Tài liệu Skkn how to write an opinion essay

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Sôû Giaùo Duïc – Ñaøo taïo tænh Baø Ròa – Vuõng Taøu Tröôøng THPT Nguyeãn Du -----oooOooo----- SAÙNG KIEÁN KINH NGHIEÄM Caáp tænh Năm hoïc 2015 – 2016 HOW TO WRITE AN OPINION ESSAY ÑINH HÖÕU PHUÙ CÖÔØNG Tổ tiếng Anh Tröôøng THPT Nguyeãn Du SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 1 SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM Họ và tên người viết: Tổ: Đơn vị: Tên sáng kiến kinh nghiệm: ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG Tiếng Anh trường THPT Nguyễn Du HOW TO WRITE AN OPINION ESSAY English 12 A. INTRODUCTION I. THE REASONS FOR RESEARCH 1. The logical choice. Writing is one of the necessary skills to communicate, especially, in a world of mess media in which we are not only good at understanding information but also effective in presenting our thoughts through writing skill. My research is just a little part amongst other numerous literary tasks. 2. The practical reasons. English of High school curriculum is intended as a purposefully spiral ramp, which means students meet the same learning material three times with increasing difficulty during high school time. If students master this, it does not matter. Otherwise, it would be a big problem for them to continue their studies afterwards especially at university or at future work. I have chosen this topic in hope to help students be more confident in writing essays at medium levels and then towards more difficult levels. II. GOALS AND METHODS OF THIS RESEARCH 1. Goals: My two main goals are to find out the difficulties in writing an essay and how to deal with those difficulties, particularly for the students to fully achieve good results in writing an academic essay which is useful in their school studies and may be in international tests later on. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 2 2. Methods: It is based on my teaching experience, which has never been a failure at finishing a lecture without any success from students. I have consulted a lot of documents from good English teaching books and from experienced colleagues. III. PROVINCE OF RESEARCH I have decided on this writing skill due to the Writing Part in the GCSE in 2015 and the writing lessons of English 12. This technique is supposed to be most material to every student who wants to master their writing in higher levels, which are likely to be served useful purposes. IV. RESEARCH SUPPOSITIONS My studies attempt to ascertain the difficulties that students often meet with: they do not know how to make a suitable introduction to each kind of essay or develop the topics to the essay body. As a result, students simply follow what to be taught without brainstorming. I intentionally supply students with a practical method in order to dispose of a characterized question of English writing. V. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS 1. Theoretical basis: English has become a world language. People speaking English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose administrative, professional or educational. Vietnamese students are taught English as one of the core subjects besides literature and maths. In order for Vietnamese students to be confident in using their English, teachers need not only to supply them with necessary language skills but also to motivate them in daily teaching activities. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 3 2. Practical basis: Finding themselves without being able to write a meaningful sentence or a persuasive paragraph, most Vietnamese students tend to lose heart and hide themselves learning science subjects as a way of showing off! We have mislaid a large number of English potential persons. We often blame for such poor contents of textbooks. In fact, we do not often pay special attention to teaching and are not enthusiastic enough to be a mine of information about all forms of teaching. VI. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN I began this research in school year 2013 – 2014 with 12A 1 and 12A8, 2014 – 2015 with 12A5 and 12A8, and I am doing this research with 12A1 and 12A10 in school year 2015 – 2016. Year after year, the deeper the research, the better the results, which enables me to analyze details and essential features in order to conduct a grammatically and stylishly standard writing, which must be very helpful for my students to do their writing test in the coming examinations. B. CONTENT I. REALITY AND CONFLICTS For years English has been considered as one of the core subjects in the education syllabus, some of students are beginning to define the role of English in their further studies. However, they find it hard to be satisfied with the materials from their English textbooks being used at school. We are, the English teachers, not in the same outlook on the way to help students reach their potential language skills because the Vietnamese textbook writers seem to be so over-ambitious that they present most of writing talk in a comparatively short 3-year high school education programme without giving teachers reliable teaching methods. There is an unspoken assumption in the present curriculum that is abundantly clear for everyone. Therefore, teachers are always under pressure of time in class and of the fulfillment of a class organizer. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 4 If I chase after the tasks in the textbook, I often finish my lecture on time with a vague feeling that maybe my students can understand and do the same task in their real life. Consequently, the way my students have done the same task disappoints me. Otherwise, I am short of time. In order to solve the time problem, I am forced to give this lecture in double periods, which means I have to shorten the next lessons and I am genuinely motivated by the results from the writing test. II. SOME SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS In order for students to improve their writing, I divide this writing task into two levels. The low level reserved for the students who can distinguish the essay part and put the essay part into order. For the students with higher level, they themselves can develop the ideas in each essay part based on the outline made out by both students and the teacher. However, the first stage is to help students to have careful overview of the opinion essay, which lessens the pressure to face with writing too many words, too many ideas and too many points of view. And then I give students the step-by-step instructions to make the directing introduction and situation introduction, to establish the main body and conclude the essay. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 5 THE OVERVIEW OF A FIVE-PARAGRAGH ESSAY analyze discuss describe - look at - outline - focus on - examine - consider - decide This essay will describe some of the problems In this essay, I will discuss some arguments for and against This essay will look at some of the arguments Parag raph 1 Essay Part INTRODUCT ORY PARAGRAPH 2 3 MAIN BODY 4 5 CONCLUSIO N Content CLEARLY: - present the topic - state your opinion - present what to be discussed - topic sentence 1 - develop the first reason or give facts, statistics or examples - transition - topic sentence 2 - develop the second reason or give facts, statistics or examples - transition - present the opposing viewpoint - explain the reason why you think it is an unconvincing viewpoint. - include clear transition words - restate the main points using different wording - possibly finish with a call to action In conclusion, - To conclude, Finally, - To sum up, As previously stated, - Finally, In a word, - In brief, In conclusion, - In the final analysis, On the whole, - To summarize, In summary, Taking these points into consideration, SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 6 HOW TO MAKE THE INTRODUCTION There are many ways to make a good introduction; however, I have chosen the two possible methods for my students because these can be the root from which students highly develop their writing skill. METHOD 1: DIRECTING INTRODUCTION Step 1: to have a clear conception of introductory paragraph. How to write Topic Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 State opinion Present the topic Present what to be discussed In order to enjoy the happiness of the family, both Men build the house and women the husband and the wife have to make it home join hands  which means men build the house and women make it home Men and women have different duties but lead to the same purpose. Step 2: to ask students to produce SENTENCE 2. How to write Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 State opinion Present the topic Present what to be discussed Topic ‚ A family is a base for the society The prosperity of family contributes to this of society. It is in the family that support children’s physical and mental development. The sentence expected is “ so people can say a family is a base for the society .” SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 7 Step 3: to ask students to produce SENTENCES 2 & 3. How to write Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 State opinion Present the topic Present what to be discussed Topic ƒ The size of a family is becoming smaller and smaller People have more interests outside home. In addition, financial problems urge people think twice about the number of children in a modern family. The sentences expected are “ that is the reason why the size of a family is becoming smaller and smaller. This essay will discuss the reasons for this and provide some advantages and disadvantages ” Step 4: to ask students to produce the whole paragraph. How to write Topic Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 State opinion Present the topic Present what to be discussed „ The better the education in a country is, the more powerful the country is The whole paragraph expected is “The development of a country depends on the advance of education, so the better the education in a country is, the more powerful the country is. In this essay, I will discuss the main reasons.” SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 8 METHOD 2: SITUATION INTRODUCTION Step 1: to have a clear conception of introductory paragraph. How to write Topic Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Present situation Other present situation The thesis … In recent times, there is more and more violence at school. What are the causes of this? How to do with these problems? In the past years but also in rural areas. there has been an increasing violence happening at schools not only in town This essay will discuss the reasons for this and how its disadvantages effect on society. Step 2: to ask students to produce SENTENCE 3. How to write Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Present situation Other present situation The thesis Most countries in Asia, old parents live with their children. However, the fact that families do not live with old parents is increasing. Topic † Old parents should live children The sentence expected is “This essay will examine some of the advantages and disadvantages.” SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 9 Step 3: to ask students to produce SENTENCES 2 & 3. How to write Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Present situation Other present situation The thesis Topic ‡ Should students get part time jobs? In foreign countries, it is very common when students get part time jobs because it is one of the programmers at school The sentences expected are “However, the situation is different in Vietnam. Most Vietnamese students do nothing but focusing on their studies. This essay will provide some advantages and disadvantages of getting part time jobs.” Step 4: to ask students to produce the whole paragraph. How to write Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Past situation Present situation The thesis Topic ƒ The size of a family is becoming smaller and smaller The whole paragraph expected is “People used to live in a big-sized family because they needed to help each other. However, the situation has changed a lot. People often have few children. This essay will discuss the reasons why the size of a family is becoming smaller.” SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 10 HOW TO ESTABLISH THE MAIN BODY Although this kind of essay is called a 5-paragraph one, there are not always five paragraphs in each essay. Paragraph 3 of the main body is written only when people need to explain more the reason why it is an unconvincing viewpoint. Step 1: to have a clear conception of main body. Introductory paragraph In order to enjoy the happiness of the family, both the husband and the wife have to join hands, which means men build the house and women make it home. Men and women have different duties but lead to the same purpose. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 (not always necessary) How to write Paragraph 2 Men build the house and women make it home Paragraph 1  Paragraph 3 Conclusion The topic sentence Explanation Transition commonly men are considered as the people who bring home with money It is the money that supports the life of a family and ensures the stability of a family However a family is a living entity which needs both money and love. a good family should be built on love, which comes from women The existence of the mother in a family is very important not only because of the good meals, the orderliness from her but also because of her love, sympathy and support the sharing with the jobs both domestic and social is necessary, which can strengthen the relationship among family member. In conclusion, I would like to stress that all these actions will make a family happier also help children grow up in a loving and responsible environment. And in the future they will be active doers for building the house or making it home. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 11 Step 2: to ask students to produce SECTION 3 of paragraphs 1&2 Introductory paragraph The prosperity of family contributes to this of society. Therefore, it is said a family is a base for the society. It is in the family that supports children’s physical and mental development. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 (not always necessary) How to write Paragraph 1 ‚ Paragraph 2 A family is a base for the society Paragraph 3 Conclusion The topic sentence Explanation Transition To start with the physical aspect, children are brought up with enough healthy food and nice clothes. Ⓐ In the second place is the mental aspect: children are taught not only the natural virtues such as the sense of responsibility, the respect of dignity, tolerance and piety but also religious matters Ⓐ In contrast, they should be collected children without and educated by parents parental educators so that they can fulfill their true potential. To conclude, it is clear that the physical and mental aspects enable children to reach their complete value. These well-educated children are active builders to contribute to society. What expected is Ⓐ→ “Like a plant which needs water and sunlight, mind is very important to the development of children besides physical aspect” or “Children cannot mature physically but emotionally” Ⓐ→ However, not every child is covered with parental love owing to war, deadly diseases and even their parents’ failure of marriage. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 12 Step 3: to ask students to produce SECTIONS 2&3 of paragraphs 1&2 Introductory paragraph In the past years there has been an increasing violence happening at schools not only in town but also in rural areas. This essay will discuss the reasons for this and how its disadvantages effect on society. SECTION 1 How to write The topic sentence Explanation Transition The reasons for this tendency belong to family and school. Ⓐ Ⓐ Paragraph 2 Conclusion SECTION 3 (not always necessary) Para 1 … In recent times, there is more and more violence at school. What are the causes of this? How to do with these problems? SECTION 2 Conversely, violence developing at school causes so many problems to students and society. Ⓐ Ⓐ To sum up, there is an expanding trend of violence to school. However, the bad effects resulting from school violence on students themselves, on family and on society are possibly satisfactorily tackled if the people involved in pay some more attention to these. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 13 What expected are Ⓐ→ First, it is the increasing divorces that children lack of love and care from their parents. In addition to this, the curriculum at school seems not to focus on helping children gaining cardinal virtues such as love, forgiveness and sense of honour. Last but not least, students both male and female play computer games with too many fighting scenes. Ⓐ→ One of the possible ways to combat the problem is to cover every student with love and tolerance especially the child whose family is disorder. Secondly, there should be more lessons about cardinal virtues rather than science lessons. Finally students should be taught how to manage their time. Ⓐ→ students need be passionately cared for by their parents and teachers in order to grow up in a balanced way. Ⓐ→ A student needs to become a good civilian before an intellectual civilian. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 14 Step 4: to ask students to produce SECTION 1 of paragraphs 1&2 Introductory paragraph How to write Paragraph 1 † Old parents should live children Paragraph 2 Conclusion Most countries in Asia, old parents live with their children. However, the fact that families do not live with old parents is increasing. This essay will examine some of the advantages and disadvantages. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 (not always necessary) The topic sentence Explanation Transition First, young parents can learn However, that how to take care of their kids old parents live from grandparents. Second, with children is children can learn valuable not always experience of the way to behave smooth. Ⓐ from these elderly. Finally, old parents can help to take care of young children when their parents are busy at work. The first disadvantage involving in financial problem. The more people there are in a family, the more the expense is. In addtion, Ⓐ the argument over educating kids between parents and grandparents may happen because of traditional and modern outlook. As previously stated, the fact that children live together with their grandparents is fairly good. Some financial difficulty or different standpoint may come about; however, these drawbacks can be easily overcome by the affection and sympathy from grandparents, parents and children. What expected are Ⓐ → To start with the advantages of old parents and children living in the same roof. Or → Three advanatages can be given to justify the benifit of living with old parents. Ⓐ → On the other hand, there are some disadvantages when old parents live together with children. Or → The fact that three generations live together can bring about some drawbacks. Step 5: to ask students to produce the whole main body. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 15 Introductory paragraph In foreign countries, it is very common when students get part time jobs because it is one of the programmes at school. However, the situation is different in Vietnam. Most Vietnamese students do nothing but focusing on their studies. This essay will provide some advantages and disadvantages of getting part time jobs. SECTION 1 SECTION 2 How to write Transition Ⓐ Ⓐ Ⓐ Ⓐ Ⓐ Para 3 Conclusion Explanation Para 2 Should students get part time jobs? The topic sentence Para 1 ‡ SECTION 3 (not always necessary) Ⓐ Ⓐ As previously stated, doing a part time job can bring many advantages to students. Notwithstanding, there should be a reasonable balance between academic and practical work because managing time is a necessary skill that students have to obtain if they want to be successful in their future job. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 16 What expected are Ⓐ → To begin with the application of theoretical knowledge to realization. Ⓐ → Apart from that, there is also a social advantage. Ⓐ → In contrast, a part time job can cause some problems. Or On the other hand, a part time job can result in some problems Ⓐ → The students with a part time job can have a chance to practise the knowledge that they have studied at school. Therefore, they get much usefully practical experience during their time at university. Ⓐ → Taking a part time job is the time for students to accumulate some social skills. For example, a student who works at a restaurant can learn many life lessons such as communication skill, persuasion skills and confidence. Ⓐ → First, doing a part time job takes time. Second, they attract so much importance to earning money rather than studies. Ⓐ→ However, the realization of knowledge is not the only. Or The realization of knowledge which is not, however, the only. . . HOW TO CONCLUDE THE ESSAY After teaching students how to make a good introduction, I help students conclude their essay. There is always a crucial link between the three parts SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 17 of the essay especially in the conclusion, which often has the same idea as the introduction, only in different words. Step 1: to have a clear conception of conclusion. Introductory paragraph How to write In order to enjoy the happiness of the family, both the husband and the wife have to join hands, which means men build the house and women make it home. Men and women have different duties but lead to the same purpose. Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 (not always necessary) Topic  Men build the house and women make it home Transition word Restate the main points using different wording Finish with an outlook for the future In conclusion, I would like to stress that all these actions will make a family happier also help children grow up in a loving and responsible environment. And in the future they will be active doers for building the house or making it home. SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 18 Step 2: to ask students to produce SENTENCE 1. Introductory paragraph The prosperity of family contributes to this of society. Therefore, it is said a family is a base for the society. It is in the family that supports children’s physical and mental development. How to write Sentence 1 Sentence 2 Sentence 3 (not always necessary) Topic Transition word ‚ A family is a base for the society Restate the main points using different wording Finish with an outlook for the future The physical and mental aspects enable children to reach their complete value. These welleducated children are active builders to contribute to society. The sentence expected is “To conclude, it is clear that” SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 19 Step 3: to ask students to produce SENTENCES 1&2. Introductory paragraph How to write In the past years there has been an increasing violence to happen at schools not only in town but also in rural areas. This essay will discuss the reasons for this and how its disadvantages effect on society. Sentence 1 Sentence 3 (not always necessary) Transition word Topic Sentence 2 Restate the main points using different wording … In recent times, there is more and more violence at school. What are the causes of this? How to do with these problems? . The sentences expected are “To sum up , there is an expanding trend of violence to school. However, the bad effects resulting from school violence on students themselves, on family and on society are possibly satisfactorily tackled if the people involved in pay some more attention to these” SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM CẤP TỈNH – ĐINH HỮU PHÚ CƯỜNG – GV THPT NGUYỄN DU/ Page 20
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