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LÝ THUYẾT VÀ BÀI TẬP ÔN THI TỐT NGHIỆP TIẾNG ANH LỚP 12 I. TENSES A/ Lý thuyết 1. The Simple Present (Thì hiện tại đơn) a. Form: - Khẳng định : I , We , You , They … ( S nhiều ) + Vo He , She , It ( S ít ) + V-s/es - Phủ định : I , We , You , They .. + don't + Vo He , She , It … + doesn't + Vo - Nghi vấn : Do + We , You , They .. + Vo … ? Does + He , She , It … + Vo … ? b. Usage (Cách dùng ) : - Diễn tả một chân lí, một sự thật hiển nhiên. Ex : - The Earth goes round the sun . - He is a doctor. - Tom comes from England. - Diễn tả 1 thói quen hoặc 1 việc xảy ra thường xuyên ở hiện tại ( always, often, usually, sometimes, now and then, seldom, rarely, never, every ..... ) dùng để nhận biết. Ex : - He often goes to class late . / My mother gets up early every morning . - Diễn tả 1 h/đ tương lai đã được sắp xếp, bố trí thực hiện trước thời điểm nói. Note : a. Cách thêm – es vào sau những động từ tận cùng : o , s , x ,z ,sh , ch.. b. Cách phát âm –s/es 2 . The Present Continuous (Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn) a. Form : - Khẳng định : S + am / is / are + V –ing - Phủ định : S + am / is / are ( not ) + V -ing - Nghi vấn : Are / Is + S + V-ing …. ? Ex: We are studying English now . b. Usage ( Cách dùng) : - Diễn tả một hành động đang tiếp diễn ở thời điểm nói ( ở hiện tại) * Dấu hiệu nhận biết : now , right now = at once , at ( the / this / present ) time, at the moment, Ra lệnh ( Look ! Listen ! ) Ex : - She is listening to his teacher now - Diễn tả 1 hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai ( có kế hoạch từ trước) Ex : She is getting married next year. Note :* Be going to +Vo dùng để diễn tả 1 hành động sắp xảy ra mà hiện tượng của nó đã xuất hiện hoặc 1 hành động tương lai có dự định trước. Ex: The grey dark appears. It is going to rain. 3 . The Present Perfect (Thì hiện tại hòan thành) a. Form : - Khẳng định : S + has / have + V3 , ed - Phủ định : S + has / have ( not ) V3 , ed - Nghi vấn : Has / Have + S + V3 , ed? b. Usage (Cách dùng ) : * Diễn tả một hành động vừa mới xảy ra hoặc xảy ra không rõ thời gian (thường đi kèm với các từ just , recently = lately, not .. yet, ever, never, aleady ) Ex : We haven’t finished our homework yet . * Diễn tả 1 hành động bắt đầu từ quá khứ kéo dài đến hiện tại có khả năng tiếp tục ở tương lai (thường đi với các từ since , for) Ex : - They have lived here for ten years . * Ngòai ra còn có một số cụm từ chỉ thời gian như : so far = until now = up to now ,how long .. ? It is the first / second / third … time, twice / many / three…. times. Note : For ( many, several, 2, 3 / . + times, years, months or a long time = ages ) # since ( last week .. ) 4. The Simple Past (Thì quá khứ đơn ) a. Form : - Khẳng định : S + V2, ed … ( To be : was / were ) - Phủ định : S + did not Vo …. - Nghi vấn : Did + S + Vo ….. ? b. Usage : Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra, chấm dứt trong quá khứ ( đôi khi biết rõ thời gian ) thường có các từ đi kèm : yesterday ,ago , last ( week /night … ) , in 1990 ( thời gian ở quá khứ ) 5 . The Past Continuous (Thì quá khứ tiếp diễn ) a. Form : S + was / were + V - ing Ex: We were studying Maths at this time yesterday. b. Usage : - Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra vào 1 thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ . Ex : - What were you doing at 4 p.m yesterday? - Diễn tả 1 hành động đang xảy ra vào 1 thời điểm xác định ở quá khứ hoặc 1 hành động đang xảy ra ( hành động này kéo dài hơn ) thì có hành động khác xen vào . Ex: a. What were you doing at 4 p.m yesterday? b. We were watching television when he came - Diễn tả 2 hành động đang xảy ra cùng lúc ở quá khứ . Ex: Yesterday , while I was reading a book , my sister was watching T.V . * Dấu hiệu nhận biết : at ( the / this / that ) time, at the moment, at 4p.m + thời gian ở quá khứ (yesterday, last .. ) Ex : He was watching film at the moment yesterday. 6 . The Past perfect (Thì quá khứ hòan thành ) a. Form : S + had V3 , ed b. Usage : Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước 1 hành động khác trong quá khứ hoặc trước 1 thời điểm ở quá khứ . Ex : When I got up this morning , my mother had already left . * Dấu hiệu nhận biết : before , after 7 . The simple future : (Thì tương lai đơn ) a. Form : S + shall / will Vo b. Usage : Diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai : tomorrow , next ( week / month ) … , in 2010 8. The Perfect Future : (Tương lai hoàn thành ) Form S + will have V 3,ed Dấu hiệu nhận biết : By the end of …. Ex : By the end of this year, I will have had a new bike. Note : Sau when , while , before , after , until, by the time, as , as soon as, if ………. không dùng thì tương lai mà chỉ dùng thì hiện tại đơn . Ex : She will phone her parents when she comes here next week. B/ Bài tập vận dụng I. Use the correct tenses of the verbs in brackets. 1. She (write) ........................ that letter two days ago. 2. What (happen) .................... when they arrived? 3. I don’t smoke while I (drive) .................... a car. 4. After they (go) ...................., I sat down and rested. 5. His knowledge (develop) .................... since he got habit of reading. 6. You (finish) .................... with the book I (lend) .................... you last week? 7. Last week, when the police came there, the thief (go) .................... away. 8. The train already (leave) .................... by the time I (arrive) .................... the station. 9. Be quiet! The baby (sleep) .................... . 10. He (visit) .................... his friend yesterday and (find) .................... that she (be) .................... out. II. Choose the best option to complete the sentence. 1. She................Hanoi last year A. went B. go C. goes D. is going 2. Now you ..................from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours A. are flying B. would fly C. will fly D. can fly 3. When Carol....................last night, I................my favorite show on television A. was callingwatched B. called- have watched C. called- was watching D. had calledwatched 4. By the time next summer you....................your studies A. completes B. will complete C. are completing D. will have completed 5. Right now, Jim.................the newspaper and Kathy...............dinner A. reads- has cooked B. is reading- is C. has read- was D. read- will be cooking cooking cooking 6. Last night at this time, they.....................the same thing. She.............and he..........the newspaper A. are doing- is cooking- is reading B. were doing- was cookingwas reading C. was doing- has cooked- is reading D. had done- was cookingread 7. – Hurry up! We’re waiting for you. What’s taking you so long? – I …………….. for an important phone call. Go ahead and leave without me. A. wait B. will wait C. am waiting D. have waited 8. – Robert is going to be famous someday. He ……………. in three movies already. – I’m sure he’ll be a star. A. has been appearing B. has appeared C. had appeared D. appeared 9. – Hello? Alice? This is Jeff. How are you? – Jeff? What a coincidence! I ………….. about you when the phone rang. A. was just thinking B. just thought C. have just been thinking D. was just thought 10. – What …….. about the new simplified tax law? – It’s more confusing than the old one. A. are you thinking B. do you think C. have you thought D. have you been thinking II. SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT A. Nguyên tắc chung: Trong tiếng Anh, chủ ngữ và vị ngữ (Verb) à 2 thành phần chính của câu; trong đó chủ ngữ chi phối vị ngữ, còn vị ngữ là đối tượng chịu tác động của chủ ngữ. Do đó, chủ ngữ số nào thì đ/t sẽ chia theo số đó S + * singular * plural * either sin. or plu. + V+ * singular * plural * either sin. or plu. B. Một số nguyên tắc cơ bản: B.1. Singular verb 1. Sub. as Singular nouns or pronouns (He/ She/ It/ No..) or Uncountable nouns. E.g: - He usually goes to school by bicycle. - Her beauty helps her much in her job. - This water is not safe enough to drink. 3. Sub. as a gerund, infinitive or clause. E.g:- Swimming is good for health. - That you hav high grades in school is necessary. 4. Sub. as a measuremenof time, money, distance.. ( as 1 unit) Eg: - Thirty pounds seems a reasonable price. - Four weeks is a long time to wait for you. 5. A noun ending in ‘s’ expressing: a subject, disease, country or city, news .. Eg: Mathematics is one of my core subjects. 6. Indefinite pronouns: someone, something .... Eg: Someone was waiting at the door 7. One of + the + Adj. – EST + Ns 8. Every/ Each/ Either/ Neither + Ns/ No E.g: - Every teacher and every student has their own work. B.2. Plural verb. 1. Plural nouns or pronouns 2. The + Adj. E.g: - The young are fond of pop music. 3. Collective nouns: police, army, troop, audience cattle, poultry... Eg: The police are investigating the crime. B.3. Either singular or plural verb.  V (plural) (N1 ≠ N2) 1. N1 + AND + N2 +  V (sin.) ( N1 ≡ N2) Eg: - My brother and sister live in Boston. - My cousin and my adviser, Tom is coming tonight. - Bread and egg is my favourite dish. (Bánh mỳ trứng là món tôi thích nhất) together with along with 2. N1 + as well as + N2  V (N1) accompanied by in addition to E.g: - George, together with his friends, is buying a race horse. - The director as well as his staff has to learn English. - The students in addition to the teacher are all devoted to the research. 3. Either or, Neither + N1 + nor  V(N2) Not only but also Eg: - Either Thursday or Friday is ok. - Neither my parents nor my brother has been to HCM city. - Either you or I am right. 4. A (large) number of + V(plu.) The number of + V(sin.) E.g: - The number of students in this class is small. - A number of students were absent yesterday. 5. N1 + preposition + N2  V(N1) E.g:- The picture of the soldiers has been sold. -The house between the two bungalows is empty. 6. None/ All/ some/ half/ plenty/ N(sin.) No/ Most/ a lot/ Percentage/ fraction + of + N(plu.) E.g:- None of the students have finished the test. - None of the counterfeit money has been foun. - One third of the population is unemployed - One third of the villagers are unemployed. 7. There + is/was/ has been ... + No . There + are/were/ have been .. + Ns/es. Eg: There are twenty five students in my class There was an accident on the road last night. 8. Collective noun ( family, team, group, different action  V (plu.)  V(sin.)  V(plu.) staff, company.. as 1 unit (the same action)  V(sin.) E.g: - My family congratulated my little sister on her birthday. - His family is an old and very famous one. - Our company has debated these questions carefully. - The company lead very different lives in private Bài tập vận dụng Exercise 1: Circle the best answer. 1. One of .......... a goldfish bowl on her kitchen table. A. my friend keep B. my friends keep C. my friend keeps D. my friends keeps 2. Every ......... love. A. man, woman and child needs B. men, women and children needs C. man, woman and child need D. men, women and children need 3. One of the girls who ......... in this office ......... my niece A. works / is B. works / are C. work / is D. work / are 4. Neither Lan nor her parents ......... the film. A. like B. likes C. is like D. are like 5. Each ......... the same as the day before. A. days was B. day was C. days were D. day were C. women are D. women is 6. More men than ......... left handed. A. woman are B. woman is 7. Every one of the students ......... on time for class A. is B. are C. were D. have been 8. There ......... some money on the table. A. are B. were C. have been D. is 9. This information about taxes ......... helpful A. were B. have been C. is D. are 10. The vegetables in the bowl on the table ......... fresh. A. looks B. smells C. are D. is Exercise 2: Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1. The news about Mr Hogan (be) .............. surprising. 2. Fifty minutes (be) ..............the maximum length of the time allowed for the exam. 3. Many people in the world (not have) .............. enough food to eat. 4. The poor (need) ..............help from the community. 5. Listening to loud music at rock concerts (cause) .............. hearing loss in some teenagers these days. 6. There (be) .............. a lot of sheep in the field. 7. Ten miles (be) .............. too far to walk. 8. Not only John but also his friends (want) .............. to buy this race horse. 9. A number of students (recently participate) .............. in intensive language programs abroad. 10. Sarah, along with 20 students, (plan) .............. a party now. Exercise 3: Find the incorrect part A, B, C and D. 1. Each of the rooms have its own bathroom. A B C D 2. Everybody who have a fever must go home immediately A B C D 3. Twenty five dollars are all I can afford to pay for this recorder A B C D 4. All of the windows in my house was broken in the earthquake. A B C D 5. The actress, along with her manager and some friends, are going to the party. A B C D III. GERUND AND INFINITIVE A/ Lý thuyết Một đ/t thường có 2 dạng: đ/t biến vị & đ/t không biến vị: * Biến vị là đ/t chia theo chủ ngữ (ngôi & thì – thời gian mà h/đ xảy ra)- verb tenses. * Không biến vị - verb forms- gồm: - Đ/ nguyên thể (Infinitive with or without To) - Động tính từ hiện tại (Present participle) & Động danh từ (Gerund): V-ing - Động tính từ quá khứ (Past participle) : V-ed A. Động từ nguyên thể 1. Form: Active Passive To - be - P2 To -have-been-P2 Simple To - Vo Perfec To - have - P2 t Eg:- I’m very glad to see you. - I wanted the report to be typed at once. - He seems to have been ill. - This machine is said to have been tested. 2. Classification: 2 kinds: Infinitive with or without To 2.1. Bare infinitive : động từ nguyên mẫu không to 1. Sau modal verb ( động từ khiếm khuyết ) 2. Sau auxilary verb : do, does, did. 3. Sau make, let, help ( sau help có thể có To); ở Passive voice  dùng to-Vo ( Trừ let) 4. Sau động từ chỉ giác quan:(verbs of perception ) : see, hear, smell, feel, taste, watch, notice … Vo ( bare )  hành động đã xong S + V + object Vo ( ing )  hành động đang diễn ra 5. Sau: had better ( tốt hơn ); would rather ( thà thì hơn ), had sooner. 6. Sau thành ngữ :- to do nothing but + Vo ( bare ) : không làm gì cả mà chỉ. - Can not but + Vo(bare): không còn cách nào khác. 7. Causative form (Thể sai khiến): S + have + object ( chỉ người ) + Vo (bare). 8. Câu mệnh lệnh: ( imprative ): Come in, please. * Notes: Nếu 2 To-Vo nối bởi “and”, To của Vo2 thường lược bỏ. 2.2. To infinitive (To -Vo) động từ nguyên thể có To) a. Usages: 1. Sau Ought/ used +To-Vo 2. Sau Need/ do/ dare(nếu là đ/t thường) - I do it to please you. - He won’t dare to disobey his teacher. 3. Sau Be/ Have (có ý mệnh lệnh, bắt buộc) - We are to be at school at 6.00 - I have to do some washing. 4. Dùng trong các trường hợp khác. b. Functions b.1. Làm subject  V(sing) – To learn English is necessary. b.2. Làm bổ ngữ( sau Be/ L.verbs) - To see is to believe. - His plan is to keep the fair secret. b.3. Làm object of verb : S + V + to –Vo - I want to have a cup of coffee. * Làm bổ ngữ cho tân ngữ ( object complement) S + V + obj + to-Vo - He wants me to lend him some money. b. 4. Làm adjective  rút gọn adjective clause (relative clause) đứng sau danh từ - I have a letter that I must write/ to write. - Have you anything that you want to say /to say? 5. Làm adverb  rút gọn : adverbbial clause of result : đứng sau adj 5a. Rút gọn clause of result theo công thức sau ( phrase of result ) S + V + too adj/adv ( for object )+ to inf S + V + adj/adv enough (for object )+to inf 5b. Rút gọn : clause of purpose theo mẫu sau ( phrase of purpose ) to inf S+V+ in order for object to inf so as to inf 6. It + take+ (object) + time + to-Vo 7. Causative form: S+ get + object ( chỉ người ) + to inf 8. Sau 1 số Adj: angry, glad, happy, sorry, likely... c. Strutures. c.1 Verb + To-Vo 1. afford : cung cấp đủ 2. agree : đồng ý 3. appear : có vẻ 4. arrange: sắp xếp 5. ask : hỏi 6. attempt: cố gắng 7. beg : đề nghị, xin 8. care : quan tâm 9. claim : cho là, tuyên bố 10. consent : đồng ý, tán thành 11. decide : quyết định 12. demand : yêu cầu 13. deserve : xứng đáng 14. expect : trông đợi 15. dare : dám 16. fail : thất bại 17. forget : quên ( tương lai ) 18. hesitate : ngập ngừng 19. hope : hy vọng 20. learn : học 21. manage : xoay xở 22. mean : muốn 23. need: cần (chủ động, người ) 24. offer : mời 25. plan : dự định, kế hoạch 26. prepare: chuẩn bị 27. pretend: giả vờ 28. promise: hứa 29. refuse: từ chối 30. regret: tiếc ( tương lai ) 31. remember : nhớ (tương lai ) 32. seem : dường như 33. struggle: đấu tranh, cố gắng 34. swear: thề 35. threaten : dọa 36. tend: có khuynh hướng 37. volunteer: tình nguyện, xung phong 38. wait : đợi 39. want : muốn ( chủ động ) 40. wish : ao ước 15. invite : mời 16. need : cần 17. tempt : cám dỗ 18. intend : dự định 19. order : ra lệnh 20. permit : cho phép 21. persuade : thuyết phục 22. remind : nhắc lại 23. require : yêu cầu 24. recommend : khuyên 25. teach : dạy 26. tell : bảo 27. urge : thúc giục, thuyết phục 28. want : muốn 29. warn : cảnh báo 30. help : giúp đỡ 31. would like : thích 32. would prefer :thích 33. appoint : chỉ định ai làm gì 34. charge : giao nhiệm vụ 35. choose : lựa chọn 36. compel : cưỡng bách 37. defy : thách 38. desire : ao ước, thèm thuồng 39. direct : hướng dẫn, chỉ huy 40. implore : yêu cầu 41. provoke : xúi giục c.2 V + objective + to-Vo 1. advise :khuyên 2. allow: cho phép 3. ask : hỏi, đòi hỏi 4. beg : năn nỉ, xin 5. cause : gây ra 6. challenge : thách thức, thách đố 7. convince : thuyết phục 8. dare : dám 9. encourage: khuyến khích 10. expect : trông đợi 11. forbid : cấm 12. force : bắt buộc 13. hire : thuê, mướn 14. instruct : chỉ dẫn c.3. Verb + WH- + To-Vo Teach, explain, discover, think, believe + how/ Wh- + to Vo: Chỉ cách thức know, understand, consider, decide.. B. Gerund Or present participle. ( Danh động từ & Động tính từ hiện tại) B.1 . Gerund 1. Form: Active Idefinit V-ing Passive Being - P2 e Perfect Having - P2 Having-been-P2 2. Functions 2.1. Gerund as a noun ( subj , obj, complement & appositive) 1. Làm chủ ngữ  V(sing)  ( real subject & informal subject ). 2. Làm tân ngữ Object of verb : S + V + V- ing ( gerund ). Object of preposition  sau preposition + V-ing. 3. Làm subject complement: Ex: My hobby is swimming ( gerund ) 4. Làm appositive (ngữ đồng vị ) Ex: My hobby, swimming makes me healthy. 5. Đứng sau thành ngữ : - it is no use, it is no good : - there is no use, there is no good: vô ích - can’t stand / bear / help : không thể chịu được 6. Sau hai tính từ : busy, worth 7. Thành lập noun compound ( danh từ kép ) N + gerund child bearing Gerund + N  flying machine 2.2. Gerund as a verb : có object hoặc được bổ nghĩa bởi một trạng từ 1. admit : thừa nhận 2. advise : khuyên ( không object ) 3. anticipate : tham gia 4. appreciate : đánh giá cao 5. avoid : tránh 6. complete : hòan thành 7. consider : xem xét 8. delay : trì hõan 9. dread : sợ 10. detest : ghét 11. discuss : thảo luận 12. dislike : không thích 13. deny: từ chối 14. enjoy : thưởng thức 15. excuse : xin lỗi 16. finish : hòan thành 17. forget : quên ( qúa khứ ) 18. forgive : tha thứ 19. fancy : tưởng tượng 20. imagine : tưởng tượng 21. involve : làm liên lụy 22. include : bao gồm 23. keep : tiếp tục 24. love : ( hoặc To inf) 25. like : thích 26. hate : ghét 27. mention : nhắc tới, nói tới 28. mind : phiền hà, ngại ngần 29. miss : nhớ, lỡ, mất 30. postpone : đình, hoãn. 31. prevent : ngăn cản 32. practise : luyện tập 33. recall : gợi lại, nhớ lại. 34. recollect : gợi lại. 35. recommend : khuyên, dặn dò. 36. regret : tiếc nuối ( quá khứ ) 37. remember : nhớ ( qúa khứ ) 38. resent : tức giận, phật ý. 39. resist : cưỡng lại, phản kháng. 40. risk : liều lĩnh. 41. stop : ngừng, từ bỏ. 42. start : ( hoặc To inf ) 43. suggest : đề nghị 44. tolerate : bỏ qua 45. understand: hiểu 46. restrict: hạn chế, giảm bớt, ngăn ngừa. * can’t bear, can’t stand, can’t help * it is no use/ no good, there is no use * look forward to *be busy/ worth 3. Structures B.2. Past participle : qúa khứ phân từ ( V-ED/V3 1. Thêm trợ từ have+V-ED/V3 ( past participle ) perfect tense 2.Thêm trợ từ Be +V-ED/V3(past participle) passive voice 3. Làm chức năng như adjective  passive meaning  có thể rút gọn mệnh đề tính từ ( adjective clause or relative clause ) + Có thể rút gọn mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian. + Có thể rút gọn câu khi một chủ ngữ thực hiện hai hành động. 4. Thành lập adjective compound: tính từ kép N  man – made Adj + V ( PP – VoED/V3 )  new – born Adv  well – known 6. Thêm “the” để thành lập danh từ tập hợp  V(plural ) educated(adj) the educated:những người có giáo dục. 7. Thành lập causative form : thể truyền khuyến S +have/get +object (chỉ vật)+ V ( PP – Vo ED/V3 ) C. Present participle ( V-ing) hiện tại phân từ. 1. Thêm trợ từ Be + V-ing để thành lập thì continuous tense. 2. Làm tính từ  mang nghĩa chủ động ( active meaning )  có thể rút gọn mệnh đề tính từ ( adjective clause or relative clause )  có thể rút gọn mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian, nhượng bộ, lý do và điều kiện .  một chủ ngữ thực hiện 2 hành động có thể dùng present participle để rút gọn. 3. Thêm mạo từ “the” để thành lập danh từ tập hợp : Ex: to live  the living : những người đang sống. 4. Thành lập tính từ kép ( adjective compound ). N  peace – loving Adj V-ing  good – loking Adv  hard - working D. V-ing or to - infinitive 1. Recommend, begin, start, continue + To inf /V– ing 2. Forget, remember, regret: +to inf  chỉ tương lai 3. Stop +V– ing  chỉ quá khứ to infinitive  ngừng việc đang làm để làm việc khác. V – ing :  ngừng việc đang làm 4. Try to infinitive : cố gắng V – ing : thử 5. Need, want, require To inf : mang nghĩa chủ động V- ing : mang nghĩa bị động (need: tobe + V (PP) 6. Advise, allow, permit obj + to infi  + V- ing 7. Prefer: + V-ing + to + V-ing:thích cái gì hơn cái gì + to infinitive: thích cái gì đó 8. Help + O + (To)-Vo : giúp ai làm việc gì Can’t/ couldn’t help + V-ing: không thể không làm việc gì 9. Go on + To-Vo: ( chỉ sự thay đổi của h/đ) + V-ing: (chỉ sự liên tục của h/đ) - She stopped talking about that and went on to describe her other problems.( Cô ta thôi không nói về điều đó nữa mà chuyển sang mô tả 1 vấn đề khác) - She went on talking about her illness until we all went to sleep. (Cô ấy cứ nói mãi về căn bệnh của mình cho đến khi chúng tôi đi ngủ) 10. Mean + To-Vo: (chỉ dự định, ý định) + V-ing: (chỉ sự liên quan hoặc kết quả) - I mean to go earlier.( Tôi đã định đi sớm hơn) - This new order will mean working overtime.(Mệnh lệnh mới này có nghĩa là phải làm thêm giờ) * Với các đ/t : begin/ start, like/ love, hate, continue, cannot/ could not bear, intend .. có thể dùng với To-Vo hoặc V-ing không có sự khác biệt về nghĩa Eg: - It began to rain/ raining at 2 o’clock. - He can’t bear being/ to be lonely. B/ Bài tập vận dụng I. Give the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. 1. It’s difficult (get) ............ used to (eat) ............ with chopsticks. 2. Would you mind (show) ............ me how (work) ............ the lift? 3. There are people who can’t help (laugh) ............ when they see someone (slip) ............ on a banana skin. 4. I’d rather (earn) ............ my living by (clean) ............ the floor than (make) ............ money by (blackmail) ............people. 5. If you go on (let) ............ the dog (run) ............after cars, he’ll end by (be) ............run over. 6. Do you feel like (go) ............ to a film or would you rather (stay) ............ at home? 7. Try (avoid) ............ (make) ............ him angry. 8. Those shirts need (iron) ............ but you needn’t (iron) ............ them now. 9. When you see Tom, remember (give) ............ him my regards. 10. It’s no use (advise) ............ him. He never allows anybody (give) ............ advice. II. Choose the words or phrase that best completes the sentence. 1. Her boss promised ...... her a raise because she never minds ........ the night shift. A. offering/ work B. offered/ to work C. to offer/ working D. to offer/ worked 2. You were the last one ......... the office. Did you see anyone the building? A. leaving/ to enter B. to leave/ enter C. left/ entering D. leave/ entered 3. She pretended ...... me when I passed by. A. not to see B. not seeing C. to not see D. having not seen 4. “ Good morning. Can I help you?”- “ I’d like to have this package ........ , Madam” A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed 5. “ What do you think of the book?” - “ Oh, excellent. It’s worth ....... a second time.” A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read 6. Do you know the boy ..... under the big tree? A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying 7. I don’t regret ....... even if it might have upset her. A. to tell her what I thought B. to have told her that I thought C. telling what I thought D. telling her what I thought 8. The rest of the money ....... to his parents. A. is to send B. are to send C. is to be sent D. are to be sent C. be spoken D. to speak 9. What’s the language ....... in German? A. speaking B. spoken 10. It was so cold that they kept the fire ....... all night. A. to burn B. burn C. burning D. burned IV. PASSIVE VOICE A/ Lý thuyết I. Definition: Câu bị động là câu trong đó chủ ngữ là người hay vật nhận hoặc chịu tác động của hành động II. Form: To Be + Past Participle (p2) III. Passive transformation Active: S + V + O Passive: S + be –P2 + (by O) Ex: Active: They built that bridge in 1999. S V O Passive: That bridge was built in 1999. S V Notes: 1. Chỉ có thể đổi sang câu bị động với những câu có ngoại động từ (có tân ngữ); câu đơn có bao nhiêu tân ngữ có bấy nhiêu câu bị động; ở câu phức, mệnh đề nào có tân ngữ thì có thể đổi sang bị động, mệnh đề nào không có tân ngữ thì giữ nguyên. 2. Động từ To Be trong câu bị động phải thích hợp với thì(Tense) của câu chủ động và phù hợp với chủ ngữ của câu bị động (passive subject). 3. Khi chủ ngữ của câu chủ động là các đại từ nhân xưng: I, we, you, they, he, she, one, everyone, someone/body, people .. thường được lược bỏ đi trong câu bị động. 4. Nếu chủ ngữ của câu chủ động là: nothing, no one, nobody.. thì ở câu bị động by Obj được lược bỏ và động từ của bị động chuyển sang thể phủ định. Ex: No one helps me  I am not helped. 5. - Nếu chủ ngữ của câu chủ động là danh từ chỉ vật liệu, dụng cụ thì ở câu bị động thay by + Obj. bằng with + Obj. Ex: Paint covered the clock  The clock was covered with paint. 6. Đặt trạng từ chỉ cách thức (Adj. - ly) trước Past Participle (P2) nếu có. Ex: People use English widely → English is widely used 7. Giữ nguyên giới từ sau Past Participle (P2) nếu có. 8. Nếu trong câu có cả trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn và trạng từ chỉ thời gian thì chú ý trật từ các thành phần như sau: Place + by Obj + Time Ex: - Mr Pike built this school in my village last year. → This school was built in my village by Mr Pike last year. IV. VERB TENSES 1. Simple present and simple past is/ am/ are S+ - P2 + by – Obj. was/ were 2. Present and past continuous. is/ am/ are S+ - Being - P2 + by – Obj. was/ were 3. Present and Past Perfect. have/ has S+ - Been - P2 + by – Obj. had 4. Simple future and Near future. will/ shall S+ + Be – P2 + by – Obj. Be + Going to 5. Modal verbs. S + Modal - Be – P2 + by – Obj. V. Sentence Parterns 1. Affirmative sentence: Sub. + Be - P2 + by – Obj. 2. Negative sentence: Sub. + Be - not - P2 + by – Obj. 3. Interrogative sentence/ Yes- No question: Be + Sub. + P2 + by – Obj ? 4. WH- questions: a. For Subject: Who/ What + is/was/ has been – P2 + (by – Obj.)? b. For Object: By Whom + Be + Sub. + P2 ...? c. Others : WH - + Be + Sub. + P2 ...? VI. NHỮNG TRƯỜNG HỢP PASSIVE VOICE ĐẶC BIỆT 1. Causative form(thể truyền khuyến): a/Active voice: -S + Have + Obj(chỉ người) + Vo. Ex: I have him repair my bicycle. -S + Get + Obj (chỉ người) + to infi. Ex: I get him to repair my bicycle. b/Passive voice: -S + Have/Get + Obj (chỉ vật) + V3 / Vo ED. Ex: I have/get my bicycle repaired by him. 2. Sau những động từ chỉ ý kiến (verbs of opinion): say, think , believe, report, rumour, know, consider, claim... Active: S1+ V1 ( say/ believe/ think....)+ (that) +S2+ V2. Passive: * Cách 1: It + be + P2(V1) + S2 + V2. * Cách 2: S2 + be + P2(V1) + To-infinitive (V2) To have + P2(V2) (nếu V2 khác thì hoặc xảy ra trướcV1) Ex1 : People say that money brings happiness → Cách 1: It is said that money brings happiness → Cách 2: Money is said to bring happiness.( Dùng to bring vì say và bring cùng thì) Ex 2 : People say that he was crazy. → Cách 1: It is said that he was crazy or → Cách 2: He is said to have been crazy.( to have been vì say và was khác thì) . 3. Sau những động từ chỉ giác quan(verb of perception): see, hear, smell, feel, taste, watch, notice, make, help, bid. Ex: I hear him come in → He is heard to come in (nếu câu chủ động là coming thì giữ nguyên trong câu bị động). 4. Imperative (câu mệnh lệnh): Ex: a. Open the door → Let the door be opened. b. They let him go out → He was allowed to go out / He was let go out. 5. Sau những động từ: like, hate, love, want, wish, prefer, hope. Ex: - He wants Peter to take photographs → He wants photographs to be taken by Peter. - He does not like people laughing at him. → He does not like being laughed at. 6. Các động từ: advise, agree, insist, arrange, suggest, propose, recommend, determine, decide, demand, beg, urge, order, request. Ex: He advised me to accept this job → Cách 1: He advised me this job should be accepted. → Cách 2: I was advised to accept this job. 7. Need + to be + P2 = Need + Ving Ex: Your shirt needs to be ironed ironing. 8. It + be + adjective + to-infinitive + smt. Passive: It + be + adjective + for sth + to be + V3 / Vo ED Ex: - It is important to finish this exercise. → It is important for this exercise to be finished - It is necessary to copy this lesson → It is necessary for this lesson to be copied. - It is time to feed the chicken → It is time for the chicken to be fed. 9. Các trường hợp khác: Ex Please enter this way. → You are requested to enter this way. B/ Bài tập vận dụng Exercise 1: Change the sentences bloww into the Passive voice. 1. People drink a great deal of tea in England. 2. She often takes her dog for a walk. 3. People speak English all over the world. 4. A group of students have met their friends at the railway station. 5. They didn’t allow Tom to take these books home. 6. The teacher won’t correct exercises tomorrow. 7. How many trees did they cut down to build that fence? 8. This well-known library attracts many people. 9. My mother used to make us clean the house. 10. He likes people to call him “Sir”. Exercise 2: Rewrite the sentences in the passive: 1. They will construct some new airports on islands. …………………………………………………………………………………… 2. The new president might fulfill this promise as quickly as people would like. …………………………………………………………………………………… 3. They are going to find out the mystery. …………………………………………………………………………………… 4. You can buy videos like this one anywhere. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Someone will tell you when you go in to see the doctor. …………………………………………………………………………………… Exercise 3: Complete the sentences with the given words, active or passive 1. Chris has good news. The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday (may / offer) ………………………….. her a job soon. 2. Good news! I (may / offer) ………………………….. a job soon. I had an interview at an engineering firm yesterday. 3. You (should / open) ………………….. the wine about three hours before you use it. 4. You (mustn’t / move) …………………………..this man; he is too ill. He (will / have to / leave) ………………………….. here. 5. You (must / take) …………………………..those books back to the library yesterday. 6. We tried, but the window (couldn’t/ open) …………………………… 7. You (must / keep) ………………………….. meat in a refrigerator or it will spoil. 8. I (had better /wash) ……………….. my clothes today, or they will be very smelly. 9. Someone (should / tell) ………………………….. James the news immediately. 10. This application (be supposed to/ send) ………….. to the personnel department soon. Exercise 4: Choose the best option. 1. I shouldn’t …… so much coffee last night. I was wide awake till four in the morning. A. drink B. drank C. be drunk D. have drunk 2. After the test papers …… to the students in class tomorrow, the students …… their next assignment. A. will return – will be given B. will be returned – are given C. are returning – are giving D. are returned – will be given 3. The class for next semester is too large. It ought to …… in half. A. be divided B. divide C. have divided D. have been divided 4. The entire valley can …… from their mountain home. A. see B. be seen C. being seen D. sees 5. A child should …… everything he or she wants. A. gives B. give C. have been given D. be given 6. Many U.S. automobiles …… in Detroit, Michigan. A. manufacture B. have manufactured C. are manufactured D. are manufacturing 7. I still can’t believe it! My bicycle …… last night. A. was stolen B. was stealing C. stolen D. stole 8. Let’s go ahead and do it now. Nothing …… by waiting. A. will be accomplished B. accomplished 9.” When ……? “ - In 1928 C. has accomplished D. accomplishes A. penicillin was discovered C. was penicillin discovered B. did penicillin discovered D. did penicillin discover 10. The rescuers ……for their bravery and fortitude in locating the lost mountain climbers. A. were praised B. praised C. were praising D. praising 11. Vitamin C …… by the human body. It gets into the bloods stream quickly. A. absorbs easily B. is easily absorbing C. is easily absorbed D. absorbed easily 12. Renoir is one of the most popular French impressionist painters. His paintings …… masterpieces all over the world. A. had considered B. are considering C. are considered D. consider 13. We can’t go along here because the road is …… . A. been repaired B. being repaired C. repaired D. repairing 14. More than 50 films …… in HCMC since June. A. were shown B. had been shown C. have been shown D. have shown 15. Somebody cleans the room every day. A. The room every day is cleaned B. The room is every day cleaned C. The room is cleaned every day D. The room is cleaned by somebody every day V. REPORTED SPEECH A/ Lý thuyết Câu gián tiếp dùng để tường thuật lại lời nói trực tiếp từ người thứ nhất dến người thứ ba thông qua người thứ hai. Có các loại câu chuyển từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp như sau: 1. Câu trần thuật Câu trần thuật thường được tường thuật bằng một động từ được chia ở thì quá khứ và một mệnh đề “that” Ví dụ : “I am a teacher”--> she said that she was a teacher Công thức: S + said/ told/ admitted/ replied (that) S + V ( one tense back) +..... Chúng ta thường thay đổi thì của động từ ( hiện tại--> quá khứ--> quá khứ hoàn thành) đổi đại từ nhân xưng, tân ngữ, tính từ sở hữu, tạng từ chỉ thời gian và địa điểm như sau: Trạng từ chỉ thời gian và địa điểm. Câu trực tiếp Now/ at present Today Ago Before Tomorrow Yesterday The day after tomorrow The day before yesterday Next week/ year Last week/ month/ year This These Câu gián tiếp Then That day the next day/ the following day The previous day/ the day before In two days’ time Two days before The following week/ month/ year The week/ month / ear before That Those Here Tonight This/ these/ that/ those ( as adjectives) This/ these/ that/ those ( as pronoun) There That night The It, they, them Chú ý: khi tường thuật một sự việc luôn đúng ở hiện tại, không cần thiết phải thay đổi thì của động từ. Ví dụ: “ The world is round” he said---> he said that the world is round 2. Câu hỏi A/ Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi được tường thuật bằng các động từ “ask, wonder or want to know”. Các thay đổi giống như câu trần thuật. Trật tự từ câu được tường thuật giống như câu trần thuật. Ví dụ 'When did you start acting, Melissa?'-->Guy asked Melissa when she started acting. Công thức: S + asked + (O)/ wanted to know Wh question S + V ( one tense back) +..... B/ Câu hỏi trả lời bằng Yes/ No Khi tường thuật câu hỏi trả lời bằng Yes/ No ta sử dụng “if hoặc whether”. Ví dụ 'Is there a cafe nearby?-->. Daniel asked if/whether there was a cafe nearby. Công thức: S + asked + (O)/ wanted to know if/ whether S + V ( one tense back) +..... 3. Câu cầu khiến. Chúng ta sử dụng “tell và ask ” và to V để tường thuật câu cầu khiến Ví dụ: 'Please move this car.' --> A policeman told me to move the car. 'Please don't wear those boots in the house.' --> I asked you not to wear those boots in the house. Công thức: S + asked / told O to V/ not to V. Có rất nhiều các động từ tường thuật khác. Sau đây là một số các động từ thường thuật phổ biến khác: Verb + to infinitive: agree, decide, offer, promise , refuse.. Verb + O to infinitive: advise, ask, invite, remind... Verb+ -ing form: deny, suggest, admit, regret... Verb+ pre + -ing form: : apologise for, congratulate on B/ Bài tập vận dụng 1/ Change the following sentences into reported speech 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “The shop close early tonight” he said--> he said.... “Don’t make so much noise, boys” the mother said--> The mother..... “Why didn’t you take the job?” asked my friend.--> My friend....... “ Have you finished reading the book, Mike?” Alice asked--> My friend..... “ I am sorry I am late”, said Mr Thanh.--> Mr Thanh apologized.... 2/ Choose the best answer. 1. I rang my friend in Australia yesterday, and she said it………………….. raining there. A. is B. should be C. to be D. was 2. The last time I saw Jonathan, he looked very relaxed. He explained that he'd been on holiday the…………. .......... week. A. earlier B. . previous C. next D. following 3. I wonder…………………. the tickets are on sale yet. A. what B. when C. where D. whether 4. I told you…………………. switch off the computer, didn't I? A. don't B. not C. not to D. to not 5. Someone………………......me there's been an accident on the motorway. A. asked B. said C. spoke D. told 6. When I rang Tessa some time last week, she said she was busy…………………… day. A. that B. the C. then D. this 7. When he was at Oliver's flat yesterday, Martin asked if he………………….. use the phone. A. can B. could C. may D. must 8. Judy ........................ going for a walk, but no one else wanted to. A. admitted B. offered C. suggested D. promised 3/ Choose the answer - A, B, C, or D -that is nearest in meaning to the sentence printed before. 1. 'You broke my glasses,' said the woman to me. A. The woman insisted on breaking her glasses. B. The woman advised me to break her glasses. C. The woman told me to break her glasses. D. The woman blamed me for having broken her glasses. 2. 'If I were you, I would take the job,' said my roommate. A. My roommate was thinking about taking the job. B. My roommate advised me to take the job. C. My roommate introduced the idea of taking the job to me. D. My roommate insisted on taking the job for me. 3. 'Why not participate in the English Speaking Contest?' A. He asked me to take part in the English Speaking Contest. B. He suggested taking part in the English Speaking Contest. C. He offered us to take part in the English Speaking Contest. D. He told me not to participate in the English Speaking Contest. 4. Please watch your steps as you get off. A. Please look at the steps while getting off. B. Go down the steps in order to get off. C. Please have a look at the Steps as you get off. D. Be careful not to tumble while getting off. 5. 'Let me pay for the coffee. I really want.' A. Jenny is asked to pay for the coffee. B. Jenny suggested paying for the coffee. C. Jenny insisted on paying for the coffee. D. Jenny told me to pay for the coffee. 6. You're always making terrible mistakes,' said the teacher. A. The teacher complained about his students making terrible mistakes. B. The teacher asked his students why they always made terrible mistakes. C. The teacher realized that his students always made terrible mistakes. D. The teacher made his students not always make terrible mistakes. 7. Each of you may have one piece of candy,’ Mrs. Jones said to the children. A. Mrs. Jones advised the children to have one piece of candy. B. Mrs. Jones asked each of the children to have one piece of candy. C. Mrs. Jones allowed each of the children to have one piece of candy. D. Mrs. Jones reminded the children to have one piece of candy. 8. 'Would you mind if I brought a friend to the party?' said Peter. A. Peter wanted me to bring my friend to his party. B. Peter encouraged me to bring my friend to the party. C. Peter asked for permission to bring his friend to the party. D. Peter promised to bring a friend to the party. 9. 'Don't be so disappointed Jane. You can take the driving test again,' said Helen. A. Helen told Jane not to be disappointed and take the driving test again. B. Helen asked Jane not to be disappointed and offered her another driving test. C. Helen warned Jane not to be disappointed' in order to take the driving test again. D. Helen encouraged Jane to take the driving test again. 10. 'Let's break for lunch,' said Mathew. A. Mathew wanted to break for lunch. B. Mathew insisted on breaking for lunch. C. Mathew suggested breaking for lunch. D. Mathew offered us a break for lunch. VI. CONDITIONALS A/ Lý thuyết Câu điều kiện loại 1 Công thức If + subject + simple present ( present continuous/ perfect can also used Mệnh đề if Subject + will + Verb ( other modal verbs like can, may, should,.... can be used) Mệnh đề chính Cách dùng: Dùng để diễn tả những sự việc có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai. Ví dụ : If it is nice tomorrow, I’ll come to see you. Câu điều kiện loại 2 Công thức If + subject + simple past Mệnh đề if Subject + would + Verb ( other modal verbs like could, might can be used) Mệnh đề chính Cách dùng: Dùng để diễn tả những sự việc không có thực ở hiện tại, ước muốn ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai ( nhưng thực tế không thể xảy ra) Ví dụ: If I were you, I would drive more carefully in the rain Câu điều kiện loại 3 Công thức If + subject + simple past perfect tense Subject + would have PII ( other modal verbs like could, might can be used) Mệnh đề If Mệnh đề chính Cách dùng: Dùng để diễn tả những sự việc không thể xảy ra trong quá khứ, mang tính ước muốn trong quá khứ ( nhưng thực tế không thể xảy ra) Ví dụ: If you had saved your money, you could have bought a computer Câu điều kiện loại zero: Công thức If + subject + present simple tense Mệnh đề If S present simple tense Mệnh đề chính Cách dùng: thường được sử dụng để chỉ sực thật hiển nhiên Ví dụ: If you heat water to 100 degrees, it boils Chú ý: Unless = If............ not B/ Bài tập vận dụng 1/Put the verb into the correct form. 1. If the earth suddenly ______ (stop) spinning we all ______ (fly) off it. 2. If you ______ (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment the other passengers ______ (object). 3. If she ______ (not/ fail) one of her final exams she wouldn't have had to spend part of the summer in college. 4. I’ll lend you War and Peace if I ____ (finish) it before you go on holiday. 5. If we ______ (work) all night we ______ (finish) in time; but we have no intention of working all night. 2/ Choose the one word or phrase -a, b, c, or d- that best completes the sentences. 1. If the technology _______ available, we would be able to expand the business. A. would become B. had become C. were become D. became 2. If the North Sea _______ in winter, you could walk from London to Oslo. A. freeze B. froze C. should freeze D. should happen to freeze 3. It would have been a much more serious accident _____ fast at the time. A. was she driving B. If she had been C. she had driven D. if she drove driving 4. I'll give you a lift if it _______. A. rains B. rained C. will rain D. had rained 5.They couldn't decide _______ it was worth re-sitting the exam or not . A. if B. whether C. if or not D. whether not 6. _______ how difficult the job was, I mightn't have taken it. A. If I know B. If I would know C. Did I know D. If I had known 7.If____ in my seventies and rather unfit, I might consider taking up squash. A. not were B. is not C. were not D. had not been 8. If I________ apologise, he ___________ forgive me. A. don’t/ won’t B. won’t/ doesn’t C. didn’t/ wouldn’t D. wouldn’t/ didn’t 9. John said that if he __________ in my position, he ____________ for the job A. is/ will apply B. were/ would apply C. had been/ would have apply D. is/ would apply 10 Unless you ___________ all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you A. answered B. answer C. would answer D. are answering 3/ Find a mistake in the four underlined parts of each sentence and correct it. 1. If anyone phoned while I am out, tell them I’ll be back in a few minutes. A B C D 2. If he had not been resigned, we would have been forced to sack him. A B C D 3. If Rudy would have studied German in college, he would not have found the scientific A B C terminology so difficult to understand D 4. Jane would have joined a music band if her parents allowed her to A B C D 5. We will tell Joe to call you while we see him tomorrow A B C D VII. RELATIVE CLAUSES A. Lý thuyết 1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định Trong Tiếng Anh, dùng đại từ quan hệ để nối các câu đơn thành câu phức tạo ra mệnh đề phụ tính ngữ. Mệnh đề này được gọi là mệnh đề quan hệ. Có mệnh đề quan hệ xác định, mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định và mệnh đề nối tiếp. Restrictive/ Defining relative clauses Dạng và cấu Không có dấu phẩy chia tách trúc danh từ/ đại từ với mệnh đề Chức năng Miêu tả/ xác định cho danh từ/ năng đại từ phía trước Đặc điểm khác Đại từ quan hệ tân ngữ có thể được lược bỏ Các từ chỉ Who, which quan hệ Who(m), which Who, that, Whose, of which which When, w here Who(m), that, which Whose, of which When, where, why Non-restrictive/ Non-defining relative clauses Có dấu phẩy chia tách danh từ/ đại từ với mệnh đề Bổ sung thêm thông tin cho danh từ/đại từ phía trước Đại từ quan hệ tân ngữ không thể được lược bỏ 2. Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ * Cuối M ĐQH: dùng được với tất cả ĐTQH ( that, whom, who, which) đồng thời cũng có thể bỏ ĐTQH. E.g: The room( which/that) the meeting was held in is very small. * Đầu M ĐQH: Có thể chuyển giới từ lên trước ĐTQH, nhưng chỉ dùng được which (for things), whom not who (for persons) và không được lược bỏ ĐTQH The room in which the meeting was held was very small + Đối với MDQH ko xđ ta ko dùng that, và không thể bỏ ĐTQH làm tân ngữ. John, with whom Ann goes out, is a nice person John, whom Ann goes out with, is a nice person. 3. Đại từ quan hệ được thay thế bởi đông tính từ (hiện tại, quá khứ) và to V. a. Động tính từ hiện tại Noun + Who/ Which + V2 (active) Noun + V-ing –phrase Eg 1: The boy who is playing with the dog is Nam’s brother. => The boy playing with the dog is Nam’s brother. b. Động tính từ quá khứ Noun + Who/ Which – be +P2 (passive) Noun + P2 –phrase Eg1: The girl who was injured in the accident is now in hospital. => The girl injured in the accident is now in hospital. c. To V The first/second/…(N) + Who/ Which + V2... The first/second/…(N) + to V/ to be Vp2 … Eg1: Who was the first man that stepped on the Moon? => Who was the first man to step on the Moon? Notes: + We can use an infinitive to replace a relative clause. + We often use an infinitive after an ordinal number. + After next, last, only, after. + After a superlative adjective. B. Bài tập vận dụng Exercise 1: Rewrite the following sentences using relative pronouns. 1. We talk about the party. Sarah wants to organise the party for my birthday. We talk about the party which/ that/ Ø Sarah wants to organise for my birthday. 2. To get to Frank's house, take the main road. It bypasses the village. To get to Frank's house, take the main road which/ that bypasses the village. 3. Mr. Flowers has the paintings in his house. They are worth around £100,000. The paintings which/ that/ Ø Mr Flowers has in his house are worth around £100,000. 4. Mrs. Richmond is 42. He has three children. Mrs Richmond, who is 42, has three children. 5. Don is a friend. I stayed with him in Australia. Don is a friend who(m)/ that/ Ø I stayed with in Australia Exercise 2: Choose the best answer. 1. Post office is a place ______ you can buy stamps, mail letters and packages, and receive mail. A. that B. which C. where D. in which 2. Do you know the date ______ we have to hand in the essay? A. which B. in which C. on that D. when 3. My uncle ______ you met yesterday is a lawyer. A. which B. who C. whose D. to whom 4. The council is in discussion with Lord Thomas, ____ land most of the village is built on. A. who B. whom C. whose D. that 5. These adults, ______ come to my night class, are very eager to learn. A. whose B. who C. that D. when Exercise 3: Choose word or phrase - A, B, C or D – that needs correcting. 1. Now that I no longer have to wear uniform, I'll be able to wear which I want A B C D 2. Ripe fruit is often stored in a place who contains much carbon dioxide A B C so that the fruit will not decay too rapidly.
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