Tài liệu Tài luyện ôn thi tiếng anh b1 – vstep phần thi đọc

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TÀI LUYỆN ÔN THI TIẾNG ANH B1 – VSTEP PHẦN THI ĐỌC LÊ THANH TÚ NHÂN VÀ CỘNG SỰ 0906535797 lethanhtunhan.com SKIMMING SKIMMING LÀ GÌ? Skimming là một kỹ thuật đọc nhanh. Nó liên quan đến việc đọc có chọn lọc các phần quan trọng nhất trong đoạn văn bản để :  Biết được đoạn văn bản cấu tạo như thế nào, đó là cách mà nó được chia ra thành từng phần hoặc từng đoạn văn  Có được ý chung của đoạn văn nói về gì  Quyết định rằng đoạn văn có thú vị hay không và liệu các em có nên đọc nó chi tiết hơn không Đọc lướt được làm xong nhanh gấp 3 hoặc 4 lần so với cách đọc bình thường. Mọi người thường hay đọc lướt khi họ có quá nhiều thứ quan trọng để đọc trong một khoảng thời gian giới hạn. Sử dụng skimming khi các em muốn biết rằng liệu đoạn văn có thú vị để các em nghiên cứu hay không. Gợi ý và mẹo để đọc lướt qua đoạn văn  Đọc tiêu đề, phụ đề để biết được đoạn văn đang nói về gì  Nhìn vào những minh họa để đưa ra cho các em những thông tin thêm về chủ đề  Khi các em đang đọc lướt một đoạn văn để hiểu nội dung chung, đừng cố phải hiểu từng từ một. Lưới từ đoạn này sang đoạn kìa, tìm những nội dung chính trong mỗi đoạn trước khi sang đoạn tiếp theo. Nội dung chính của mỗi đoạn thường (không phải luôn luôn) là câu đầu tiên của mỗi đoạn văn. Các câu mà đi với nội dung chính thường được gọi là câu chủ đề  Khi các em đang nhìn vào câu để hiểu nội dung chính, cố gắng tìm những từ chủ yếu trong câu, cụ thể là các chủ từ, động từ và tân ngữ trong mệnh đề chính. Cố gắng tránh các từ khác, cụ thể là các mệnh đề quan hệ và mệnh đề tính từ Examples:  Whale oil, rendered from the blubber, was used originally for lamp fuel and later as a principle ingredient of soap, margarine, paint oils and lubricants. Trong quá trình đọc lướt qua thì đủ để hiểu rằng : loại dầu này từng được sử dụng cho thứ gì đó 1 lethanhtunhan.com Hoặc thử đọc lướt qua các đoạn này  Tea plants are grown on tea plantations, called gardens or estates, in areas that have a great amount of rainfall and rich loamy oil. Nó đủ để hiểu rằng cây trà được trồng ở đâu đó/bằng cách nào đó. Nếu sau đó các em thấy một câu hỏi liên quan đến câu này thì các em có thể quay lại đoạn này và đọc kỹ hơn  Khi các em hoàn thành việc đọc lướt qua đoạn văn thì tiếp tục đọc lướt qua câu hỏi. Các em cần phải biết rằng có bao nhiêu câu hỏi và các câu hỏi đó hỏi về gì. Bây giờ các em có thể luyện tập việc đọc lướt đoạn văn. Để đọc lướt qua nhanh nhất có thể thì có một số khoảng thời gian giới hạn gợi ý Task types using skimming skill are: - Heading matching - Getting the main idea A. Nối tiêu đề TIÊU ĐỀ LÀ GÌ? Một tiêu đề bao gồm các ý chính của một đoạn văn Chiến thuật cho việc nối tiêu đề  Đọc tất cả các tiêu đề và gạch chân hoặc tô các từ khóa  Đọc đoạn văn đầu của bài văn và đánh dấu câu chủ đề, các câu và từ vựng liên quan  Đọc lại ý chính của đoạn văn trong đầu  Đọc danh sách các tiêu đề để xem có sự liên kết nào giữa các từ khóa, các tiêu đề và các từ mà các em đã đánh dấu trong đoạn văn  Chọn tiêu đề mà tóm tắt đúng nhất ý chính của đoạn văn đầu  Tiếp tục đoạn văn tiếp theo và lặp lại quá trình  Nếu các em nghĩ 2 tiêu đề hợp với một đoạn văn, đánh dấu cả 2 rồi sau đó xác định một trong 2 cái này Exercise 1: which of these three headings states the main idea in the paragraph? Use the highlighted key words to help you decide. Time limit: 1 minute 2 lethanhtunhan.com a. Population figures for China b. Assessing China’s farmland c. Global population and the future The world’s population is forecast to reach 7.5 billion by 2020, and growing prosperity, especially in China, is fuelling a rising appetite for meat and cereals. Yet it is becoming harder to find new farmland, water is increasingly scare and crop-yield growth is slowing. Already 167 million children are malnourished. Are hungry times ahead? 1. How did the highlighted words help you? 2. How do the verb tenses help you find the answer? 3. Can you explain why the other headings are attractive, but wrong? Exercise 2: look at these three headings A. Britain’s modern motorway system B. Roman principles relevant today C. 6000km of Roman roads As quickly ass possible decide which of the headings best matches the paragraph, taken from a reading passage, below Time limit: 1 minute Between 43AD and 81 AD Roman Britain acquired 6000km network of technically advanced, hard bearing and straight highways linking towns of importance. Today Britain’s motorway system is only half that length. The basic Roman philosophy of building a road to cope with different types and volumes of vehicles and using local materials where possible still applies today. Exercise 3: look at the passage “difficulties commonly experiences by oversea students”. Three are six sections A-F. Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate number (i-iv) in the lines. Note: there are more headings than sections so you will not use all of them. Use may use any of the heading more than one. Time limit: 5 minutes Example Answer 3 lethanhtunhan.com Section A iv 1 Section B 4 Section E 2 Section C 5 Section F 3 Section D Danh sách các tiêu đề i. Personal finances ii. Language and communication iii. Being different and apart iv. Cultural adjustment v. Study –related concern vi. Family support vii. Getting around viii. Living independently Difficulties commonly experienced by oversea students The problems experienced by oversea students are now generally well documented. The issues that cause the greatest difficulty can be summarized as follows: A………………………………………………. This involves getting used to the new country and different way of life, customs, and values. In addition, students also have to deal with the sense of loss ( missing family, friends, familiar food and places). These issues are usually referred to by the term “cultural shock”. B………………………………………………… Managing on a limited budget is a challenge for most, but it is especially so for people living in an unfamiliar environment. Students may have to pay for education and living expenses, find a reasonable place to live and, in some cases, a part time job to supplement any scholarship or money from home. C………………………………………………… 4 lethanhtunhan.com Many students are not used to looking after themselves. At home, parents and family usually assist them in coping with shopping, cooking, personal finances and general managing their affairs. Oversea, all of these things must be done without the family’s support. D………………………………………………… Even some of the students who have been educated in an English language school have problems communicating freely at university level. Many students find reading and writing in English especially difficult. Participating in classroom discussion and asking questions of staff often produce difficulties. E……………………………………………………… Differences in the style and traditions of learning between Western and Asian countries frequently cause difficulty. Many overseas students find it difficult to adapt to Western notions of independent thinking and learning. Students from some countries may also have difficulty because they lack experience in using well-equipped libraries and laboratories. F………………………………………………………….. This refers both to experiences of racial intolerance and the relatively low level of contact that overseas students have with local people. Students often report being uncomfortable about generalized discrimination in a later section of this book. Unit 2 SCANNING Scanning là gì? Scanning là phương pháp được sử dụng khi các em cần tìm trong bài văn một cách nhanh chóng để xác định được thông tin cụ thể mà các em cần để trả lời các câu hỏi Khi các em quét qua để xác định một số thông tin cụ thể (ví dụ như tên, địa điểm, ngày tháng, các cụm từ cụ thể ), không cần thiết để đọc và hiểu các từ trong bài văn. Khi các em nhìn vào một số câu, các em chỉ cần phải hiều đủ để trả lời câu hỏi thôi : cái đó có phải là thứ mình đang tìm hay không? Vì thế các em chỉ cần hiểu chủ đề trong mỗi câu. Ví dụ như, các em hãy đọc đoạn này : Example : 5 lethanhtunhan.com Like perfumes, cosmetics were originally used as an adjunct to religious ritual, the ceremonial aspects gradually being lost as both men and women adorned themselves with cosmetics.  Các em xác định được chủ từ của câu này là mỹ phẩm (cosmetics) và thế là đủ rồi. Không cần thiết để đọc tất cả các chi tiết. Các em biết rằng câu này có thể không chứa những thông tin mà các em cần nên các em nhanh chóng chuyển qua câu tiếp theo. Điều này gọi là scanning Hints and tips for better scanning Gợi ý và mẹo để quét tốt hơn 1. Đừng cố gắng đọc tất cả từng từ một. Thay vào đó hãy để mắt các em lướt nhanh qua trang cho đến khi các em tìm được thứ mà các em muốn 2. Sử dụng các manh mối trên trang, ví dụ như phần mở đầu và tiêu đề để giúp các em 3. Nếu các em đang đọc để học thì bắt đầu bằng việc nghĩ và viết ra một số câu hỏi mà các em muốn trả lời. Sử dụng việc quét qua để tập trung đầu óc và giúp các em tìm được những thông tin mà các em cần một cách nhanh chóng Exercise: which of these types of text would you scan? Which would you skim? Tick the appropriate box: Types of text skimming scanning 1. A phone book 2. A newspaper article you are interested in 3. The film review page when looking for a particular film 4. A letter from the bank 5. A list of results for an exam you’ve taken 6 lethanhtunhan.com D. NHIỀU LỰA CHỌN MẸO CHO CÁC CÂU HỎI NHIỀU LỰA CHỌN  Gạch chân hoặc tô các từ khóa trong câu hỏi  Underline or highlight the key words of question  Quickly read the sentences that contain the main ideas in each paragraph of the passage.  Đọc nhanh các câu chưa các ý chính trong mỗi đoạn văn của bài    Eliminate choices in questions that they think are completely wrong Loại bỏ các lựa chọn trong các câu hỏi mà các em nghĩ là sai hoàn toàn Decide which option is correct.  Quyết định sự lựa chọn đúng Exercise 1: The text below has been edited to highlight the areas that you might read when skimming or scanning a text. Read through it quickly and answer the following multiplechoice questions. Time limit: 3 minutes GOODNESS, GRACIOUS, GREAT BALL OF FIRE In the first of a new series, Alan Watts tackles the science of thunder and lightning A. Despite our modern sophistication and advanced warning system, the thunderstorm still provokes a primitive dread in most people. It is not only our helplessness in the face of nature’s wrath that produces fear, but also the eerie listlessness that settles over animals, birds and people in the build-up to a storm. Yet the kind of storm with a sultry calm before its arrival is just one of many kinds of thunderstorm associated with a particular kind of weather. B. The kinds of intense storms that develop on hot sultry days are a mass of individual storm cells. “cell-theory” of storm ………….. “multicell” ………. “supercell” ………..multicell ……….. daughter-cells………. 7 lethanhtunhan.com C. Then in spring, when the sun is warming the earth but the air is still cool, great towering cumulonimbus clouds often develop and these can become thundery. ……… “air-mass” …………… thunderstorm France …………….. English Channel……….. D. If you’ve lived in the coastal regions of southern Britain, then you’ll be acquainted with a special kind of storm that comes up from France a couple of times a year. …………………………. Spanish plume storms sierras of Spain ‘sheet- lightning’………………… E. Whatever the cause of a storm, there has to be lightning ……………….. pressure waves ……………. electric charge …………….. raindrops ………………. Positively charged ………………… slivers of ice…………… F. It is estimated that there are some 1,800 storms going on at any one time somewhere in the world – mainly in the tropics – and that the electric current induced by the lightning from these compensates for the more-or-less continuous drift of positive ions from the ionosphere to the earth, so balancing the atmosphere’s electric current. 1. What is the article about? A. Fire B. Weather C. Science 2. Which of the following areas do you think the writer will discuss? A. Animals and their environment B. Modern danger warnings C. Types of storm D. What to do in bad weather Exercise 2: Look at the letter below and the following questionnaire. Complete the questionnaire about Carlo using the information given in the letter. Choose the one letter for each answer. Time limit: 4 minutes 8 lethanhtunhan.com Dear Sir, I received a communication from you today asking me to complete a question to help determine the spending habits of the population. I would willingly do this but you failed to enclose the aforementioned questionnaire. In order to assist you, I will send you some details of my lifestyle, which you can use to fill in the questionnaire at your office on my behalf. Although I have been living in England since coming to study for my A levels, I spent my early childhood in Australia. I am not British as my father was born in Poland and my mother in Italy and we all hold Australian passports. I studied for my first degree at Leeds University but am now doing postdoctoral research in Electrical Engineering at the University of Easthampton. As I am presently not earning a regular salary, my expenditure is kept to a minimum. I am not a house owner and am currently living in the halls of residence at my university. I pay a subsidized rent, which is inclusive of all utilities, so I do not have to worry about gas, electricity or water bills. I tend to eat mostly in the university canteen so I only go shopping in the local supermarkets about once a fortnight. At the very least I spend ten pounds but I usually pay about twice that each time. Designer clothes are not in my budget nor do me frequently high street stores. I prefer to wear used clothes, mostly from charity shops. If they are not perfect I manage to repair them myself. My one real extravagance is electrical equipment. I have a state of the art sound system and a wide screen flat panel television with DVD facilities, which I bought less than a year ago and I am still paying for it every month on my credit card. This is rather an expensive pastime as I really only use them about twice a week. Concerning transportation, since I live on campus, I walk to my office or the library but if I travel into town, I sometimes take the special university bus or more likely I cycle. I did have a car when I began my doctorate but sold it when the cost of its upkeep became prohibitive. As for entertainment, I occasionally go to the theatre, I play football three times a week, I swim everyday and I go for dinner to a local restaurant once a month. If you should require information about my life, either contact me here at the university or send me a questionnaire which I can personally complete in full. Yours faithfully, Carlo Tulinski 9 lethanhtunhan.com SIMPSON SURVEY SERVICES British lifestyle questionnaire Please complete the questionnaire by circling the appropriate option or giving details of your personal lifestyle. 1. Where do you live? A. England B. Northern Ireland C. Scotland D. Wales 2. Please state your nationality………………………… 3. Please state your current professional status A. students D. civil servant B. self-employed C. private employee E. unemployed 4. What is your level of education? A. basic compulsory education B. completion of secondary education C. first degree attained D. post graduation degree attained 5. Where do you live? A. own house/ flat C. student accommodation B. rented house/ flat D. rented room in private house E. commercial accommodation 6. How often do you shop for food? A. everyday B. every week C. every two weeks D. every month 7. What is your average supermarket bill? A. ten pounds B. twenty pounds 10 lethanhtunhan.com C forty pounds D. eighty pounds 8. What kind of clothes do you prefer? A. From chain stores B. From local markets C. Home made D. Second hand E. Designer wear 9. How do you prefer to pay for expensive items? A. in cash B. by installments C. by cheque 10. How do usually travel in cities? A. by car B. by train D. by bicycle E. on foot C. by bus F. by motorbike 11. What is your favorite leisure activity? A. watching TV B. listening to music D. going to theatre E. doing sport C. eating out Exercise 3: look at the questions below, scan the passage then choose the best answers. Time limit: 3 minutes The first black literature in American was not written but was preserved in an oral tradition, in a rich body of folklore, songs and stories, many from African origins. There are humorous tales, Biblical stories, animal stories, and stories of natural phenomena, of good and bad people and of the wise and foolish. Many reflect how African Americans viewed themselves and their lives. The lyrics of blues spirituals, and work songs speak of suffering and hope, joy and pain, loved ones, and religious faith, and are an integral part of the early literature of black people in American. The earliest existing written black literature was Lucy Terry’s poem “Bars fight” written in 1746. Other eighteenth –century black poets include Jupiter Hammon and George Moses 11 lethanhtunhan.com Horton. The first African American to publish a book in American was Phillis Wheatly. Black poetry also flourished in the nineteenth –century, during which the writing of almost forty poets were printed, the most notable of whom was Paul Laurence Dunbar, the first black American to achieve national acclaim for his work. Dunbar published eight volumes of poetry and eight novels can collections of stories. More than three dozen novels were written by blacks between 1853 and 1899, but autobiography dominated African-American literature in the nineteenth century, as it had in the eighteenth. In the twentieth century, however fiction has presided, with Charles W. Chestnutt, American’s first black man of letters, successfully bridging the two centuries. He began publishing short fiction in the mid 1880s, wrote two books that appeared in 1899, and had three books published between 1900 and 1905. He was a pioneer of the “new literature” of early 1990s, which aimed to persuade readers of the worth and equality of African Americans. 1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as part of the oral tradition of African Americans? A. Humorous tales B. Tales of adventure C. Biblical stories D. Animal stories 2. According to the passage, the lyrics of blues and spirituals are often concerned with A. the pain an joy in life B. loved ones and animals C. Religion and nature D. Wise and foolish people 3. According to the passage, an important part of early African Americans literature was A. Novels B. Short fiction stories C. Biographies D. Songs 4. According to the passage, when did the first written African American literature appear? A. In the 1600s B. In the 1700s C. In the 1800s 12 lethanhtunhan.com D. In the 1900s 5. According to the passage, who was the first African American to receive national recognition for his writing? A. Paul Dunbar B. George Horton C. Lucy Terry D. Phillis Wheatly IV. Reading the passage and choose the best answer to each question Humanitarian Dorothea Dix was born in Hampden Maine, in 1802. At the age of 19, she established a school for girls, the Dix Mansion school, in Boston, but had to close it in 1835 due to her poor health, she wrote and published the first of many books for children in 1824. In 1841, Dix accepted an invitation to teach classes at a prison in East Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was deeply disturbed by the sight of mentally-ill persons thrown in the trail and treated like criminals. For the next eighteen months, she torn Massachusetts institutions where other mental patients were confided and reported the shocking conditions she found to the state legislature. When improvements followed in Massachusetts, she turned her attention to the neighbouring state and to the West and South. Dix’s work was interrupted by the civil War, she served as superintendent of women hospital nurse for federal government. Dix saw special hospital for the mentally ill built in some fifteen states. Although her plan to obtain public land for her cause failed, she arouses concern for the problem of mental illnesses all over the United State as well as in Canada and Europe. Dix’s success was due to her independent and thorough research, her gentle but persistent manners, and her ability to secure the help of powerful and wealthy supporters. 1. In what year was the Dix Mansion school closed? A. 1822 B. 1824 C. 1835 D. 1841 2. Why did Dorothea Dix first go to a prison? A. She taught classes there 13 lethanhtunhan.com B. She was sent there by the state legislature C. She was convicted of a crime D. She was doing research for a book 3. Where was Dorothea Dix first able to bring about reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill? A. Canada B. Massachusetts C. The West and South D. Europe 4. Dorothea Dix was Not successful in her attempt to A. Become superintendent of nurse B. Publish books for children C. Arouse concern for mentally ill D. Obtain publish land 5. At what point of the passage does the author discuss specific reason for Dix’s success A. Lines 19-21 B. Lines 14-16 C. Lines 12-13 D. Lines 17-18 SỰ LIÊN QUAN What is reading for reference? Đọc để liên tưởng là gì? Việc đọc thành công có nghĩa là các có thể thấy được mối quan hệ giữa các từ khác nhau, và có thể nối với các thông tin lại chứ không phải là hiểu các từ riêng biệt. Hãy nhìn ví dụ dưới đây : How do humans produce speech? First the brain issues a command to the lungs to initiate an airstream. Before this stream can become speech, however, it must pass through, or by, the larynx, pharynx, tongue, teeth, lips and nose _ all of which can modify the airstream in various ways. You might understand every word in the paragraph but you need to see the relationship of the words to one another to be a successful reader. You have to see what “it” and “all of which” 14 lethanhtunhan.com relate to. “It” relates to “the airstream” and “all of which” relates to “the larynx, pharynx, tongue, teeth, lips and nose”. Các em có thể hiểu mỗi từ trong đoạn văn này nhưng các em cần phải thấy mối quan hệ giữa các từ này với từ khác để trở thành một đọc giả thành công. Các em cần phải biết được “it” và “all of which” liên quan đến cái gì. “It” liên quan đến the airstream và “all of which” liên quan đến the larynx, pharynx, tongue, teeth, lips and nose. The most typical example of matching information is matching reference, that is, how one word refers to other words. If you cannot understand all the references, you cannot understand the passage. There are many types of referece. Một ví dụ điển hỉnh của việc nối thông tin đó là nối các từ liên quan, có nghĩa là một từ này đề cập đến từ kia như thế nào. Nếu các em không thể hiểu tất cả các từ liên quan, các em không thể hiểu bài văn. Có rất nhiều loại từ liên quan 1. Các đại từ : (he, she, it, they, himself, herself, this, that, these, what, who, where) Many people wrote to complain. They particularly objected to…. We received about twenty calls a day. These range from requests for…. The hospital receives insufficient funding. This is a major problem. He asked if I could lend him a torch. Unfortunately, I didn’t have one. 2. Trợ động từ : (e.g. do/did, have/had, can/could, will/would) We all tell white lies occasionally. Life would be difficult if we didn’t. You need to pay the fee now. If you can’t, please let us know. They asked me to help. I said I would. 3. There, then, so, much… At the beginning of the 19th century…. Things were very different then. You may experience symptoms of nausea. Such symptoms are not uncommon. 4. Cách diễn tả song song 15 lethanhtunhan.com His fellow mathematicians his colleague Feelings of anger and betrayal strong emotions. 5. Mạo từ A survey….( First reference) the survey …. (later reference) Làm sao có thể tìm ra các từ liên quan? Các từ liên quan trong là các đại từ như “it”, “them”, “they”, hoặc “this”. Khi từ liên quan là là một đại từ thì hãy tìm các danh từ ở trước mà có thể khớp với đại từ này. Hãy chắc chắn ràng bạn nối chúng cùng giới tính (trai hoặc gái), số đếm (số nhiều hoặc số ít),…thay thế đại từ với danh từ đó và kiểm tra xem nếu nghĩa của chúng có thích hợp hay không. Ví dụ như ở câu bên dưới, khi ‘her’ được thay cho ‘Sandra’. Vì thế ‘her’ liên tưởng đến ‘Sandra’ Sandra’s closest friends are Amy and Lee. They study with her at the university. Lưu ý:  Khi trả lời một câu hỏi về các từ liên quan, hãy cảnh giác rằng những danh từ gần với từ liên quan nhất có thể không luôn luôn là câu trả lời đúng  Các từ liên quan có thể liên quan đến một danh từ hoặc cụm danh từ được cấu tạo bằng một vài từ Exercise 1: Read the following sentences and state what the underlined words refer to 1. Once in the café you must buy something, so you spend your last fifty centimes on a glass of black coffee with a dead fly in it. 2. You spend your last eighty centimes on half a liter of milk and you are boiling it over the spirit lamp 3. The city’s busiest underground station- St. Paul’s in Cheapside- unlocks its gates. To get there on time, the station foreman, John Milne, has to come in by bus from Good Mayes in Essex. 4. The tiny number of residents -7500, many of them caretakers, 4000 of them living in the Barbican- is suddenly and dramatically increased. 16 lethanhtunhan.com 5. The city’s working day ends earlier than most of the rest of London. That’s reasonable, it starts earlier. 6. Good husbandry – forest ecology, wisdom in planning, less greed and stupidity – could keep man and the delicate rain forest relationship in balance indefinitely. This is our last great store house…our last wonderland. 7. Birthmarks, once almost untreatable, are a mass of blood vessels and, being red, they absorb the laser beam strongly. It seals them so that the mark becomes conspicuous. 8. Britain, though, is one of the leaders in the laser treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers and this, combined with new medicines can mean ulcer treatment without conventional surgery. 9. When you think that you too might be asked to pay two sous extra, and would have to confess you could not, you bolt in panic. What could you not do? 10. Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities,. Some think that they have none at all. But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch- if only you show it. Everyone does what? One of your what? What does it refers to? 11. Before writing a resume, take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don’t worry at first about what it all means. What does it prefer to? 12. When you are satisfied, send your resume to printer, a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right. What does it refer to? 13. To be fair to all concerned, the film was made in Greece, partly in the USA and partly in Britain, and that probably explains why so many filled so seemingly identical roles. What does that refer to? 14. In determining the shape and content of his narrative, the writer of prose fiction is constrained by nothing except purely artistic criteria. This does not necessarily make hos task easer than that of the writer of plays and screenplays. 15. Tiger moths are covered with highly conspicuous oranges and black or yellow and black patterns of sport and stripes, such boldly patterned colour combinations are commonplace in animal world, serving the function of forewarning potential predators of unpleasant tastes and smell. 16. Detergents clean clothes by first removing particles of dirt from the fabric, then suspending the particles until they can be washed away. 17 lethanhtunhan.com 17. A number of sculptors have rejected the abstractions of minimalist artists. These sculptors have developed a style of extreme realism involving ordinary subjects. 18. The details information in maps is now produced almost entirely from satellite photography rather than by ground surveying because this method is faster, cheaper and more accurate. 19. Ruth sat three- hour papers- algebra and geometry, calculus, probability and statistics, and math, pure and applied. I was happy with the first two, she said yesterday, but I wasn’t sure about the third. 20. The major educational distinction between on campus and distance teaching is the reliance on group based strategies in the former and the obligation to individualise instruction the latter Exercise2: read the following passage and state what the underlined words refer to The flows of illegal immigrants have persisted in a number of countries. These flows have been fostered by the demographic imbalance between the developed and developing countries, differentials in economic growth, employment opportunities and wages, and a demand for low-wage workers in a number of developed countries. Although some countries have sought to strengthen the sovereignty of their frontier through such measures as the extension of visa requirements and increased checks on employers to ensure they have not hired illegals, illegal immigration still continues. For example, the scale of illegal immigration to the United States is massive. It has been estimated that three million illegals enter the united stated successfully every year with perhaps twenty five per cent of them remaining permanently. What do the underlined words refer to? 1. “these” in paragraph 1:………………………………………. 2. “their” in paragraph 2:………………………………………… 3. “they” in paragraph 3:…………………………………………. 4. “them” in paragraph 4:……………………………………………. Exercise 3: read following passage and state what the underlined words refer to The local café is as much of an institution in Poland as the local pub in some English speaking countries. Even small towns and large villages have cafes, and in the cities there are hundreds of them. They are always well patronized, the reason being that local cafes are ideal spots for meeting friends and for stopping at during long walks. They also have the right atmosphere to entertain, the privacy to discuss business and the convenience simply to gossip for a while over a glass of wine or an espresso coffee and piece of cake. 18 lethanhtunhan.com For retired people, spending a few hours at a café over a cup of coffee watching other people is probably better entertainment than watching television. When poles go out to spend some time with friends, especially when they date or meet informally, they prefer to go to a café than to a restaurant. They either stay there for the whole evening or proceed to other places. Most young people in Poland enjoy similar form of entertainment as their peers in English speaking countries. These include popular music concerts, discos, movies, sporting events- soccer being by far the most popular sport in Poland – and attractions available in the city and local center. People with children , as elsewhere, tend to go out less, especially if they do not have parents or in-laws to look after the children. They tend to go for walks in local parks or visit other people with children. What do the underlined words refer to? 1. “them” in line 3:…………………………….. 2. “they” in line 5:…………………………………. 3. “they” in line 10:……………………………………… 4. “there” in line 12:…………………………………………. 5. “their” in line 13:……………………………………… 6. “ these” in line 14:……………………………………………… 7. “they” in line 17:……………………………………………. 8. “they” in line 18:…………………………………………….. Exercise 4: read the following passage and choose the right answer for each of the reference words George Lucas’s star wars changed the direction of America film with some of the most ingenious special effects contrived for movies of its time. Twenty two months needed to design the equipment and more than 1000 story boards for effects sequences. A special computerized camera, called a Dykstraflex, was designed to give the illusion of real screen movement. This system, controlled by the camera operator, enabled him or her to pan, tilt, and track around the model, always keeping it in focus. The breakthrough was the camera’s ability to repeat the identical movement from shot to shot, thus the effects sequences could be built like a music track; layer upon layer. The illusion was complete: none of the spaceships in star wars ever moved- only the camera did. 19
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