail fort fought gneiss hear here hire lock loch law meat meet mete mite ate been cheap chord deer feet niece high lore might aye I beat beet check cheque cote coat die dye flowe flour r great grate hole whole made maid nap knap naught nought night knight no know or oar ore one won pale pail peal peel peer pier plane plain reigh rein rain raze rays raise rows rose write right wright sauce source see sea show shew Sole soul some sum Son sun sought sort sweet suit tail tale threw through too two warn worn way weigh would wood yoke yolk your yore not pear key rowed sent sew stare tied week wore Part two stress A. The aims: - To help the sts know the way to mark stresses, and pronounce words correctly. - To emphasize the important of stresses. - To show the rules to mark stresses. - To provide the sts with exercises on stresses and intonation. B.Teaching procedure: I. Definition: Stress is the degree of the loudness or prominence with which a sound ort a word is pronounced. II. Degree: 1. In phrases or sentences: Primary stress: (/) The strongest and loudest stress of all. Secondary stress: () The second loudest stress. Tertiary stress: (\) weaker than secondary stress. Weakstress: (٧) Zero stress, the weakest degree of loudness. 2. In words: 2.1 Primary stress: (/) The loudest one. 2.2 Secondary stress: (\) The weaker one. III. The marking rules for word- stress: 1. For disyllables words: Usually on the first syllables: mother, ready, colour, palace, student, teacher,… Usually on the root syllables with words having suffixes or prefixes: become, react, foretell, unpleasant, disorder, peaceful, kindness, scientist, … (But: foresight, forecast, unkeep) 1.3. Usually on the sound of “ate”, “ize”, “ise”, “fy”: dictate, surprise, defy,… 2. For words with more than 2 syllables: Usually on the 3rd syllables from the end: family, cinema, regular, singular, international, satisfactory,… Usually on the 3rd last syllables with words ending in “ate”, “ize”, “ise”, “fy”, “logy’, “logist”, “cracy”, “ility”: recognize, demonstrade, qualify, psychology, biologist, biology, democracy, responsibility… Usually on the 2nd syllables from the end with words ending in “ian”, “ience”, “ient”, “al”, “ial”, “ual”, “eous”, “ious”, “iar”, “tion”, “sion’: knot pair quay road scent sow stair tide weak war physician, experience, expedient, parental, essential, habitual, courageous, dilicious, familiar,… (Except for: Television) Usually on the suffixes “ese”, “ee’, “eer”, “ier”, “ette”, “ade”, “esque”: Portugese, refugee, employee, engineer, volunteer, adequade, picturesque, cigarette,… 3. Others rules: 3.1. Words having more than one function: Noun Verb Noun Verb rebel rebel conflict conflict progress progress permit permit suspect suspect conduct conduct record record export export 3.2. Usually on the syllables that either have long vowel sound, dipthong sound, or end in more than one consonant : affect, obtain,… IV. Rules for phrase-stress: 1. Compound nouns: (/ \) farm-house, fire-engine, cowboy, blackbird,.. But: (\ /): pass-by, sun-set, ice-cream, steak-dinner, glass-window, silk-dress, nylon-stock, cotton-flower,… 2. Compound adjectives: ( \ /) light-blue, absent-minded, blue-eyed, hard-working,… But: (/ \) sun-burnt, sun-lit, sea-sick, sea-faring,… 3. Adjective-nouns: ( \ /) a sad song, a beautiful picture, a fresh egg, an interesting lesson,... 4. Present participle-noun: ( \ /) a travelling circus, a singing student, an amusing story, a sleeping child,… 5. Gerund – noun: (/ \) a dancing teacher, an eating apple, a looking glass, a stepping-stone, a magnifying glass, a washing machine,… 6. Qualifier-adjective: ( /)very tired, rather old, pretty bad, quite important, too weak,… 7. Verb- adverb: ( /) come here, speak clearly, try carefully, read aloud, sit down, …. 8. Verb-adverbial particle: ( \ /) put on, look up, put off, come through, take off, call on, hand over, go over,…. 9. Verb-adverbial particle-noun: (\  /) put on the coat, turn on the light,… 10. Verb-noun-adverbial particle: (\  /) put the coat on, turn the light on,… 11. Verb-preposition: ( / )look at, speak to, wait, for, look up,… Part three Vocabulary A. The aims: - To help the sts know the function of words. - To show the sts the way to build up vocabulary, especially related words. - To provide the sts with vocabulary exercises. - To enrich the sts’ vocabulary. I. B. Teaching procedure: Nouns (n): 1. Definition: To call out the names of things, objects, actions, or movements… 2. Functions: Subject (S): Gender of a verb (A teacher usually works at school) Object (O): Follow verbs or prepositions (He buys some cakes for his birthday party) Complement (C): Make the coplementation (She was a famous singer) Compounds (Co): Summer holiday, birthday cakes,… Possessive cases (Pc): the boss’s car, his teacher’s remarks,… Noun phrases (Np): Free words combination or compounds 3. Plural forms: Adding “ s” to almost count-nouns: singular plural singular plural a table tables an apple apples a student students an umbrella umbrellas a house houses an egg eggs a cat cats an eel eels a dog dogs an orange oranges 3.2. Adding “ es” to the count-nouns that end in “ s, ss, sh, ch, o, x ” with /iz/ sound: 3.3. plural singular plural singular a bus buses a class classes a dish dishes a wish wishes a watch watches a torch torches a potato potatoes a tomato tomatoes a box boxes Adding “ ies” to the count-nouns that end in “y” with its preceding consonants: singular a lorry a story 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. plural lorries stories singular a lady plural ladies Adding “ ves” to the count-nouns that end in “f, fe”: singular plural singular plural a wife wives a leaf leaves a knife knives a loaf loaves Irregular changes: singular plural singular plural a man men a woman women a child children an ox oxen a tooth teeth a goose geese a louse lice a mouse mice a medium media a phenomenia phenomenium Collective noun: crew, family, group, team,…(either singular or plural form, either singular or plural verb) Always plural form-nouns: clothes police breeches pants trousers scissors pliers (k×m) binoculars scales shears (kÐo c¾t cá) arms damages goods greens (vegetable) outskirts savings spirits surroundings stairs valuables ethics mathematics physics politics 3.8. Unchange the names of creatures: deer, sheep,carf, cod, pike, plaice, salmon, squid, trout, turbot (these nouns can take either singular or plural verbs) 3.9. Plural form but singular verb-noun: news, mumps (bÖnh sng quai hµm), billiards, bowls 4. Uncount-nouns: 4.1. Substances: bread dust jam soap 4.2. Abstract nouns: beer gin oil stone Cloth Glass paper water coffee gold tea wine cream ice sand wood advice beauty courage death experience fear help Hope horror information knowledge mercy Pity relief suspicion 4.3. Others: camping damage furniture luggage baggage parking shopping Work weather 4.4. Notes: Particular sense of uncount nouns: 4.4.1. a help: A great help to + O (He gave a great help to our family) 4.4.2. a relief: A relief to + V (That gave me a relief to continue my study) 4.4.3. a knowledge: A good/ bad knowledge of + N (Pete has got a good knowledge of history) 4.4.4. a dislike / dread / hatred / horror / love of + …(He had a great love for funny stories) 4.4.5. a mercy / pity / shame / wonder + that…(It’s a pity that I couldn’t come) 4.4.6. a fear/ fears; a hope/ hopes; a suspicion/ suspicions: We have a suspicion / suspicions that no one will agree to help. 5. Compound nouns: 5.1. Noun-noun: Hanoi-capital; halldoor; hitch-hiker; kitchen-table; traffic light; winter clothes; petrol tank;… 5.2. Noun-gerund: fruit-picking; weight-lifting; lorry-driving; birdwatching; coal-mining; surf-riding;… 5.3. Gerund-noun: waiting-list; landing card; driving board; dining room; driving licence; swimming pool;… 5.4. Free combination: - shop window; church bell; picture frame; garden gate; college library; gear level;… - city street; corner shop; coutry lane; … - summer holiday; spring flowers; Sunday paper; dawn chorus; November fog; … - steel door; stone wall; silk shirt;… - coffee cup; golf club; chess board; football ground;… - fish-farm; gold-mine; oil-rig; … - football match; beauty contest; pop music;… 6. Suffixes: 6.1. er/ or/ ist/ ant/ ee/…: teacher, visitor, terrorist, vegetarian, applicant, employee,… pyjamas glasses earnings pains (trouble athletics 6.2. ent/ ce/ ion/ ism/ ance/ age/…: government, difference, action, capitalism, assistance, marriage,… 6.3. hood/ dom/ ship/ ness/ iety/…: neighbourhood, freedom, friendship, sadness, variety,.. 6.4. ility/ ing/ al/ our/ y/…: possibility, fishing, refusal, arrival, behaviour, difficulty,… II. Adjectives (adj): 1. Kinds (Classification): Main kinds: a. Demonstrative: this, that, those, these. b. Distributive: each, every, either, neither. c. Quantitative: some, any, no, little, few, many, much, numbers. d. Interrogative: which, what, whose. e. Possessive: my, your, his, her, our, its, their f. Quality: clever, dry, fat, golden, heavy,… Participles: a. present: ING-form boring, interesting, exciting,…(for objects) b. past: ED-form broken, tired, bored,…(for human-beings) c. Notes: Present participles are different from gerund e.g He was fishing./ His hobby is fishing. 2. Functions (Position): 2.1. Noun-subordinator: a new book, a kind lady, a large room,… 2.2. Verb-complementation: Follow the certain verbs as be, become, seem appear, feel, get, grow (become), keep, look (appear), make, smell, sound, taste, turn,… But some verbs can take either an adjective or an adverb: Eg: - He looks calm (=He himself is calm) - He looks calmly at the angry crowd (= He shows no attitude to the angry crowd) - He turned pale (= He became pale) - He turned angrily to the man behind (=He was angry with the man behind) - The soup tasted horrible (= The soup was not delicious itself) - They tasted the soup suspiciously (= They thought there was something wrong with the soup) 3. Comparison forms: 3.1. Positive degree: as + adjs + as Eg: - She is as tall as my wife. - Peter was as hard-working as I was (me). 3.2. Comparative degree: 3.2.1. Monosyllable-adjectives: adjs-ER + than Eg: - Lan is shorter than Na - She was better at English than we were (us) 3.2.2. Multisyllable-adjectives: more + adjs + than Eg: - She was more hard-working than us. - We are more intelligent than him. 3.3. Superlative degree: 3.3.1. Monosyllable-adjectives: the adjs-EST Eg: - Nam is the best in our class. - She was the kindest lady I’ve ever met. 3.3.2. Multisyllable-adjectives: the most + adjs Eg: - Sharol was the most intelligent in my group. - She is the most hard-working girl I’ve ever known. Notes: For adjs ending in “er”, “y”, “ly”, or the irregular cases: Adjective Comparative Superlative clever Cleverer the cleverest pretty Prettier the prettiest happy Happier the happiest silly Sillier the silliest good Better the best bad Worse the worst far farther/ further the farthest/ furthest little Less the least many / much More the most old older/ elder the oldest/ eldest 3.4. Parallel: - “The…..the”:The older she gets, the wiser she become. - And: It’s getting darker and darker. She has now more and more free time. - Gerunds/ infinitives: Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a bike. It’s nicer/ better/ more fun to go with someone than to go alone 3.5. Like/ alike: Tom is very like Bill. Tom and Bill are alike. 3.6. Like/ as: He swims like a fish. You look like a ghost. Do as I told you. 3.7. Like + N/ as + N: He worked like a slave (He worked very hard/ He wasn’t a slave). He worked as a slave (He was a slave in fact). 3.8. The adjectives: The rich, the poor,… 4. Clauses: That – clause: It is disappointed that he failed the exam. It’s better that someone should tell him. find/ think/ believe + that it + adjs + to + V: I found that it is impossible to start now. She thought that it was silly to ask him to stay. It be + adjs + (of O) + infinitives: a. Character: brave, careless, corwardly (nhót nh¸t), cruel, generous, good, nice (=kind), mean, rude, selfish, wicked, wrong,… b. Sense: clever, foolish, idiotic (ngu), intelligent, sensible (nh¹y bÐn), silly, stupid,… Pronoun + be + adjs + noun + infinitives: Using the above adjectives and: astonishing, curious, ridiculou s(lè bÞch), unreasonable, funny(=strange), odd (lËp dÞ), pointless, useful, useless,… - That’s the amazing idea to show. - It was an unreasonable result to accept. It’ s + adjs + infinitives: advisable, inadvisable, better, best, desirable, essential, good, important, necessary, unnecessary, vital (tÊt yÕu),… It be + adjs + (for O) + infinitves: convenient, dangerous, difficult, easy, hard, possible, important, safe, unsafe,… S + be + adjs + infinitives : - Angry, delighted, dismayed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sorry, sad,…( S + be + glad/ happy/ sorry/ sad + to say/ tell/ inform; Others adjs + to find/ learn/ hear/ see/…) - Able, unable, apt, inclined, liable, prone, prepared, quick, reluctant, slow, ready, willing, unwilling. Special cases: - Due: (time) >The race is due to start in 5 minutes. - Due to: a result of >The accident was due to his carelessness. - Owing to: because of >owing to his carelessness, we had an accident. - Certain/ sure + to V= opinion >He is sure to take legal action. - Certain/ sure that + (clause) = opinion >I am certain that the price will be higher. - Certain/ sure/ confident of + N/G: He was sure of entering the haunted house. - Bound + to V= obligation > We were bound to leave. - Afraid/ ashamed of + N/G: She was afraid of being left alone. - Sorry for/ about + N/G: Tom felt sorry for making so many mistakes. - Afraid/ ashamed/ sorry + to V: I’m sorry to tell you that bad news. - Anxious about = worried He was anxious about going in the dark alone. - Anxious for O to V = wish He was anxious for you to go in the dark alone. - Anxious that + (clause) We are anxious that we couldn’t come. - Fortunate/ lucky that +(clause) = It’s a good thing…It was lucky that we weren’t late. - S + be fortunate/ lucky to V She was lucky to have such an interesting book. - Possible/ probable/ likely + future = perhaps It’s possible that man will live longer. - Aware/ conscious of N/G We should be aware of protecting our nature. - Aware/ conscious + that +(clause) She was concious that she would be late. 5. Suffixes: able/ ible/ ish/ ed/ ing/ ful/ less/…: talkable, visible, whitish, bored, amusing, careful, hopeless,… y/ ly/ en/ ese/ ous/ al/ ive/…: wealthy, manly, golden, chinese, poisonous, logical, effective,… ade/ ate/ ent/ wide/ ic/ ist/…: adequade, humanate, dependent, worldwide, domestic, communist,… like/ style/ type/…: childlike, Romantype, Germanstyle,… Nationality: a. an: American, Venezuelan, German, Mxican, African,… b. ese: Chinese, Vietnamese, Portugese, Sudanese, Lebanese,… c. i: Pakistani, Iraqui, Israeli, Yemeni, Saudi,… d. ian: Argentinian, Australian,Brazillian, Italian,… e. ish: English, Polish, Turkish, danish, Finnish,… f. others: Czech, French, dutch, Swiss, Greek, Thai,… B. Verbs (v): 1. Definition: To denote action, state, and be the most important part of sentences. 2. Classification: Auxiliary verbs: Primary auxiliary verbs: be/ have/ do (These verbs can either be auxiliaries or lexical verbs) Modal verbs: can/ could/ may/ might/ must/ have to + base form/ will/ would/ shall/ should/ be going to + base form/ used to + base form/ ought to + base form/…(These are sometimes functional verbs) Lexical verbs: Intensive verbs: verbs that show the state (She feels tired/ He is selfish) Extensive verbs: verbs that show the affection (He gets angry/ They arehelpful) Intransitive verbs: verbs that can function as verb phrases and make sentences meaningful without any complementation. e.g. She cried (noisily). It rains/ is raining (hard/ heavily/ cat and dog) Transitive verbs: verbs that need complementation. a. Monotransitive verbs: verbs that followed by one object (S+V+O). e.g. She bought flowers. Ann met her fiancÐ yesterday. b. Ditransitive verbs: verbs that followed by both direct and indirect objects. (S+V+O+O) e.g. She bought me some sweets. (= She bought some sweets for me) They gave me a big cake. (=They gave a big cake to me) c. Complex transitive verbs: follow the form “S + V + O + Co” e.g. He made me angry. The female film star drove him mad. 3. Affixations: en: added to nouns or adjectives (mean make, or lead to ) e.g. danger…….to endanger wide……....to widen courage……to encourage lenghth……to lenghthen rich………..to enrich broad ……..to broaden ize/ ise: added to nouns or adjectives (mean make, or develop, or specify) e.g. modern……to modernize industrial….to industrialize maximum….to maximize capital……..to capitalise natural……..to naturalize minimum….to minimize 4. Sentence models: 4.1. S + Vintrans: e.g. They laugh/ The wind is blowing. 4.2. S + Vmonotrans + O: e.g. He did his homework/ Harlay carried an umbrella. 4.3. S + Vin/ extensive + Cs: e.g. He became famous/ They are nearly exhausted. 4.4. S + Vintrans + A: e.g. He went abroad/ She arrives late. 4.5. S + Vditrans + O + O: e.g. She buys me presents/ That brings my father success. 4.6. S + Vcomplex trans + O + C: e.g. The story made me bored/ You drive me mad. 4.7. S + Vintrans + A + A: e.g. She went to school early/ He came to the park in the early morning. C. Adverbs (adv): 1. Kinds (Classification): Adv of manner: bravely/ fastly/ happily/ quickly/ well/ hard/… ( She sings marvellously/ He worked very hard) Adv of place: by/ down/ near/ here/ there/ up/… (She comes there twice a week/ Here comes the police) Adv of time: now/ soon/ still/ then/ today/ yet/… (We are going to Hanoi today/ He will return soon) Adv of frequency: always/ often/ sometimes/ never/ once/ twice/… (We never eat dog-meat/ She once became the leader) Adv of sentence: certainly/ definitely/ luckily/ surely/… ( He was certainly the liar/ luckily, she passed the exam) Adv of degree: fairly/ hardly/ rather/ quite/ too/ very/… (He was quite handsome/ Hardly did we see anything) Adv of interrogative: when/ where/ why/… (When did you go?/ Where is she now?) Adv of relative: when/ where/ why (He came when we were watching T.V) 2. Same form with adjectives: back deep* direct* early enough far fast Hard* high* ill just* kindly late* left little long low Much* more* near* pretty right* Short* till straight well wrong* Most* Note: Adv* can either have “ly” or not, but differences in meanings. 3. Positions (Functions): Adv of manner: Follow verbs: e.g: He danced gracefully. Before prepositions or follow objects in “V + pre + O”:e.g: He looked at me carefully. He looked carefully at me. Follow S: e.g:He suspiciously tasted the soup. At the beginning or at the end of sentences: e.g: Carefully he checks the suitcase. He checks the suitcase carefully. Adv of time: At the beginning or end of sentences: afterwards/ eventually/ lately/ now/ recently/ soon/ then/ today/ tomorrow/ at once/ since then/ till/… e.g: He will returns soon. Today we will learn lesson two. Always at the end: before*/ early/ immediately*/ late (Adv* as conjunctions at the beginning) e.g: He went to the church immediately. Immediately, he went to the church. Follow verbs or “V + O”: yet/ still e.g: He still lives in the suburbof the city. Split: just e.g: He has just left the house. Adv of place: 3.3.1. At the beginning or end: away/ everywhere/ nowhere/ somewhere/ here/ there/… e.g: Nowhere could we find him. English is spoken everywhere. 3.3.2. Administration: here/ there e.g: He lives here/ She hasn’t gone there. Adv of frequency: 4.1. always/ continually/ frequently/ occasionally/ often/ once/ twice/ periodically/ repeatedly/ sometimes/ usually. e.g: She usually walks to school. 4.2. Restricted (inversion): hardly ever/ never/ rarely/ scarely ever/ seldom e.g: Never will she eat this kind of food. Inversion cases: Hardly…ever Hardly…when Never No sooner… than On no account Nowhere Only then/ when Cßn n÷a cßn n÷a Scarely ever In no circumstances Not only Neither…nor Only by Only in this way Seldom/ so Scarely…when Not till
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