Tài liệu Skkn how to teach vocabulary effectively.

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SỞ GIÁO DỤC VÀ ĐÀO TẠO ĐỒNG NAI Đơn vị: Trường THPT Chuyên Lương Thế Vinh Mã số: ................................ SÁNG KIẾN KINH NGHIỆM HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY Người thực hiện: TRƯƠNG MỸ LINH Lĩnh vực nghiên cứu: - Quản lý giáo dục  - Phương pháp dạy học bộ môn: Tiếng Anh - Lĩnh vực khác:  Năm học: 2014-2015 SƠ LƯỢC LÝ LỊCH KHOA HỌC –––––––––––––––––– I. THÔNG TIN CHUNG VỀ CÁ NHÂN 1. Họ và tên: TRƯƠNG MỸ LINH 2. Ngày tháng năm sinh:04/10/1968 3. Nam, nữ: Nữ 4. Địa chỉ: 82 Đặng Đức Thuật, P. Tam Hiệp, Biên Hòa, Đồng Nai 5. Điện thoại: 3813378 (NR); 6. Fax: ĐTDĐ: 0918405412 E-mail: datlinhkn@gmail.com 7. Chức vụ: 8. Nhiệm vụ được giao: Giảng dạy và chủ nhiệm lớp chuyên Anh 9. Đơn vị công tác: Trường THPT Chuyên Lương Thế Vinh II. TRÌNH ĐỘ ĐÀO TẠO  Học vị cao nhất: Thạc sỹ  Năm nhận bằng: 2007  Chuyên ngành đào tạo: Phương pháp giảng dạy III. KINH NGHIỆM KHOA HỌC  Lĩnh vực chuyên môn có kinh nghiệm: giảng dạy Tiếng Anh Số năm có kinh nghiệm: 25 năm  Các sáng kiến kinh nghiệm đã có trong 5 năm gần đây:  Idiomatic Expressions  Vocabulary teaching  Theme-based vocabulary building  The Effects of group work on teaching and learning reading comprehension  How to help gifted students do project work HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY I. INTRODUCTION Vocabulary is the most fundamental factor in learning a language. Almost every skill in the language learning process requires learners to have ample and good vocabulary. There is a quote that “Without grammar, very little can be conveyed; without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed”, which truly proves the significance of vocabulary. Vocabulary is essential and necessary for building up a good command of the language. Without good vocabulary, it is unlikely that learners could use the language correctly and with confidence. It is the first and most fundamental aspect a language learner must master before developing his or her language skills. Good vocabulary is important for passive skills (reading and listening). It enhances learners’ comprehension and understanding of the language, both in literal and figurative sense. Good vocabulary is also important for active skills (writing and speaking). Every English conversation that is marked by some idioms and phrasal verbs helps learners’ expressions becomes clear, interesting and more native-speaker-like. Essays marked by the good use of academic vocabulary make learners’ writing become more formal for important purposes. All in all, vocabulary is the core of language learning. It is important for language comprehension and expression. Moreover, on a more advanced level of language learning, e.g. as a student majoring in English, a fluent and impressive use of vocabulary in examinations can be the standard to distinguish the excellent students from the good ones. Vocabulary could be used as an instrument to measure learners’ language ability as well as their fluency. However, it is not easy to gain vocabulary at all. It is painstaking, demanding lots of efforts. Most language learners have a question “How do they study vocabulary efficiently and effectively?” Everything has its own difficulty, and learning vocabulary is no exception. There are some common obstacles that language learners often encounter when they learn vocabulary. The first is retention problem. Vocabulary is hard to learn by heart and easy to forget. Some students said, “Vocabulary just can’t go inside my head” or “Water off the duck’s back.” The second difficulty that students cope with is the inability to use the words that have been learned. Students may find some words confusing. How to use words in correct contexts seems to be a big problem. The difficulty that often crops up very early in students’ learning process is that they are exposed to a vast amount of vocabulary. It is hard to prioritize a suitable range of vocabulary over the rest at certain stages of learning. Thus, it is both the importance of vocabulary in language learning and the problems the students may encounter when learning vocabulary that enhance the approach to teaching vocabulary effectively. II. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY  Research has long shown that vocabulary plays a critical role in learning to read and comprehend text and, therefore, in children’s success in school (Biemiller, 2003; David, 1942; Whipple, 1925). Not only does vocabulary improve reading comprehension, as research has confirmed (Nagy,1998), but it also supports students’ writing and speaking, as well as learning in the content areas.  Theme-based vocabulary building represents a vast resource of vocabulary items including collocations and idiomatic expressions not easily retrievable from a standard dictionary. Research has shown that learners need to meet a word at least 7 times before they know it properly. Doing exercises, practicing words and expressions that learners have already encountered, is a useful way of helping themselves to fix the vocabulary they are working on in their long-term memory.  The value of direct instruction Researchers agree that although extensive reading is important to vocabulary growth, direct instruction is more effective and more efficient than incidental learning in achieving deeper, richer levels of lasting vocabulary understanding (McKeown & Beck, 1988). Stahl and Fairbanks (1996) recommend using a definitional and contextual approach to direct instruction, and Nagy (1988) recommends including integration, repetition, and meaningful use.  The value of contextual learning of vocabulary Research has shown that for vocabulary instruction to be effective, it must not only provide definitions, but also demonstrate how words are used in natural contexts (Nagy, 1988). Many researchers also agree that much of vocabulary growth occurs indirectly through language exposure.  The value of providing multiple exposures to words If students are truly to gain ownership of new words, vocabulary instruction must provide multiple and varied encounters with those words (Daniels, 1996; Leung, 1992; Senechal, 1997; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986). Research also suggests other practices that should inform the way vocabulary is taught in the classroom; these include using multiple methods of instruction and actively engaging students in word learning. Any word that is introduced should continue to be provided in a variety of contexts to reinforce and enrich students’ understanding (Beck & McKeown, 2004).  The value of building vocabulary through word study According to Put Reading First (Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001), children need to develop strategies that include using word parts to figure out the meanings of words in text and also using context clues. According to Aranoff (1994), word structure helps to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word that is derived from the same stem as a familiar word. Students benefit when they are taught to use and analyse word parts such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots (Dale & O’Rourke, 1986; Nagy & Scott, 2000). In fact, research has shown that if students know the meaning of the four most frequently used prefixes, they will have useful clues about the meaning of approximately two-thirds of all English words containing prefixes.  The value of exposing students to nuances of language According to Beck and McKeown (1988), instruction that offers rich information about words and their uses enhances students’ language comprehension and production. Effective instruction should integrate instructed words with other knowledge, including how words relate to one another and how words relate to real-world and personal experiences (Nagy, 1988). III. IMPLEMENTATION 1. Subjects  The process was implemented from Grade 10 to Grade 12.  32 students of the English class of Luong The Vinh Gifted High school took part in the study. They were chosen as the participants of the study because:  They all major in English.  They have strong desire to enrich their vocabulary.  They have to go in for some important English contests for the gifted in which vocabulary is the core of all language skills. 2. Procedures  The lessons were taught after every Unit in the textbook, as further practices.  The Vocabulary lesson must have the same topic as the Unit in the textbook so that the students can easily enlarge their vocabulary of the same theme. It is suitable for use in class and for self-study in view to developing as well as reviewing the vocabulary that the students have studied in the textbook.  The exercises included in each lesson are varied: - A reading passage: + Students are asked to read a passage and will pay attention to the context of the highlighted words. Teachers also help students access their prior knowledge of the theme or topic of the passage. This will help improve students’ comprehension and figure out the word meanings as well. + Depending on the needs of individual students, teachers provide students with a brief explanation of each new word. + Teachers guide students’ focus and comprehension by having them answer key questions about the story. + Teachers invite some students to summarize the story. + Teachers encourage students to make more connections to the words so that they can easily remember the words and interact with them in other contexts. - Definitions: + Students are given concise definitions and examples of usage and then exercise sets in which they see and use the words in a variety of contexts. To promote retention, students must interact with each word five times over the course of a lesson. + Teachers can have a brief discussion about part of speech of some words to help students increase their understanding of the definition and word use and point out some words with different parts of speech and with more than one meaning. + Students are encouraged to use the words in their speaking and writing. - Match the meaning: + Teachers help students process the meanings of the words from the lesson, interact with the words and relate them to their own experiences. + Students have to think about the meaning of each choice before choosing the answer indicated by the clue. - Synonyms and Antonyms: + The exercises help students expand their vocabulary, revisit and discuss the synonyms and antonyms given in the Definitions. + Teachers encourage students to use some of the words in sentences and relate them to their own experiences. + Teachers have students begin a Vocabulary Notebook in which they can write the meaning of the new words and add to them as they learn more about the words. - Completing the sentence: + The exercises remind students of some words with more than one meaning. Students are exposed to a variety of contexts that represents as fully as possible the semantic range and application of the word. + Teachers guide students to figure out the intended meaning by using the context clues. The tip is that context clues in sentences can be before or - - -  after an unfamiliar word or sometimes a single word located within the same sentence. Word association: + The exercises are comprised of sentence completions and questions, each containing a highlighted word in the lesson, which helps students continue to build on the meaning of the words introduced in the lesson. + Students are asked to connect the word in the lesson to another word or phrase. Word Study: + Word Study can be Multiple-meaning Words, Context Clues, Analogies, Confusing Words, Suffixes, Prefixes, Roots, or Homophones which teaches word-learning strategies and also provides instructions on topics that can help students build their vocabulary. Shades of Meaning: + The exercises focus on analyzing idioms, proverbs and figurative language. + Students are provided with opportunities to interact with word meanings on a deeper level, which helps them recognize the importance of word choice. A test including Vocabulary for Comprehension (reviewing words from the previous lessons in the context of a passage), Classifying (identifying a missing word from words that are alike in some way) and Completing the Idea (completing sentence stems that contain taught words) is given to students after every three lessons. SAMPLE LESSON (see Appendix) The lesson was designed to be taught after the students had finished Unit 10 in the Textbook – Grade 10. The teacher dedicated 4 periods to the lesson. IV.FINDINGS After the three-year implementation process of vocabulary teaching, the researcher has found the interest as well as the achievements of the students in learning vocabulary. They have benefited a lot from what they have learned. The effects on the students’ achievements are positive and long-lasting, regardless of level. Having exposed to sets of exercises including Word Association, Word pairs, Idioms, Theme-based vocabulary… the students realized that their language skills were improved. Using word pairs could help their talk sound more like a native speaker, which is aim for those who want to master English. Quite much the same as word pairs, idioms, proverbs are also familiar terms to English learners. Mastering them is difficult, and knowing how to use them properly in correct contexts is more difficult. That the students have learned them carefully and are able to use them appropriately is the sign that they has started to gain mastery in English. It is theme-based vocabulary that enables the students to start up and maintain conversations in every topic. Life is a diverse range of topics, and a good knowledge about theme-based vocabulary is important for the students’ speaking and writing. The students understand thoroughly and profoundly certain features of a new word, such basic features as pronunciation, part of speech, literal and figurative meanings. Then focus should be directed to the usage. The students know how to combine words, learn and remember new vocabulary by their phrases; not learning single words, for remembering phrases is much easier. The synonyms and antonyms also help the students to build up a vocabulary reservoir that is well-organized. Moreover, organizing all the words learned according to their similar and contrast meanings help save tremendous amount of time and efforts for revision since one word can be related easily to others. Making good use of a vocabulary notebook is a helpful tool that makes the students’ writing easier and more interesting. Some of the students won prestigious prizes in many English contests especially the National Contest. These students have gained ample and good vocabulary resources that help them much in standardized tests or exams. V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Learning as well as teaching vocabulary is not an easy task. It requires patience, willingness and takes up time of students and teachers. Teaching vocabulary effectively needs appropriate strategies. The above approach of vocabulary teaching can be ideal for students majoring in English. They really desire to enlarge their vocabulary to prepare for their exams requiring all the four language skills. The lessons can be implemented with a view to supporting as well as enhancing what are taught in the textbook. However, as mentioned above, this is a long-term strategy that the teacher has to devote much time to. The teacher should carry out the process continually to get the effectiveness of the method. Thus, enough time must be provided for both the students and the teacher to practice the strategies. The selection of materials is indispensable for the successful execution of this method. Therefore, it is advisable that the contents be comparatively straightforward; topics should be interesting and close to those in the textbooks. REFERENCES  Armbruster, B. B., Lehr, F., & Osborn, J. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read , kindergarten through grade 3. Jessup, MD: Partnership for Reading.  Biemiller, A. (2003). Vocabulary: Needed if more children are to read well. Reading Psychology, 24(3-4), 323-335.  Dale, E. &O’Rourke, J. (1986). Vocabulary building. Columbus, OH: Zaner-Bloser.  Daniels, M. (1996). Bilingual, bimodal education for hearing kindergarten students. Sign Language Studies,90, 25-37.  Davis, F. B. (1942). Two new measures of reading ability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 33, 365-372.  Leung, C. B. (1992). Effects of word-related variables on vocabulary growth repeated read-aloud events. In C. K. Kinzer & D. J. Leu (Eds.), Literacy research, theory, and practice: Views from many perspectives. Forty-first Yearbook of the National Reading Conference (pp. 491-498). Chicago, IL: The National Reading Conference.  McKeown, M. G., & Beck, I. L. (1998). Leaning vocabulary: Different ways for different goals. Remedial and Special Education, 9(1), 42-46.  Nagy, W. E. (1998). Teaching vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.  Nagy, W. E., & Scott, J. A. (2000). Vocabulary processes. In M. L. Kamil, P. G. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. III, pp. 269-284). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  Seneschal, M. (1997). The differential effect of storybook reading on preschoolers’ acquisition of expensive and receptive vocabulary. Journal of Child Language, 24(1), 123-128.  Stahl, S. A., & Fairbanks, M. M. (1996). The effects of vocabulary instruction: A model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 56(1), 72-110.  Whipple, G. (Ed.). (1925). The twenty-fourth yearbook of the national society for the study of education: Report of the national committee on reading. Bloomington, IL: Public School Publishing Company. APPENDIX SAMPLE LESSON  INTRODUCING THE WORDS Read the following Russian folktale about some clever forest animals. Notice how the highlighted words are used. These are the words you will be learning in this unit. Long ago, when the world was as fresh and new as a daffodil in springtime, the animals faced a serious problem. Troublesome Bear was ruining everything in their forest. The songbirds were all terrified whenever Bear passed through the woods in his usual clumsy way. He would blunder into branches, smashing the birds’ fragile nests and eggs. Bear also crushed the hives of the bees and stole their honey, so the bees had a continuous argument with him. Bear squashed the tunnel-like homes of the gophers and the rabbits with his nig feet, and in general caused so many disturbances that the animals couldn’t relax. As angry as they were, however, the animals didn’t really want to get into a scuffle with Bear. He was much too big and strong! Desperate, the animals called a meeting to decide on a course of action. “Why don’t we just ask Bear to be more considerate?” suggested Deer timidly. Squirrel was quick to reject Deer’s idea. “That won’t work,” Squirrel insisted, “because Bear never listens to anyone. I think he just enjoys walking all over us!” “Throw Bear in jail,” Rat shouted. “Force him to live a solitary life in a jail cell and he won’t be able to injure and torment us ever again.” The animals nodded in approval at this idea until Mouse pointed out an obvious problem. “We don’t have a jail,” Mouse squeaked, “and if we did, someone would have to feed Bear in his cell.” The very thought of feeding Bear made all the animals shake in fear. Other animals offered more ideas. Skunk suggested that Porcupine distribute some of his extra sharp quills in Bear’s bed. Porcupine suggested that Skunk send some smelly spray into Bear’s den. Neither animal was brave enough to try the other’s plan, however, and the ideas probably wouldn’t have worked anyway. Indeed, it looked as if there were no solution to the problem, and the animals were about to cancel the rest of their meeting. Fortunately, at that moment, Eagle flew in like a bolt of lightning. The animals cheered because Eagle was a veteran problem solver. Whenever there was trouble in the forest, Eagle found a way to put an end to it. this time, Eagle clutched a document in his sharp claws. “As we all know,” Eagle thundered, “Bear can’t hurt anyone or destroy anything when he’s asleep. This statement,” he said, waving the document, “requires Bear to sleep from October to April every year. I hope you will all sign it!” What a great idea! The animals read the document and added their names to it. True, it didn’t get rid of Bear permanently, but it gave them temporary relief. At the very least, the animals could look forward to peace and quiet for six months of every year. The myth doesn’t say how the animals gave their signed document to Bear or what his reaction was to it. Who knows? Maybe he liked the animals’ suggestion, for one thing is certain: Bear has been sleeping away half the year ever since!  DEFINITIONS You were introduced to the words below in the passage. Study the pronunciation, spelling, part of speech, and definition of each word. Write the word in the blank in the sentence that follows. Then read the synonyms and antonyms. 1. blunder (v) make a foolish or careless mistake; to move clumsily and carelessly I saw the hiker -------- through the woods. (n) a serious or thoughtless mistake I was terribly embarrassed by my --------. SYNONYMS: (v) to err, foul up, bungle, goof; (n) an error, blooper ANTONYMS: (v) to triumph, succeed; (n) a success, hit 2. cancel (v) call off or do away with; to cross out with lines or other marks to show that something cannot be used again Maybe the principal will -------- classes if it continues to snow. SYNONYMS: (v) to stop, discontinue, drop, repeal, revoke ANTONYMS: (v) to renew, continue, extend, maintain 3. continuous (a) going on without a stop or break -------- TV coverage began shortly after news of the disaster broke. SYNONYMS: ongoing, endless, ceaseless, unbroken, constant, perpetual ANTONYMS: broken, discontinuous, interrupted 4. distribute (v) give out in shares; scatter or spread Our class will -------- leaflets announcing the school’s fund-raising drive. SYNONYMS: divide, share, deal, issue ANTONYMS: gather, collect, hold 5. document information (n) a written or printed record that gives The librarian found the old -------- inside a book. (v) give written or printed proof; support with evidence Writers often -------- their sources. SYNONYMS: (n) a certificate, deed; (v) prove, establish 6. fragile (a) easily broken or damaged, requiring special handling The --------- antique was damaged during transit. SYNONYMS: weak, frail, breakable, delicate, brittle, flimsy ANTONYMS: sturdy, hardy, strong, rugged, tough 7. myth (n) an old story that explains why sth is; sth imaginary The play is based on an ancient Greek ----------. SYNONYMS: a legend, fable, tale, fantasy, fairy tale ANTONYMS: a fact 8. reject (v) refuse to accept, agree to, believe, or use Why did you --------- the offer? SYNONYMS: deny, discard, junk, scrap, decline,, dismiss ANTONYMS: take, accept, receive, welcome 9. scuffle (v) fight or struggle closely with A witness saw the two men ------- in an alley. (n) fight or struggle Police officers were called in to break up the ------. SYNONYMS: (v) tussle, roughhouse, battle, brawl; (n) a fistfight, clash 10. solitary (a) living or being alone; being the only one The old man led a ------------ life. SYNONYMS: single, sole, lone ANTONYMS: sociable; several, many, numerous 11. temporary (a) lasting or used for a limited time A blow to the head can cause a ------ loss of memory. SYNONYMS: short-term, passing, brief,, momentary ANTONYMS: lasting, long-lived, permanent 12. veteran (n) a former member of the armed forces; an experienced person The army ------ listened attentively (a) having much experience in some job or field The actress will play a -------- reporter. SYNONYMS: (a) expert, professional, experienced, skilled, accomplished ANTONYMS: (n) a beginner, newcomer, novice, rookie  MATCH THE MEANING For each item below, choose the word whose meaning is suggested by the clue given. 1. The roommate you have for only a month is a ------- one. a. continuous b. temporary c. fragile d. solitary 2. A black eye might the result of a -------. a. scuffle b. myth c. veteran d. blunder 3. To ------- your age you might show a birth certificate or a driver’s license. a. distribute b. document c. cancel d. reject 4. A person who lives alone ------- in the woods might be described as -------. a. continuous b. solitary c. temporary d. fragile 5. The idea that you will get warts from touching a frog is a -------. a. blunder b. document c. scuffle d. myth 6. If I make a serious mistake, I commit a -------. a. scuffle b. document c. myth d. blunder 7. A box containing an item that can be broken easily might be stamped “------------.” a. solitary b. temporary c. fragile d. continuous 8. A charity might ------- food to the homeless. a. reject b. cancel c. scuffle d. distribute 9. Something that goes on without stopping is -------. a. continuous b. temporary c. solitary d. fragile 10.To refuse a gift is to ------- it. a. cancel b. scuffle c. distribute d. reject 11.A person who has a lot of experience at something is a -------. a. blunder b. myth c. document d. veteran 12.If I call off a party, I ------- it. a. scuffle b. blunder c. cancel d. reject  SYNONYMS Choose the word that is most nearly the same in meaning as the word or phrase in bold. Then write your choice on the line provided. 1. A constant flow of traffic a. fragile b. temporary c. continuous d. veteran ______ 2. tried to hide the blooper a. document b. myth c. blunder d. scuffle ______ 3. not a single cent a. temporary b. fragile c. solitary d. veteran ______ 4. witnessed the fight a. myth b. blunder c. document d. scuffle ______ 5. very important records a. veterans b. documents c. myths d. blunders ______ 6. a collection of ancient stories a. documents b. myths c. veterans d. blunders ______  ANTONYMS Choose the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word or phrase in bold. Then write your choice on the line provided. 1. renew my subscription a. cancel b. blunder c. scuffle d. distribute ______ 2. accept the marriage proposal a. scuffle b. reject c. blunder d. distribute ______ 3. a novice mountain climber a. temporary b. fragile c. continuous d. veteran ______ 4. collect the homework sheets a. reject b. document c. distribute d. cancel ______ 5. a sturdy device a. temporary b. solitary c. veteran d. fragile ______ 6. a permanent filling a. veteran b. continuous c. temporary d. solitary ______  COMPLETE THE SENTENCE Choose the word for the list that best completes each item below. You may have to change the word’s ending. blunder – cancel – continuous – distribute – document – fragile myth – reject – scuffle – solitary – temporary – veteran A Visit to a Museum - Our class visited the museum on the last day of a(n) --------- exhibit of ancient Greek vases. - Some of the vases were more than 2,000 years old. Because they were so old and ---------, we weren’t allowed to touch them. - Security guards kept visitors a few feet from the display cases, so there was no chance that someone could --------- into them. - The guide told us that the pictures painted on some of the vases were not of real people but characters from legends and ---------. - One picture showed a(n) --------- warrior fighting off a band of attackers. A Famous Declaration - In refusing to accept English rule, the writers of the Declaration of Independence --------- the claim that Parliament had sovereignty, or lawful power, over the American colonies. - Those who supported the cause of American independence quickly printed and --------- copies of the Declaration throughout the thirteen colonies. - The original ---------, one of America’s historic treasures, is now on view at the National Archives building in Washington, D.C. On the Soccer Field - Two days of --------- rain had turned the soccer field into a sea of mud and threatened to spoil the opening game of the season. - Before the game began, a --------- broke out in the stands when a few hometeam fans came to blows with those rooting for the visiting team. - The referee threatened to --------- the game and send all of the fans home if order was not restored. - Only when a handful of popular --------- from both teams asked the fans to behave themselves did they finally settle down and let the game get under way.  WORD ASSOCIATIONS Choose the word or expression that best completes the sentence or answers the question. Pay special attention to the word in bold. 1. A person might emerge from a scuffle a. with spaghetti and meatballs. b. with scrapes and bruises c. with dollars and cents d. with hugs and kisses 2. Someone who has blundered would a. feel embarrassed. b. be confident c. feel proud . d. be rewarded. 3. A solitary tree would probably a. have needles b. be chopped down. c. change color in the fall. d. stand alone. 4. A continuous loud noise might a. be hard to hear. b. stop and start c. be soothing d. be annoying 5. Which of the following is a document? a. an old friend b. a telephone call c. a marriage license d. a good meal 6. If I cancel my piano lesson, a. I don’t go b. I play very well b. I repair the piano c. I arrive late 7. A temporary problem is one that a. lasts a long time b. goes away c. no one can solve d. anyone can solve 8. In a veteran’s closet you might find a. a skateboard b. a party dress c. a box of marbles d. an old uniform 9. When a teacher distributes a test a. he or she grades it b. he or she loses it c. he or she passes it out d. he or she collects it. 10. Which of the following is usually fragile? a. a hammer b. a pair of scissors c. a light bulb 11.Someone who has been rejected a. might feel hurt b. might feel happy c. might get lost d. might get a cold 12.Which is a creature of myth? a. a rabbit b. a giraffe c. a duck d. a padlock d. a dragon  WORD STUDY: Multiple-Meaning Words Look at the table to find other examples of multiple-meaning words. Coat Drill Uniform Veteran 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. (n) an item of clothing worn when it is cold (v) to cover a surface with something (n) a safety routine (n) a tool used to make holes in hard surfaces (n) an outfit worn by members of a group (a) hardly any or no difference (n) a person who has served in the armed forces (n) a person who has a lot of experience 1. 2. 3. 4. PRACTICE: Choose the word from the table above that best completes each sentence. Then write the number of the meaning. Be sure to put on your --------- before you go out in the snow. Our classroom is kept at a --------- temperature. Our school has a fire --------- at least once a month. The cook will --------- the pan with oil so the onions don’t stick. 1. 2. 3. 4. APPLY: Complete each sentence so that it makes sense. Use the multiple-meaning words from the table above. You may have to change the word’s ending. To hang the picture, we --------The floor will look shiny and new if I --------To show that we are members of the glee club, we --------After teaching for twenty-four years, the teacher --------Think of the multiple meanings for each word below. Then make sentences with them. Light(n) / light (v) bend (v) / bend (n)  SHADES OF MEANING: Similies I. Carina doesn’t understand some of the things that her pen-friend, Grimelda, says. Help Carina by matching the idioms with their definitions. 1. 2. Sleep like a log Smoke like a chimney 3. Treat someone like dirt 4. 5. Eat like a horse Drive like a lunatic a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. very pale / ill madly / wildly really well a lot, continuously freely, without a care soundly, very deeply very badly a lot at one time 6. Get on with someone like a house on fire 7. Look like death warmed up 8. Spend money like it’s going out of fashion II. What advice would you give in these situations? 1. My best friend smokes like a chimney. How can I get her to give up? 2. My best friend’s girlfriend treats him like dirt. It’s making him really unhappy. 3. I love shopping, and I’m spending money like it’s going out of fashion. How can I stop myself? 4. My father drives like a lunatic. I don’t want him to drive me to school anymore. But he insists! 5. I’m really overweight. I eat like a horse – but I can’t stop! 6. I sleep like a log and I am frequently late for school. 7. Two of my friends get on like a house on fire. In fact, so much so that I am the one who is left out of everything. 8. I’m worried about my best friend. She says nothing’s wrong, but she looks like death warmed up III. Carina thinks that Grimelda’s family is very strange. Help Grimelda answer Carina’s questions. 1. Why do you have an astray on your roof? 2. Why is there a bed in your fireplace? 3. Why is there hay in your dining room? 4. Why do you phone the fire station before your best friend come round to see you? 5. Why are you afraid of vacuum cleaners? 6. Why is there a psychiatrist in your father’s car? 7. Why is there a ghost sitting next to the radiator? 8. Why does your mother keep her cash in the wardrobe? SUPPLEMENTS 1. as bald as a coot completely bald 2. as black as coal / soot dirty (a child’s hands, face or clothes) 3. as black as pitch very dark (room, cellar, street without lights) 4. as blind as a bat having bad eyesight 5. as bold as brass impudent, shameless, showing a lot of confidence 6. as brave as a lion very brave 7. as bright as a button very clever; very happy and lively 8. as brown as a berry having brown skin from being in the sun 9. as busy as a bee busily occupied with many (usually enjoyable) activities, ... 10.as changeable as the weather unpredictable 11.as clean as a new pin very clean and tidy, with no dust or dirt (a room) 12.as clear as a bell clearly and easily heard 13.as clear as crystal / day(light) obvious, easy to realize / understand (situation) 14.as clear as mud not at all clear or easy to understand (used ironically) 15.as cold as ice very cold 16.as cool as a cucumber calm and controlled at a time of upset, difficulty 17.as cunning as a fox sly, planning secretly to one’s own advantage 18.as dead as a doornail completely dead 19.as deaf as a post extremely deaf (used humorously) 20.as different as chalk from / and cheese very different in appearance, character 21.as drunk as a lord / newt very drunk 22.as dry as a bone very dry, containing no moisture 23.as dull as ditch water very boring 24.as dark as pitch / ink very black / dark 25.as easy as ABC / pie / anything easy to do / solve 26.as fit as a fiddle in good physical condition, active 27.as flat as a pancake very flat; sth that does not arouse the expected interest 28.as fresh as a daisy lively; looking and feeling fresh 29.as gentle as a lamb very gentle (used of a person or larger animal) 30.as good as gold very well-behaved 31.as greedy as a pig very greedy 32.as happy as a king /a lark/ the day is long in a carefree, contented mood; having no worries 33.as hard as nails physically tough; without feeling, ruthless in dealing with others 34.as heavy as lead very heavy 35.as keen as mustard extremely eager 36.as large as life in person, in the flesh 37.as light as a feather / airhaving little weight; not heavy 38.as like as two peas (in a pod) very much alike in appearance 39.as mad as a hatter / a March hare abnormal in one’s behaviour, even insane 40.as miserable as sin unhappy; in a dull mood 41.as near as dammit very close, very nearly but not quite 42.as old as the hills very old (used to describe a story which everybody knows) 43.as plain as the nose on your face obvious, easy to guess 44.as pleased as Punch delighted, very happy about something 45.as poor as a church mouse very poor
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