Tài liệu Skkn tiếng anh 12 application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method.

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Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu APPLICATION OF TEACHING COMPARISON STRUCTURES INTO COMMUNICATIVE METHOD I. THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY As a teacher of English, through many years of teaching at Dieu Cai High School, I see that many students have many difficulties in speaking English, including students in grade 12. In general, even most of the first-class students they are just good at grammar. This puts questions and solutions to me. By finding and studying in documents, combining personal experience and teaching experience from my accompanies, I decided to choose the study named: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method. First, I chose it for the purpose, that is, it has a high level of practical application. A learner not only learns English for his exam - or for any demands his company forces him, besides he learns it for communication, to communicate with foreigners. Communication plays an important part in society of human beings. Every day people have to use their language to communicate, to get and exchange information, thoughts, feelings…For short, there would not be any society of human beings if communication activity did not happen. Second, another reason is because of the objective demands of education development at present. It is now that teaching and learning activities are appreciated mainly by how much knowledge students get from the lectures, students play the most important part in learning. It is also easy to apply this method and it makes my lecture more active and successful. Finally, the main reason is that this method is quite interesting and I consider it as a new method because it has never been applied in my school. The students in my classes were almost interested in it and so was I. The atmosphere of the class was more rousing, the class had more volunteers, laughter and Vietnamese was spoken fewer. Actually and fortunately I couldn’t use this method frequently because time for each period is limited. The thing that teacher forced to teach closely according to the content of the textbook is also a limit to me sometimes. Above those are the reasons as well as the impulses made me write this study. II. PRACTICAL AND THEORETIC BASIS 1. THEORETIC BASIS Some of my lesson plans were applied from some methods of the writer Suzanne W.Woodward. I redesigned some to be suitable for contents and exercises in English textbooks of grade 10. They mainly include the application of communicative method. Therefore, it is necessary to know what the communicative method is. The communicative method emphasizes on the communicative ability of semantics of the message instead of focusing only on the grammatical and phonetic perfection. That is appreciated in ability and 1 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu capacity for what learner has learned from the lessons as well as the knowledge on foreign language. We all know that the new thing is often derived from the old one. Teaching English with the method above is similar. This method is developed owing to the traditional method. Even though teaching methods are defined in many ways, in my opinion, there are three main methods: 1.1. Traditional teaching method: For this method students listen and write all things which a teacher conveys, try to remember or learn things by heart and then they have to retell the old lessons by “checking old lessons” of the teacher. This means that teacher plays a main part during learning and teaching activity. It gives students knowledge about grammar but it is difficult for them to speak English then. 1.2. Purely communicative method: This is the method aiming to limit students to speak their native language. Through pictures, gestures…, students may understand the content of the lesson they are learning and know ways to carry out activities to penetrate it. This method is used almost by automatic reflect, more suitable for children, so the logic of the content is needed, if not the learning will be interrupted. 1.3. Combination of the methods (Combination between purely communicative method and traditional method). This is also the method creating the name of this study. This method is for students in low-level class, as it is not able to apply the purely communicative method or the traditional method. It is formed by the combination of the two methods to consolidate and develop students’ continuing learning ability. Therefore, I see it is the most appropriate method to apply for all kinds of student, especially for the students in low- level class. Students not only acquire knowledge in traditional ways but also develop speaking ability fluently and creatively, from the introduction of the teacher and teaching aids. Sometimes, lively and practical theories should be taught before practicing. I used this method (combination of the methods) to teach my students and I see it quite better than the application of traditional methods. However; in some cases, if the purely communicative method may not be quite applied, I think the combination of the methods is the most suitable. 2. PRACTICAL BASIS Since old days in many branches, people have used English for communication. There were many people unsuccessful in learning English beside those who were successful. They spent a lot of time and money learning English but they failed. What were the reasons? There were many different causes. In my opinion, I think these were mainly because of our ways of teaching and learning. Some of our teaching and learning methods were still too old and traditional. 2 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu So far, teaching for speaking English at general schools has not been applied regularly. Traditional ways have still used too much, which some have been out of date. Only has Grammar almost taught for getting high marks in examinations. Students did not have many chances to talk English to others. These were the reasons why students could not develop their speaking. Also, it was easy for students to forget what they had just learned. Nowadays, the demands for learning English are higher and higher. In my school many students haven’t spoken English fluently yet. They have a lot of difficulties in speaking English while, in near future, students have to get a standard of English skills after graduating from high school, including mainly communicative skills. It is a difficult problem for us and not easy to fulfill in a short time. In diplomatic relations, using foreign language to communicate also plays a very important part. That is the communication among people, groups of people, nations... Every day there are thousands of transactions, business, branches, organizations and companies in the world using English for communication. Communication is considered as a bridge to connect people, nations, friendship, development, co-operation, peace…. Using of English for communication may be understood in many different ways. Learning English is not only for examination but also for many other purposes such as: teaching, studying, translation, jobs… of all the purposes, almost learners first they learn English for speaking fluently. Those who can speak fluently a foreign language, this means that they have learned English in right ways. 3. PRACTICAL STATES 3.1. Advantages: The school managing Board always takes care of the development of English subject and supplies facilities, teaching aids to improve its quality. English teaching staffs are always interested in teaching career, if someone has any difficulty in teaching they are ready to show their help. The teaching Staffs and the Union of the School are ready to support plans of English Group and cooperate with Group to educate and remind students to learn English. Along with launching the movement of the English Olympic examination on the internet, every year the school often organizes the competition named “The sound of the golden Gong”, including oral tests about English, which creates a very good field for students to learn English. 3.2. Disadvantages: As a school located in a rural and mountainous area, it is poor and still lacks of many things. It is not enough classrooms, labs, facilities… for students, parents are poor so they may not take care of their children well as they want. Also, many students are not much aware of learning English, even some have many passive thoughts of English because of the objective causes. This certainly influences on their enthusiasm for English. Many are not interested in learning it and many are 3 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu afraid of speaking in front of the crowd. They do not also have many chances to communicate with native speakers who are English. III. ORGNIZATION AND PRESENTATION OF THE SOLUTIONS 1. PURPOSES: Some solutions of the study should be flexibly applied in accordance with the design of the textbook. Knowing the ability of my students, I designed the lesson properly, according to the demand of the lesson. This study aims for the developing of some communicative skills for students in general schools, especially for students in grade 10, who are not good at this skill very much. Ways and stages to teach are the same, but for students who are not good at English, I do not put in my teaching with difficult words or sentences. When I want to review any kind of theory, which the purely communicative method may not be used, I will use the combination of the methods to teach so that students can understand better my teaching before practicing. This keeps them unembarrassed, and my teaching is therefore more fluent. 2. SOLUTIONS: As mentioned above, teacher should choose one of the methods for each time to teach according to the purpose, the content, or the demand of the lesson, to find out ways to design properly suitable for students’ ability and knowledge. Below I am going to present a teaching lesson designed from the textbook, LANGUAGE FOCUS part (Grammar and vocabulary), page 176, English 10. This lesson may be divided into two following stages: Stage 1. - Provides some examples so that students elicit comparative structures from them (Review old lesson, because students already learnt them before). At this stage, the traditional method is mainly used first. COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES 1. Comparatives: Ex 1: I am taller than Mai. Ex 2: She is more beautiful than her sister. 2. Superlatives: Ex 3: I am the oldest in my family. Ex 4: He is the most intelligent boy in the class. - Give the hints so that students elicit the structures of the comparative from the examples, underlines the letters which show the form of the comparative, subjects S1, S2… Similar to the structures elicited from the examples, teacher asks students to provide more examples. 4 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu * Structures: Comparatives: S1 + to be + short adjective_er + than + S2 (Ex 1) S1 + to be + more + long adjective + than + S2 (Ex 2) Superlatives: S 1 + to be + the + short adjective_est (Ex 3) S + to be + the + most + long adjective (Ex 4) - Use a small table designed properly, listing 4 special cases (a, b, c, d) by giving some words to demonstrate. TABLE Adjective (Root) Comparative Superlative a) big bigger the biggest wet wetter the wettest hot hotter the hottest funny funnier the funniest easy easier the easiest happy happier the happiest noble nobler the noblest new newer the newest clever cleverer the cleverest narrow narrower the narrowest good better the best bad worse the worse far farther/further the farthest/ the furthest many (much) more the most little less the least b) c) d) 5 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - Ask students to elicit the rule for each case. * Rules: a) Double last letter before adding _er or _ est. b) Two-syllable adjectives ending “_y”, changing “y” into “i” before adding “er”. c) Two-syllable adjectives ending “_le”, “_ow”, “_er”, adding the letter “er” for its comparative form and adding the letter “_est” to its superlative form. d) The irregular case. Stage 2. Communicative activities are merged into exercises (Exercise 1, English 10). This stage is carried out below: Exercise 1: Write the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives. Adjective 1. cheap 2. expensive Comparative Superlative cheaper the cheapest more expensive the most expensive 3. young _______________________ ________________________ 4. happy _______________________ _______________________ 5. big _______________________ _______________________ 6. busy _______________________ _______________________ 7. intelligent _______________________ _______________________ 8. beautiful _______________________ _______________________ 9. bad _______________________ _______________________ 10.far _______________________ _______________________ 11.new _______________________ _______________________ 12. dangerous _______________________ _______________________ 6 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - Create 2 tables from the original one: Table 1: Adjective 1. cheap 2. expensive Comparative Superlative cheaper the cheapest more expensive the most expensive 3. young _______________________ ________________________ 4. happy _______________________ ________________________ 5. big _______________________ ________________________ 6. busy _______________________ _______________________ 7. intelligent _______________________ _______________________ 8. beautiful _______________________ _______________________ 9. bad _______________________ _______________________ 10.far _______________________ _______________________ 11.new _______________________ _______________________ 12.dangerous _______________________ _______________________ Table 2: The position of the adjectives in the table 1 should be different from that of the ones in the table 2, to avoid students’ copying. Adjective Comparative Superlative cheaper the cheapest more expensive the most expensive _______________________ 4. happy _______________________ _ 5. far _______________________ _______________________ 6. expensive _______________________ _______________________ 7. dangerous _______________________ _______________________ 8. cheap ______________________ _______________________ 1. young 2. new 3. intelligent 7 _______________________ Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu 9. busy _______________________ _______________________ 10.big _______________________ _______________________ 11.beautiful _______________________ _______________________ 12.bad _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ - Stick the tables on the blackboard as long as all students can see them clearly. - Create any puzzle to students or teacher may give them marks by asking some representatives who have good writing to present before the class. - Any group who finishes first or having more right answers than others are winners, and good marks will be given to them, one right answer for one mark. - Exercise 2: Put the words in the correct order to make sentences or questions. (English 10, page 176, 177) 1. family/the/am/my/in/I/oldest I am the oldest in my family. 2. sister/me/my/than/younger/is __________________________________________________________ 3. class/who/oldest/the/the/in/is? __________________________________________________________ 4. passenger/plane/used to be/ Concord/world/fastest/the/in/the __________________________________________________________ 5. book/interesting/than/my/your/more/is/book __________________________________________________________ 6. bought/expensive/shop/the/in/watch/most/Peter/the __________________________________________________________ 7. cheapest/buy/you/shop/in/the/the/did/watch? __________________________________________________________ 8. difficult/German/English/is/than/more/much __________________________________________________________ 9. weather/better/today/than/much/is/yesterday/the __________________________________________________________ - Ask students to do the exercise and to present their answers. It is more easy for them in the next activity when they have some minutes to learn by hearts all sentences. Teacher may design some other questions and answers. 8 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - Deliver to each one card. Each card contains one question suggested answering in the exercise in the textbook. The cards are cut from the following handout: HANDOUT _______ please! Who is the oldest in your _______ please! Who is younger, your family? sister or you? _______ please! What kind of plane is the _______ please! Which book is more fastest in the world? interesting, your book or mine? _______ please! Who bought the most _______ please! Which is more difficult, expensive watch in the shop? English or German? _______, Minh is the oldest in the class. _______ please! I bought the cheapest Now, question? watch in the shop. Now, question? _______ please! Which the weather is much better, today or yesterday? - The number of cards should be equal to the number of students in the class. So teacher may copy many handouts as possible. A student has to ask question to another student whose name is already written in the blank in his or her card. - After each pair finishes their question and answer, teacher may act as a third person to ask more questions like this example below: Minh: Nga please! Which book is more interesting, your book or my book? Nga: My book is more interesting than your book (yours). Teacher: Nam, whose book is more interesting, Nga’s book or Minh’s book? Nam: Nga’s book is more interesting than Minh’s book. Here I am going to list some methods having both grammar and communication. Depending on purposes, aims, the design of the lesson or students’ knowledge, teacher should decide to review the lesson or reteach it. Sometimes 9 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu teacher does not need to teach grammar but students can understand the lesson clearly. 3. GENERAL SOLUTIONS: 3.1) TEACHING COMPARATIVES * COMPARATIVE CARDS Materials: Small pictures Dynamic: Pairs Procedure: - Reminds the rules for the comparative, if necessary (Presented). - Arrange students in pairs, and give each pair two or more pictures to compare. (We may want to stick to one topic, such as famous people, or have several types of pictures.) - Each pair writes comparisons of the two pictures. For example, when we want to teach 4 adjectives small, big, cheap and expensive, first students will have pictures and then the stages are carried out as follows: Bicycle/ cheap Car/ expensive Cow/ small Elephant/ big … - Provide the structure and then give an example for it: S1 + to be + short adjective_er + than + S2 Ex: Nam is tall. Nga is short. → Nam is taller than Nga 10 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - The representative will show the picture to the class and then say his/her sentence: Student: A cow is smaller than an elephant/ An elephant is bigger than a cow. - Similarly, in order to compare between a car and a bicycle, teacher gives examples and provides more comparative structures for long adjective. S1 + to be + more + long adjective + than + S2 Ex: A restaurant is luxury. A stall is poor. → A restaurant is more luxury than a stall - The representative will show the class the car and the bicycle in the picture and say like this: Student: A bicycle is cheaper than a car/ A car is more luxury than a bicycle. … - Teacher asks the class to give their comments (agree or disagree) and gives feedback after that. * Note: If we choose famous people, we can write the names of the people under the picture for the students, or have them say simply “the man or the car in picture A, B…,” etc. * MATCH Materials: Worksheet Dynamic: pairs Procedure: - Teacher reminds the rules of the comparative, if necessary. - Check and explain new words as well as pronunciation. - Put students into pairs, and give each pair a copy of the worksheet. Go over the words on the list and explain any with which the students are unfamiliar. - Call out an adjective or phrase from the list below. The students choose two of the words or expression on the worksheet and write a comparison sentence. Continue until all the words on the paper have been matched. Adjectives to use with the worksheet: clean expensive noisy slow cold good pet quick spicy dangerous hard short tall easy to use large 11 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu Example: Teacher: “noisy” Students write or say: “A city is noisier than a country” - Go over the sentences by having the pairs write them on the blackboard or read them aloud. The other students decide if the sentences are logical and grammatical. WORKSHEET. MATCH Your teacher will give you an adjective. Choose two words in this list and write a sentence using the two words and the adjective. airplane cat dog ladder rock ant chalk fog lake snow bee charge cards giraffe Mexican food stilts bus checks Italian food mud puddle wolf 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 3.2) TEACHING SUPERLATIVES * CLASSMATE QUESTIONNAIRE Materials: Worksheet Dynamic: Pairs Procedure: - Put the students in pairs. Give each pair a copy of the handout. 12 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - Have the students answer the question in complete sentences. Some students will be able to answer without talking to their classmates, but others will require asking their classmates’ questions. Variation: To take less time, have students answer the questions in pairs without talking to their classmates. They can begin the sentences with “we think…” or “We guess…” Then have the pairs read their answers. (Have all pairs give their answers for question 1 before going to the next question.) Determine who has written the correct answer. We may want to do this as a competition and assign points for every correct answer. WORKSHEET Answer the questions about your classmates in complete sentences. 1. Who is wearing the most jewelry today? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Who has the curliest hair? _____________________________________________________________ 3. Who has the longest name? _____________________________________________________________ 4. Who has the largest shoe? _____________________________________________________________ 5. Who has the nicest car? _____________________________________________________________ 6. Who has the most brothers and sisters? _____________________________________________________________ 7. Who brings the most books to class? _____________________________________________________________ 8. Who is the best singer in the class? _____________________________________________________________ 9. Who has studied English the longest? _____________________________________________________________ 10. Who traveled the farthest to come to this country? _____________________________________________________________ * THE COMPLIMENT GAME Materials: Small cards with an adjective written on one side, paper 13 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu Dynamic: Whole class Procedure: - Review the rules for superlatives, if necessary. Give each student a card and a piece of paper. Tell the students to write, on the reverse of their cards, the superlative form of the adjective on the front. Suggested adjectives (for a lower-level class, we will of course choose easier adjectives): attractive delightful modern terrific beautiful funny nice unique bright happy pleasant wonderful comfortable interesting pretty cute large small - The students are to imagine that they are rich aristocrats at a party. They are to act very formally and give compliments to everyone they meet. They are to go up to other “guests” and show them the word on their card. Each “guest” approached (Student B) then compliments the “guest” who approached him or her (Student A), using the correct superlative form of the word he or she is shown. Example: Student A’s card: beautiful Student B’s compliment: You are wearing the most beautiful dress in the room. If student B’s compliment uses the correct form of the superlative, student A signs Student B’s paper. If student B’s compliment does not use the superlative correctly, student A does not sign Student B’s paper. At the end of the allowed time, the student with the most signatures (that is, the student who used the superlative correctly the most) wills. * WORD SEARCH Materials: Worksheet Dynamic: Pairs/ Small groups Procedure: - Put students into pairs or groups of three. Give each group one copy of the worksheet. - Students work together to find all the comparative and superlative forms. The forms may be up, down, forward, backward, or diagonal. We may prefer not to include the word list on the worksheet. 14 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - We may set a time limit, or tell the students that the first group to find all the forms wins. SUGGESTION: A good way to go over where the hidden forms are is to use an overhead after the game. WORKSHEET A (lower level) Find the comparative and superlative forms of the words on the list. The forms may be listed up, down, forward, backward, or diagonally. F E E M W B F R F R A S S R O T U E E L R R L B R S R H W M T O E E R E T T E B H W A S S R H R R E E A S T A S E U O S S S T F B E S F M T T E W O R S T R A F Word list: AS BEST BETTER FARTHER FARTHEST FURTHER FURTHEST LEAST LESS MORE 15 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu MOST WORSE WORST 16 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu WORKSHEET B (lower level) Find the comparative and superlative forms of the words on the list. The forms may be listed up, down, forward, backward, or diagonally. W D A L I M I S E L O I E L O O F A L L F F B R A L I M I S U F E W O R S E O R R E T T A R K W R E T R T F H I O E W H H E K I L A T M O T E N R E S T N O R R S T S A E L E S S A T S E B R E S T T F Word list: ALIKE FURTHEST OF ALL AS LEAST SAME BEST LESS SIMILAR BETTER LIKE THAN DIFFERENT MORE WORSE FARTHER MOST WORST * WHO’S THE WORST (BEST)? Materials: Worksheet Dynamic: Small groups Procedure: - Review the rules for the superlative, if necessary. - Divide the class into groups of three or four and give each student a copy of the worksheet (or make one of our own). 23 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - After they read the story, the students in each group rate the characters in the story from 1 to 4 as to who has the worst character (#4 is the worst). There may be disagreement in the group, so the students should express their reasons for their choices (“Maria is the worst because…”). - After the group reaches an agreement, a member of each group comes to the board and list the four characters in descending order, #4 - worst to #1- best. - Have the class compare the answers and discuss the differences. Each group should be prepared to state why they listed the characters in the order in which they did. WORKSHEET. WHO’S THE WORST (BEST)? Rate the characters from 1 to 4, with 4 being the worst person in the story Maria, Sachie, Toshie, and Ana shared an apartment near the college that they attended. Maria needed to buy a book for her history class, but she didn’t have enough money. She had a test in three days, and she needed the book to study. Maria knew that Sachie always kept quite a bit of money in an envelope in her desk drawer. Maria decided to take enough money from Sachie’s desk to buy the book. Maria told herself that she would return the money before Sachie noticed it was missing. The next day, Sachie discovered that some money was missing from her desk. None of her roommates was home, she looked around the department, on Toshie’s bed she found a bag from a clothing store. Inside the bag was a new blouse with a sales receipt. The price of the blouse was only slightly less than the amount of the missing money. Sachie assumed that Toshie had taken her money to buy the new blouse. Sachie decided to teach Toshie a lesson, and she poured catsup all over Toshie’s new blouse. When Toshie returned home, she found her ruined blouse. When she asked Sachie what had happened, Sachie asked her about the missing money, Toshie told Sachie that she had not taken her money, but Sachie didn’t believe her. Ana returned home, and Toshie told her that Sachie had ruined all her clothes buy putting catsup on them. Ana decided that Sachie was a troublemaker and that she didn’t want her living in the apartment anymore. Ana decided to call the apartment manager and tell him Sachie was keeping stolen goods at the apartment for her boyfriend so that she would have to move out. 24 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu 3.3) COMBINATION OF FORMS OF COMPARISON * COMPARE THEM (THINGS) - COMPARATIVE Materials: worksheet Dynamic: Pairs/ Small groups Procedure: - Put students into pairs. Assign each pair a different topic of comparison. Example: Pair 1: Two fast-food restaurants Pair 2: Two famous people Pair 3: Two cars Pair 4: Two animals Pair 5 : Two grocery stores Pair 6: Two brands of soda … - On the board, make a list of adjectives. Students choose from the list to write 10 comparisons of their two items, using either comparative or superlative forms. We may want to choose from the following list of adjectives: bad funny new quiet tasty beautiful good nice rich ugly bright handsome noisy serious wise busy messy old short wonderful empty neat pretty tall young SUGGESTION: In a higher - level class, the pairs can write a paragraph in stead of individual sentences. * COMPARISON IN EQUAL DEGREE Materials: None Dynamic: Pairs Procedure: 25 Experience initiative: Application of teaching comparison structures into communicative method-Quách Đại Châu - Provide the structure of equal comparison, if necessary. Give example for the structure. S1 + to be + (not) + as + adjective + as + S2 Ex 1: Your book is not as beautiful as my book Ex 2: Your bike is as new as my bike (mine). - Use the following riddle as a model, or make up one of our own, using comparisons: It is bigger than a baseball. It is as round as the moon. It is as orange as a carrot. It is as hard as a melon. It is not as sweet as fruit. →Answer: a pumpkin - The students work in pairs and use the structure above to make their own riddles. Circulate and answer questions. Make sure the student’s riddles are not too ambiguous; that is, the answer should be clear by the time students get to the end of the riddle. When they finish, do one of the following: - Tape the riddles to the wall. The students circulate and write answers before discussing them as a class. + The students exchange papers and discuss the answers with their partners. + The students read their riddles loud for the rest of the class to guess. IV. EFFECTS OF THE STUDY By applying the methods of this study, I see most students were really excited about speaking English though some did not know many vocabularies. In each teaching period, they did not talk much Vietnamese. They were more excited about giving their opinions, active and creative ideas. These also made me interested in teaching. By taking ideas from students, I had the results of this method from the sheets as follows: 26
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