Tài liệu Skkn tiếng anh 10 using games in teaching grammar for students in grade 10

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USING GAMES IN TEACHING GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS IN GRADE 10 PART I. INTRODUCTION 1. Reason for choosing the topic Teaching is said not to be a work but a mission. Everyone whose job is teaching knows that teaching is definitely a hard job and to be satisfied and successful needs actually much more effort, practice and experience than hardly one could believe. Nowadays everything changes rapidly, students are not as they used to be, teachers use modern methods and approaches and they can use various equipments to make the education process modern, pleasant and as exciting as possible. Teachers try to motivate and involve students into the learning process in the most interesting way. And we know that if students are interested in the subject, they feel comfortable and learn better in an easy way. However, teaching English in general and grammar in particular at many high schools is still a theoretical process. Traditionally, many teachers approach grammar teaching very seriously, making the lesson dull and uninteresting. Teacher just stands in front of the board, leads a long speech about some grammar rules, makes a long script on the board and finally, students are expected to do all the exercises in the book passively. This is “a process of pouring knowledge into students’ mind” like the way people put water into a bottle with a funnel. It also means that acquiring knowledge is just for knowing and applying, and it is called “cognitive learning”. Especially for teaching grammar, as we know, in the teaching method of Grammar Translation Method, students are not required to learn anything else rather than the formulas in textbooks and then apply them mechanically for doing exercises only. Or in AudioLingual Method, learners are asked to repeat what they have learnt until they are familiar with them. But we learn that those teaching methods are ineffective 1 because they cannot create an interesting atmosphere for students so most of them get bored in grammar lessons in spite of the fact that they know these grammar points are necessary for them. Considering all the above situations, in this writing, I mention the application of using games in teaching grammar at Tri An high school. And this is my reason for choosing "Using games in teaching grammar for students of grade 10 for my research". I hope that the result of using games in teaching grammar will bring back many practical benefits to both the teachers and the students. 2. Aims of the study The major aims of the study are: - To affirm the role of grammar in teaching and learning English. - To emphasize the importance of motivation in teaching and learning grammar. - To point out the application of games in teaching grammar brings many benefits to students in learning grammar. - To contribute a small part to the improvement of teaching and learning at Tri An high school. 3. Scope of the study The benefits of using games in teaching grammar in textbook of English of grade 10 create the effectiveness of students’ motivation in learning grammar and the subjects under the study are the 10th form students at Tri A high school (class 10A2). 2 4. Research questions The study will help to find the answers to the following questions: 1. What are the role of grammar and the importance of motivation in learning grammar? 2. What benefits can grammar games bring to teachers and students? 3. What types of games should be used to teach grammar? 3 PART II. RATIONALE OF THE RESEARCH 1. The role of grammar in teaching and learning English According to Harmer’s viewpoint (1987:12) “Without some understanding of grammar, students would not be able to do anything more than utter separate items of language for separate functions. The expression of functional language is only possible through the use of the Grammar of the language”. Therefore, it is undeniable that grammar plays an important role in learning English. And in order to communicate effectively in English, students needs to have a good foundation of grammar. In fact, grammar is the basis for mastering four language skills. When we have concrete foundation of grammar, we feel easy to advance. 2. The importance of motivation in teaching and learning grammar Motivation is the desire to study. Strong motivation produces good result in study, just as in everything in life. As Harmer (1998: 25) says: Most students can remember lessons at school which were uninvolving and where they were ‘switched off’ from what was being taught to them. Frequently, this was because they were bored, because they were not emotionally engaged with what was going on. Such lessons can be contrasted with lessons where they were amused, moved, stimulated or challenged. It seems quite clear that those lessons involved not only more ‘fun’, but also better learning. Motivation is a vital element and strongly related to success in language learning. If a learner is motivated, she will probably decide to undertake a particular task with certain amount of energy and time needed for it. When students are engaged and motivated, they learn better than they are partly or wholly disengaged. Especially, in a grammar lesson, as it is often considered as a boring subject, teacher needs to arouse students’ interest, thus involving their emotions. 4 3. The application of games in teaching grammar Games are said to be the most natural way to learn something. Playing is an effective method for students of all age. Through playing, students understand many principles of how things work and they can remember those structures longer since they connected with pleasure, fun and interesting. To do this, teachers have to make students get excited in the lessons and help them learn grammar English in a relaxing and joyful way. The class atmosphere is very important. It makes students more eager and more interested in the lessons. Broughton et al. (1980: 87) pointed out that teachers should save room for songs, puzzles and games beside the lessons. Therefore, games or grammar games are very useful and effective. It makes the learning process a good deal more interesting. And it is teacher’s duty to set up a system of various and attractive games to get students’ curiosity, interest and participation. 4. Why use games in teaching and learning grammar? Using games in teaching and learning grammar brings many benefits. Firstly, they are very motivating, even for those who are shy or are afraid of making mistakes. Secondly, games support using new grammar rules unconsciously. Thirdly, games teach students to communicate, cooperate so they learn not only grammar but other four skills- speaking, listening, writing and reading. Students may like to play games just for fun so teachers must be careful with which games to use, when to use and how to link the games with the grammar points in the English textbook grade 10. 5 5. Types of games used to teach grammar Competitive games: the aim of this type of games is to finish the game as soon as possible before others. Communication games: They are used to exchange information. Students get information and they must react on it. Cooperative games: these games are very important. They create the cooperation among students. Code-control games: students must not make mistakes when playing these games because they are controlled. If not, they will lose points. PART III. THE STUDY 1. Tri An high school and current situation of teaching and learning English at the school Tri An high school was established 15 years ago. In spite of being located in a rural area, it has many good students who gets high prize in the exam of Dong Nai province taken place every year. The school is well-equipped with modern 6 technology, which helps to create its success. However, most of the students are good at natural subjects and like to learn those subjects so the school is trying to look for new methods which engage students in both natural and social subjects, especially English. 2. The 10th form students in class 10A2 They are both male and female. Lots of them come from large and poor families so their learning condition is not high. Although they have learnt English for four years at lower secondary school, their knowledge of English in general and grammar in particular is still limited, just some students are good at English. 3. Analyzing results of class observation The researcher observes 4 different lessons and carry out 4 experimental lessons in class 10A2 ( 36 students), 2 lessons with grammar games and 2 lessons without games. * Using grammar games UNIT 5- PRESENT PERFECT PASSIVE Game: . Activity: Scramble game . Aim: to use the grammar point “present perfect passive” . Interaction: the whole class . When to use: When teaching Unit 5, part E- Language Focus . Time: 10 minutes 7 Procedures: + Teacher asks students to work in groups of 5. + Teacher prepares 15 sentences using passive voice, each sentence is cut up and put into a separate numbered envelope. + Teacher tells students that they are going to unscramble and write the sentence in their notebooks, and then return the envelope to the teacher. + The first group to unscramble all 15 sentences is the winner. Teacher’ sentences. 1 The house has been painted 2 I have been given a present 3 This e- mail has been sent by my boss 4 Some ink has been spilled on the carpet 5 She has been misunderstood today 6 The burglar has stolen the jewellery 7 John has been disappointed by his friend 8 Another Man- satellit has been sent up into space made e have been killed in the forest fire have been shown in since Hanoi June 9 Thousands of animal today s 10 More 50 films than 8 11 The computer 12 A has new hospital been repaired by the technician for children has been built in our city 13 This kind of computer has not been used for a long time 14 The problem has been discussed since last week 15 More more have been cut down for wood by farmer and trees s UNIT 10: THE PASSIVE VOICE . Activity: Passive description . Aim: to practice the first conditional . Interaction: the whole class . When to use: When teaching Unit 8, part E- Language Focus . Time: 15 minutes Procedures: - Teacher divides students into 2 groups. - Teacher writes the verbs they will need on the board: Is /Are made of / in Is / are found in 9 Is / Are grown / in Is / are used to / for - Teacher cut up the following pictures and put them face down on the table. Each group takes turns to pick up one card and describes the object to the other group using the present perfect passive. - If the student fails to describe the object, this group misses a turn - The group guessing the object wins a card. - The winner is the group with the most cards at the end of the game. 10 * Findings Students’ English speaking time Most of the students in class work during the grammar games. From the beginning until the end of the games, they try to complete the task given as soon as possible by answering and discussing with their peers. As a result, the time for them to speak English is much (60%-70%). Class atmosphere When the teacher gives signals to stop, some students still try to answer the questions so the class atmosphere is very lively and noisy. The cooperation and competition is about 70%- 75%. * Not using grammar games Like an ordinary day of teaching, teacher introduces the new grammar point and teacher writes its name, its formation and rules. Most of the time, students just listen and write down in their notebook. Then they do the exercises in the book. 11 Teacher calls on some students to do the exercise on the board and then teacher checks and gives feedback. * Findings Students’ English speaking time Compared with lessons with games, here students have less chance to speak English, only about 30%- 40% because they spent more time on doing and rewriting the correct answers. Class atmosphere Class atmosphere here is serious and silent unlike the lessons with grammar games. After the lesson, both the teacher and students feel tired and boring because there is no competition, no cooperation during the lesson so competition and cooperation is about 25%- 35% 12 PART IV. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING GAMES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR 1. Real situation of teaching and learning grammar at Tri An high school The researcher finds that most students at Tri An high school spend much time on doing the exercises in the book passively. Therefore, they can do exercises but not use the language in activities and real situation. Moreover, most of the teachers at this school find the benefits of using games in teaching grammar but only a few teachers use grammar games during their lessons. A large majority of students cannot make out immediately the grammar structure taught in class. This is due to the fact that they often wait for their teacher to write it on the board and then they note down and learn it by heart at home. Through teacher’s observation, it is very clear that most of the students like grammar games and would like their teacher to give them more games so that they can learn more quickly, remember longer and enjoy the lessons with so much fun. From observing, the researcher finds that the effectiveness of using games in teaching and learning grammar is beyond what one expects. 2. Benefits gained through using games in teaching and learning grammar The researcher finds that in grammar lessons that games were used, most of the students use English to discuss, to communicate so they can develop their 4 skills gradually. Besides, when using games in teaching grammar, the teacher can create the active, lively and meaningful environment with high motivation for students to practise and use the target language. So using games in teaching and learning grammar is a method that brings not only the effectiveness but also the attractiveness. 13 In summary, the motivation of students in the lessons with grammar games is higher that of the lessons without grammar games. Motivation Using grammar games Students’ English speaking time Class atmosphere Not using grammar games 60-70%. 30- 40% 70- 75% 25-35% Table: Comparison of students’ motivation through lessons PART V. GAMES DESIGNED TO TEACH GRAMMAR POINT IN TEXTBOOK OF ENGLISH GRADE 10 The grammar points in textbook of English grade 10 are in part E- Language Focus after each unit. When finishing the pronunciation part, the teacher goes straight to the grammar points. The examples of games below are chosen to teach grammar structures in the textbook of English grade 10 by the researcher. * UNIT 1: THE PRESENT SIMPLE, ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY AND SIMPLE PAST Game 1: THE PRESENT SIMPLE 14 . Activity: Verbs listing . Aim: to review the grammar point “simple present” . Interaction: the whole class . When to use: When teaching Unit 1, part E- Language Focus . Time: 10 minutes Procedures: - Teacher divides the class into 2 groups. - Teacher distributes handouts printed in large scale and asks them to underline the present verbs in the handouts. The first member of the group pass the handout to the second one and so on so that all the members in the group have a chance to underline the verb. - Teacher plays a piece of music when students play the game, after 5 minutes, teacher stops the music and students hand in their handouts. - The group that underlines many verbs in a limited time is the winner. - Teacher checks and leads into the review of the simple present. - Then teacher calls on 2 students to write the form and the usage of the simple present. The story: Mary’s hobbies and interests 15 Mary has a lot of hobbies and interests. She usually gets up early so she can run before work. She doesn't often have time to ski, but she occasionally goes on Saturdays during the winter. Mary often rides a horse at a stable near her home. She sometimes goes after work, but she usually goes horse riding on Sundays. She loves music. She always goes to choir practice on Wednesday evenings and sings in church on Sundays. She doesn't have much extra money, so she rarely goes to concerts in the city. She seldom watches TV because she likes doing things outside. She usually goes to the gym if it's raining outside. She isn't often alone because she has a lot of friends. She occasionally does something alone, but she usually does her activities with one of her friends. She's a happy woman! Game 2: ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY . Activity: Adding and Matching . Aim: to practice the use of adverbs of frequency . Interaction: the whole class . When to use: When teaching Unit 1, part E- Language Focus . Time: 10 minutes Procedures: 16 - Teacher asks students to work in groups of 4. - Teacher distributes handouts and asks students to add the adverb in the brackets into the sentence provided then match it with the correct picture. - The first group to finish the task is the winner. - Teacher checks and explains if necessary. * Handout I. Add the adverb in the brackets into the sentence given: 1. He goes swimming (often) ……………………………………………………… 2. The woman is on time (always) ……………………………………………………… 3. My father arrives to work late (never) ……………………………………………………… 4. The man goes to the gym in the morning (occasionally) ……………………………………………………… 5. My son eats ice cream (usually) ……………………………………………………… II. Match the sentence with the correct picture. 17 Game 3: SIMPLE PAST . Activity: Nougats and Crosses . Aim: to practice the simple past . Interaction: the whole class . When to use: When teaching Unit 1, part E- Language Focus . Time: 15 minutes 18 Procedures: - Teacher divides the students into team A and team B. Put a noughts and crosses grid (12 squares) on the board like this one. leave choose finish live watch have wear learn listen to be start go think meet see take - Teacher explains the rules of the game: + Someone from team A chooses the verb and makes a sentence using that verb which is in the simple past form. If it is correct, teacher puts a cross in that square. 19 + Team B plays in the same way. - The team that has the first row of 4 noughts or crosses in any direction is the winner. UNIT 2: WH-QUESTIONS, GERUND AND TO+ INFINITIVE Game 1: WH-QUESTIONS . Activity: Make a correct question . Aim: to practice the Who- questions . Interaction: the whole class . When to use: When teaching Unit 2, part E- Language Focus . Time: 15 minutes Procedures: - Teacher divides the class into 4 groups. Each group gets a set of Whoquestion words (where, when, who, what, why, how, how long, how often). - Teacher reads the sentence, one student from any group must stand up and raise the correct who- question word. The student who stands first has a chance to produce the whole question. If it is correct, that group gets 5 points. If it is wrong, another group can stand up and read out the question, this time it is worth 10 points. 20
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