Tài liệu Skkn dạy và học lời nói trực tiếp và gián tiếp tiếng anh thpt theo phương pháp mới

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Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi INDEX (MUÏC LUÏC) PHAÀN A: GIÔÙI THIEÄU ÑEÀ TAØI (INTRODUCTION) 1. Cô sôû lyù luaän cuûa ñeà taøi (theorical background) 2. Lyù do choïn ñeà taøi (reasons for the research) I/ PART ONE: Ñònh Nghóa Lôøi Noùi Tröïc Tieáp Vaø Giaùn Tieáp (Definitions) II/ PART TWO: REPORTED SPEECH (INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PRESENT TENSES) ÑOÄNG TÖØ GIÔÙI THIEÄU ÔÛ THÌ HIEÄN TAÏI 1. Caâu töôøng thuaät (Reported speech of statement) a) Caáu truùc: (Structure) b) Phöông phaùp (Method) c) AÙp duïng thöïc teá (Practical use) d) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) 2. Affirmative and negative imperative (Caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh) a) Caáu truùc: (Structure) b) Phöông phaùp (Method) c) AÙp duïng thöïc teá (Practical use) d) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) 3. Wh_question and question: (Caâu hoûi coù caùc töø ñeå hoûi vaø caâu hoûi khoâng coù töø ñeå hoûi) a) Caáu truùc: (Structure) b) Phöông phaùp (Method) c) AÙp duïng thöïc teá (Practical use) d) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) III/ PART THREE: AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PAST TENSES (Caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu cuûa chuùng ôû thì quaù khöù) 1) Caáu truùc: (Structure) 2) Phöông phaùp (Method) 3) AÙp duïng thöïc teá (Practical use) 4) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) IV/ PART FOUR: REPORTED SPEECH OF STATEMENTS GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -1 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi (INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PAST TENSES) 1) Caáu truùc: (Structure) 2) Phöông phaùp (Method) 3) AÙp duïng thöïc teá (Practical use) 4) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) V/ PART FIVE: WH-QUESTIONS AND YES-NO QUESTIONS ( INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PAST TENSES) (Caâu hoûi vôùi töø ñeå hoûi vaø caâu hoûi khoâng coù töø ñeå hoûi) 1) Caáu truùc: (Structure) 2) Phöông phaùp (Method) 3) AÙp duïng thöïc teá (Practical use) 4) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) VI/ PART SIX: SOME SPECIAL STRUCTURES FOR EXCELLENT STUDENTS 1) Caáu truùc: (Structure) 2) Baøi taäp vaän duïng (Exercise) VII/ PART SEVEN Soaïn giaùo aùn maãu Tieáng Anh lôùp 10 PHAÀN C: KEÁT THUÙC ÑEÀ TAØI (CONCLUSION) PHAÀN D: APPENDIX (PHUÏ LUÏC) 1. Moät soá yeâu caàu khi daïy vaø hoïc lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp 2. Moät soá lôøi khuyeân khi daïy lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -2 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi PHAÀN A: GIÔÙI THIEÄU ÑEÀ TAØI (INTRODUCTION) 1. Cô sôû lyù luaän cuûa ñeà taøi (Theorical background) - Trong suoát nhöõng naêm toâi giaûng daïy ôû tröôøng THPT, toâi luoân lo laéng vaø traên trôû veà phaàn lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp vì noù bao goàm nhieàu maûng kieán thöùc khaùc nhau, vaø quy trình chuyeån ñoåi chung raát phöùc taïp, phaûi traûi qua nhieàu böôùc khaùc nhau giöõa ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi vaø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì quaù khöù. Chaúng haïn nhö: Khi naøo thì phaûi ñoåi ngoâi? Khi naøo khoâng ñoåi ngoâi? Vaø caùch ñoåi thì cuûa ñoäng töø nhö theá naøo? Cuõng nhö khi naøo chuùng ta phaûi ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán? Vaø Caùch chuyeån ñoåi nhö theá naøo? Chính vì vaäy maø baûn thaân toâi noùi rieâng caùc baïn ñoàng nghieäp noùi chung raát ñang raát mô hoà vaø gaëp nhieàu khoù khaên trong vieäc giaûng daïy chuyeân ñeà naøy, töø ñoù daãn ñeán hoïc sinh thuï ñoäng trong quaù trình hoïc vì hoïc sinh chöa hieåu ñöôïc baûn chaát cuûa noäi dung baøi hoïc. - Theo phöông phaùp cuõ, tieát hoïc ngöõ phaùp (language focus) noùi rieâng laø phaàn khaù buoàn teû vaø nhaøm chaùn trong caáu truùc baøi hoïc goàm 5 phaàn (reading, speaking, listening, writing and language focus). Vì vaäy hoïc sinh thöôøng ngoài nghe khi giaùo vieân giaûng vaø sau ñoù sao cheùp laïi nguyeân vaên nhöõng gì maø giaùo vieân ñaõ giaûng tröôùc ñoù. Chính vì vaäy maø caùc em thieáu tö duy saùng taïo trong quaù trình hoïc, hôn nöõa giaùo vieân cuõng chöa ñaàu tö nhieàu thôøi gian cho moãi baøi giaûng cuûa mình; tuy nhieân treân tinh thaàn saùch giaùo khoa môùi hieän nay, tieát hoïc ngöõ phaùp (language focus) noùi rieâng vaø caùc tieát hoïc khaùc noùi chung (reading, speaking, listening, writing) khoâng coøn khaùi nieäm nhaøm chaùn vaø buoàn teû nöõa vì theo phöông phaùp môùi CLT (Communicative Language Teaching), thì giaùo vieân vaø hoïc sinh phaûi coù moät taàm nhìn tích cöïc hôn trong quaù trình daïy vaø hoïc cuûa mình, coù nghóa laø hoïc sinh phaûi maát nhieàu thôøi gian hôn ñeå chuaån bò baøi hoïc cuûa mình vaø tìm ra cho mình phöông phaùp hoïc coù tính logic, tö duy tröøu töôïng hôn ngaøy xöa ñeå gaây caûm höùng cuõng nhö tieáp löûa cho giaùo vieân trong quaù trình giaûng daïy. Hôn nöõa, giaùo vieân cuõng coù löûa, say söa vaø cuoán huùt theo baøi giaûng cuûa mình. Chính ñieàu naøy giaùo vieân caûm thaáy thích thuù vaø yeâu ngheà hôn, luoân mong chôø ñeán tieát daïy cuûa mình ñeå ñöôïc soáng trong moâi tröôøng Anh ngöõ, ñöôïc vui, ñöôïc cöôøi, ñöôïc thoaûi maùi vaø töï tin trong quaù trình giaûng daïy. Coøn hoïc sinh cuõng luoân mong chôø ñeán tieát daïy cuûa giaùo vieân vì ñeán tieát daïy aáy, caùc em học sinh ñöôïc vui cöôøi, ñöôïc nghe, giao tieáp vôùi giaùo vieân cuõng nhö baïn cuøng lôùp vaø tieáp thu ñöôïc nhieàu ñieàu boå ích, môùi laï, queân ñi caûm giaùc meät moûi, teû nhaït vaø buoàn chaùn maø caùc em thöôøng gaëp tröôùc ñaây. 2. Lyù do choïn ñeà taøi (reasons for the research): - Nhö chuùng ta ñaõ bieát, lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp luoân giöõ moät vai troø quan troïng trong tieáng Anh THPT (lôùp 10, Lôùp 11, lớp 12 và cả thi đại học ) hieän nay vì trong caùc kì thi quan troïng nhö caùc kyø thi hoïc sinh gioûi Tænh và Quốc gia luoân xuaát hieän phaàn naøy. - Hieän nay, nhieàu tröôøng vaø ña soá giaùo vieân coù caùch daïy lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp khaùc nhau, nhöng daïy vaø hoïc nhö theá naøo cho coù hieäu quaû theo phöông phaùp môùi vaø chöông trình môùi laø vaán ñeà ñaùng ñöôïc quan taâm. GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -3 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi - Qua nhöõng khoù khaên vaø phöùc taïp cuûa lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp ñoái vôùi giaùo vieân vaø hoïc sinh maø toâi ñaõ trình baøy trong muïc moät cuõng nhö taàm quan troïng cuûa chuùng ñoái vôùi ngöôøi hoïc Tieáng Anh. - Nay toâi quyeát ñònh ñaàu tö nghieân cöùu ñeà taøi naøy, nhaèm muïc ñích phaân tích vaø ch ứng minh rõ ràng, theo moät heä thoáng maéc xích vaø logic giöõa caùc phaàn vôùi nhau, vaán ñeà ñöa ra töø ñôn giaûn ñeán phöùc taïp, nhöng raát deã hieåu vaø deã nhôù ñeå giaùo vieân vaø hoïc sinh coù caùi nhìn khaù toaøn dieän veà vaán ñeà naøy trong quaù trình daïy vaø hoïc. - Caùc ví duï vaø baøi taäp töø phaàn I ñeán phaàn V gaàn nhö gioáng nhau chæ khaùc nhau laø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi vaø quaù khöù ñeå hoïc sinh so saùnh trong quaù trình hoïc vaø vaän duïng. - Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm naøy ñöôïc duøng cho moïi ñoái töôïng hoïc sinh ( töø hoïc sinh yeáu, trung bình, khaù vaø gioûi) vaø nhöõng ñoái töôïng thí sinh khaùc trong caùc kyø thi. PHAÀN B NOÄI DUNG ÑEÀ TAØI (CONTENT) I- DEFINITIONS (ÑÒNH NGHÓA) 1. Direct speech: (Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp) - Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp laø laäp laïi nguyeân vaên lôøi noùi cuûa moät ngöôøi khaùc hai daáu ngoaëc keùp “……..” vaø daáu chaám phaåy ñöôïc söû duïng. Ex1: He says Introductory “I will meet person tense you here person tomorrow” place time verb in simple 2. Indirect speech: (Lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp) - Lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp hay laø caâu noùi töôøng thuaät: thuaät laïi lôøi noùi cuûa moät ai ñoù moät caùch giaùn tieáp maø khoâng caàn laäp laïi nguyeân vaên (coù söï thay ñoåi), hai daáu ngoaëc keùp “…….” vaø daáu chaám phaåu (;) khoâng coøn ñöôïc söû duïng nöõa. Ex2: He says that he Introductory conjunction person will meet tense me here person place tomorrow” time verb in simple present II/ PARK TWO: INTRODUCTORY IN THE PRESENT TENSES 1. Reported speech of statement: a) Structure: (Caáu truùc) Subject1 Say(s) to = tell(s) Ask(s), say(s) Remind(s), advise(s) Introductoryverb + (that) + Subject + Verb + time + place + Person 2 GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -4 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi in the present tense b) Methods (Phöông phaùp) - Daïng lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp maø taát caû caùc ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi nhö hieän taïi ñôn nhö ex1 and ex2 ôû treân. Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh (present perfect) vaø thì töông lai ñôn (Simple Future) thì chuùng ta khoâng thay ñoåi caùc töø chæ thôøi gian (without changing times), khoâng thay ñoåi caùc töø chæ nôi choán (without changing places) vaø thì cuûa ñoäng töø (without changing tenses) maø chæ thay ñoåi ngoâi (changing persons) khi chuyeån sang caâu noùi giaùn tieáp sao cho hôïp nghóa nhö ñaõ trình baøy trong lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp ôû ex1 vaø chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp ôû ex2 ñaõ coù nhöõng phaàn gaïch chaân minh hoïa cuï theå beân treân. Ñaây laø sô ñoà toång quaùt cho phaàn trình baøy ôû treân. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH + Simple present Without changing tense (s) + Present perfect Without changing time (s) + Simple future Without changing place (s) Only changing person (s) b1. Caùch ñoåi ngoâi töø moät caâu noùi tröïc tieáp sang caâu noùi giaùn tieáp: - Toâi coù tham khaûo nhieàu saùch, coù moät soá taùc giaû ñaõ ñöa ra moät soá caùch ñoåi ngoâi töông ñoái hay, tuy nhieân chöa coù tính heä thoáng vaø chöa ñöôïc cuï theå cho neân toâi seõ ñöa ra moät soá caùch ñoåi ngoâi thoâng thöôøng maø hoïc sinh Phoå thoâng thöôøng gaëp raát cuï theå vaø coù heä thoáng, taát nhieân coù nhöõng ngoaïi leä toâi seõ ñeà caäp rieâng. Xeùt caùc ví duï sau ñaây. Ex3: The students say; “We have just finished our lesson” -> The students say that they have just finished their lesson Ex4: He tells her; “You can go to the circus with me” -> He tells her that she can go to the circus with him Ex5: Mr pike says; “You can go to the circus with me” -> Mr pike says that I can go to the circus with him” Ex6: Mr pike says to Mary and Tom; “You can go to the circus with Ann” -> Mr pike tells Mary and Tom that they can go to the circus with Ann” Ex7: The instructions say; “You have to cub down the walls” -> The instructions say that we have to cub down the walls” Ex8: They say; “She is going to America for six months” -> They say that she is going to America for six months Ex9: Peter tells me; “They went to London last year” -> Peter tells me that they went to London last year” Ex10: They say to me; “We always try to please you” GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -5 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi -> They tell me that they always try to please me Töø ex1 ñeán ex10 ôû treân ta coù baûn chæ daãn ñoåi ngoâi sau ñaây theo vò trí chæ ngöõ nhö sau: \ DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH Ngoâi thöù nhaát soá ít Ngoâi thöù nhaát soá nhieàu I Thaønh ngoâi thöù 3 soá ít: he or she theo ex1, ex2 we Thaønh ngoâi thöù 3 soá nhieàu: They theo ex3 Ngoâi thöù hai soá ít maø ñoäng töø you(baïn) giôùi thieäu coù moät taân ngöõ Thaønh ngoâi thöù 3 soá ít: she/he theo ex4 Ngoâi thöù hai soá ít maø ñoäng töø (baïn) giôùi thieäu khoâng coù moät taân ngöõ you Thaønh ngoâi thöù nhaát soá ít: I theo ex5 Ngoâi thöù hai soá nhieàu maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu coù moät taân ngöõ theo sau you Thaønh ngoâi thöù 3 soá nhieàu: they theo ex6 (caùc baïn) Ngoâi thöù hai soá nhieàu maø ñoäng töø giôùi you thieäu khoâng coù moät taân ngöõ theo sau (caùc baïn) Thaønh ngoâi thöù nhaát soá nhieàu: we theo ex7 Ngoâi thöù ba soá ít: he, she Giöõ nguyeân: he, she theo ex8 Ngoâi thöù ba soá nhieàu: They Giöõ nguyeân: they theo ex9 * Ngoaïi leä: Neáu ngoâi thöù 2 soá ít you maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu coù taân ngöõ laø me khi chuyeån sang lôøi noùi giaùn tieáp ta ñoåi You thaønh I (chuû ngöõ) hay You thaønh me (taân ngöõ) ex10 vaø caùc vò trí coøn laïi töông töï. * Chuù yù: Thöù töï caùc böôùc ñoåi ngoâi theo trình töï beân treân ôû vò trí chuû ngöõ (subject). Caùc vò trí coøn laïi nhö taân ngöõ (objects), tính töø sôû höõu (possessive adjectives) vaø ñaïi töø sôû höõu (possessive pronouns) ta chuyeån ñoåi theo töøng vò trí töông öùng nhö chuû ngöõ (coù nghóa laø caùc ñaïi töø ñoù ôû vò trí naøo ta chuyeån sang vò trí ñoù). Vò duï minh hoïa cho ngoâi thöù nhaát soá ít ñoåi thaønh ngoâi thöù 3 soá ít, ôû 4 vò trí: subject, object, possessive adjective, possessive pronoun nhö sau: Direct speech Indirect speech Subject Object Possessive adjective possessive pronoun I Me My + noun Mine He or she Him or her His or her+noun His or hers GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -6 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi Hoïc sinh coù theå ñoái chieáu vôùi baûng chæ daãn ñoåi ngoâi theo vò trí chuû ngöõ, taân ngöõ, tính töø sôû höõu vaø ñaïi töø sôû höõu (ôû phaàn II-b1) vaø baûng toùm taét toång quaùt ñoåi ngoâi döôùi ñaây khi chuyeån töø caâu noùi tröïc tieáp sang giaùn tieáp. b2: Baûng toùm taét toång quaùt ñoåi caùc ngoâi nhö sau: Subject Object Possessive adjective I Me My + noun We Us Our + noun You You Your + noun She Her Her + noun He Him His + noun They Them Their + noun Possessive pronoun Mine Ours Yours Hers His Theirs c) Practical use (AÙp duïng thöïc teá) * PROCEDURE (tieán trình) - Classify the class into six groups - Give the questions which relate to the lesson - Encourage students to answer the questions - Who has more correct answers is the winner - Check and correct the questions Teacher’s activities T tells Ss’ to concentrate on two examples Ex1: He says “I will meet you here tomorrow” (Direct speech) Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple -> He says that he will meet me here tomorrow” (Indirect speech) conj person tense person place time 1. Structure Can you write the Structure from the examples? 2. Method: a. Can we change persons? Why? b. Can we change adverbs of time? Why? c. Can we change adverbs of place? Why? d. Can we change tenses of verb? Why? Students’ activities Ss’ think over the examples before answering 1. Structure Expected structures Yes, we can Remind(s), advise(s) S1 + Say(s) to = tell(s) + Ask(s), say(s) (that) + S2 + Verb + time + place + Person 2. Method: Expected answers a. Yes, we can because we can see again in part II,b1 b. No, we can’t because introductory verbs in the present tenses c. No, we can’t because introductory verbs in the present tenses d. No, we can’t because introductory verbs in GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -7 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi the present tenses (See ex1 and ex2 above, vaø caùch ñoåi ngoâi ôû phaàn II – 1b.2) d) Exercises (Baøi taäp vaän duïng) 1. Anh says to John; “You may see the photos if you like” 2. He says; “I am going to town with my sister” 3. Daisy’s father says to her; “I will be back next sunday” 4. Tim says; “The circus is coming again to my town” 5. They say; “Our house is large enough for us ” 6. The boys say; “We will go to the circus” 7. Mr smith says; “I haven’t got a dictionary” 8. Her pupils say; “We can’t do these exercises” 9. Peter says; “I wash myface” 10. She says; “My trip takes me longer than I exect” 11. Mai says to him; “I intend to write to you” 12. Henry says; “Mary. I will never borrow any book from you” 13. Richard says; “I gave my friend a present yesterday” 14. The father says; “You should enroll this class” 15. Lam says; “I have just received letter from my brother” 16. Hung says; “I have just received letter from my brother” 17. He says to me; “I want you do for me” 2. Affirmative and negative imperative Ex1: He says “I Introductory will meet person you tense here person tomorrow” place time verb in simple -> He says that Introductory conjunction he will meet person tense me person place verb in simple present Ex2: He tells her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place -> time He tells her to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) Ex3: He tells her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> here He tells her not to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) a. Structure GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -8 tomorrow” time Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi a1) Affirmative imperative: ask (s), tell (s), order (s) Subject + command (s), request (s) + Object + to verb Advise (s), remind (s) People a2: Negative imperative ask (s), tell (s), order (s) Subject + command (s), request (s) + Object + not + to verb advise (s), remind (s) People b) Method: Phöông phaùp caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh thì gioáng phöông phaùp caâu töôøng thuaät maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi laø chæ ñoåi ngoâi, caùch ñoåi ngoâi ñaõ ñöôïc trình baøy ôû phaàn II (töø ex1 -> ex9 vaø baûn toùm taét ñoåi ngoâi 1.b2). Coøn traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán thì khoâng ñoåi (theo ex1, ex2 vaø ex3 ôû treân), chæ khaùc nhau veà caáu truùc (theo ex1, ex2 vaø ex3 ôû treân). c) Practical use (AÙp duïng thöïc teá) PROCEDURE (tieán trình) -Classify the class into six groups -Give three examples about reported speech of statement ,affirmative and negative imperative -Make the questions which relate to the lesson and ask Ss to answer how different are they? -Encourage students to answer the questions -Who has more correct answers is the winner -Check and correct the questions If necessary Teacher’s activities T tells Ss’ to concentrate on three examples Ex1: He says “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple -> He says that he will meet me here tomorrow” Introductory conj person tense person Students’ activities Ss’ think over the examples before answering the questions Expected structures a) Yes, it is b) Yes, we can a1) Affirmative imperative: Subject + ask (s), tell (s), order (s) command (s), request (s) GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng -9 + Object + Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi place time verb in simple present Ex2: He tells her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) Ex3: He tells her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her not to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) a. Structure 1) Is affirmative imperative different from negative imperative about the Structure? 2) Can you write the Structure from the examples? to verb Advise (s), remind (s) People a2: Negative imperative ask (s), tell (s), order (s) Subject + command (s), request (s) advise (s), remind (s) + (not) to verb + ...... theo ex1, ex2 and ex3 + Object + People Expected answers 1. No, it isn’t because reported speech of statement and negative imperative as well as affirmative imperative don’t change about tenses of verb, adverbs of time and adverbs of place. 2. Yes, it is because reported speech of statement and negative imperative as well as affirmative b. Method: imperative will have to change about person(s). See 1. Is reported speech of statement different from part II (töø ex1 -> ex9 vaø baûn toùm taét ñoåi ngoâi 1b.2) negative imperative as well as affirmative imperative about changing tenses of verb, adverbs of time and adverbs of place? Why? 2. Is reported speech of statement similar to negative imperative and affirmative imperative about changing person(s)? why? d) Exercises (Baøi taäp vaän duïng) 1. She begs; “Tell me about him” 2. He say to me; “Take this stick to help you on your way” 3. David says to me; “Let me go with you” 4. Father says to his son; “Tell the servant to buy me some grades” 5.The manager says to us; “Come in to my office, please” 6. The teacher says to us; “Don’t make so much noise” 7. Mr Green tells bill; “Please, come to our dinner tonight” 8. Susan askes Tom; “Don’t call me again at this late hour” 9. The police man orders him; “Don’t touch anything in this room” GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 10 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi 10. The old lady tells Jim; “Will you please water the flowers for me tonight?” 11. The teacher says to his pupils; “Keep quiet and do your test” 12. Anh says to her sister; “Don’t gorget to wake up at 6.00” 13. My brother tells me; “Go with me to our fan club” 14. Mary says to her sister; “Don’t tell your classmates our story” 15. The boss says to his secretary; “Please type and send these letters for me” 16. He orders them; “Don’t put your feet on the desk” 17. She says to me; “Don’t forget to send your parents my regards” 18. She tells me; “Shut the door but don’t lock it” 19. He asks her; “Come to the cinema with me” 20. I say to Mary; “Lend me your pen for a moment” 21. The girl says to boys; “Don’t lean your bicycle against my window” 22. She tells him; “Are you a student?” 23. The teacher tells boys; “Are you writing your name on the paper” 24. My boy friend asks me; “Can you say your name, please” 25. Mr Green tells Lan; “Do you write the report for me?” 26. Ann says to her; “Will you do your home work tonight” 3. Wh-questions and yes- no questions: Ex1: He says “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple -> He says that he will meet me here tomorrow” Ex2: He tells her; “Why won’t you meet me here tomorrow?” tense person place time -> He tells her why she won’t meet him here tomorrow Ex3: He tells her; “Will you meet me here tomorrow?” tense person place time -> He tells her if/ whether she will meet him here tomorrow a. Structure 1. Wh-question Say(s) to = tell(s) S1 + Ask(s), wonder (s), Remind (s), advise(s) Inquire (s), say (s) 2. Question: S1 + +object + wh-question + if or whether + S2 + Verb … theo (ex2) Say(s) to = tell(s) Ask(s), wonder (s), Remind (s), advise(s) inquire (s), say (s) +object + if or whether + S2 + Verb … theo (ex3) Introductoryverb in theLeâ present tenseKhương GV: Trọng Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 11 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi b. Method: Phöông phaùp caâu hoûi vôùi Wh-question and question: thì gioáng phöông phaùp caâu töôøng thuaät maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi laø chæ ñoåi ngoâi, caùch ñoåi ngoâi ñaõ ñöôïc trình baøy ôû phaàn II – (töø ex1 ñeán ex9 vaø baûn toùm taét ñoåi ngoâi 1b2), caùc traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán vaø thì cuûa ñoäng töø khoâng thay ñoåi. (theo ex1, ex2 vaø ex3 ôû treân), chæ khaùc nhau veà caáu truùc c) Practical use (AÙp duïng thöïc teá) PROCEDURE (tieán trình) -Classify the class into four groups -Give three examples about reported speech of statement, wh-question and question -Make the questions, ask Ss to work in groups and answer how different or similar they are (reported speech of statements and wh-questions and yes-no questions) - Encourage students to answer the questions - Check and correct the questions If necessary - The winner is a person who has more right answers Teacher’s activities T tells Ss to concentrate on three examples Ex1: He says “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple -> He says that he will meet me here tomorrow” Introductory conj person tense person place time verb in simple present Ex2: He tells her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) Ex3: He tells her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time Students’ activities Ss’ think over the examples before answering the questions Expected structures a) Yes, it is b) Yes, we can 1. Wh-question S1 + Say(s) to = tell(s) Ask(s), wonder (s), Remind (s), advise(s) inquire (s), say (s) +object + wh-question + if or whether + S2 + Verb … theo (ex2) 2. Question: Say(s) to = tell(s) S1 + Ask(s), wonder (s), Remind (s), advise(s) inquire (s), say (s) Expected answers GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 12 +object + if or whether + S2 + Verb … theo (ex3) Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi -> He tells her not to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) a. Structure 1) Is Wh-question different from question about the structures? 2) Can you write the Structure from the examples? 1. No, it isn’t because reported speech of statement, wh-question and question don’t change about tenses of verb, adverbs of time and adverbs of place. 2. Yes, it is because reported speech of statement , wh-question and question will have to change about person(s). See part II (ex1 -> ex9 vaø baûn toùm taét ñoåi ngoâi 1b.2) b. Method: 1. Is reported speech of statement different from whquestion and question about changing tenses of verb, adverbs of time and adverbs of place? Why? 2. Is reported speech of statement similar to whquestion and question about changing person(s)? why? d. Execises (Baøi taäp vaän duïng) 1. I ask Mary; When will you learn to play the piano” 2. Mr pike asks his wife; “What does the doctor say” 3. My parents told me; “Who are you writing to” 4. The pupils ask their teacher; “How do you spell Manchesrter?” 5. Ann asks her their teacher; “where are my dolls?” 6. She will tell you; “I am very sorry” 7. He has just told me; “The English governmet put wolf Tone in Prison” III/ PARK THREE: AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE (INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PAST TENSES) Ex1: He tells her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her to meet him here now (direct speech) person place time Ex2: He told her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He told her to meet him there then” (direct speech) person place time Ex3: He tells her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her not to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) Ex4: He told her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He told her not to meet him there then” (Indirect speech) GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 13 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi 1. Structure: a1) affirmative imperative asked, told, ordered Subject + commanded, requested Advised, reminded + Object + to verb People a2: Negative imperative Subject + asked, told, ordered commanded, requested Advised, reminded + Object + not + to verb People -Nhö vaäy, caáu truùc caùc caâu meänh leänh chæ khaùc nhau veà ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì quaù khöù vaø hieän taïi, caùc phaàn coøn laïi thì hoaøn toaøn gioáng nhau. 2. Method: -Caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì quaù khöù thì gioáng nhau vôùi caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi laø cuøng ñoåi ngoâi nhö ñaõ trình baøy ôû phaàn II (töø ex1ñeán ex9 vaø baûn toùm taét ñoåi ngoâi 1b2). -Phöông phaùp caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi, chuùng ta khoâng thay ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ nôi choán vaø traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian, ñaõ ñöôïc trình baøy ôû phaàn II – 2.b; Ngöôïc lai caâu meänh leänh khaúng ñònh vaø phuû ñònh maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì quaù khöù thì phaûi ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán (theo ex1, ex2, ex3 vaø ex4 ôû treân ). Caùch ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán ñöôïc trình baøy nhö sau: CHANGING TIME AND PLACE Direct speech This/these Here Now Today Tonight At the moment This week This month This year This day This summer… The day before yesterday The day after tomorrow Indirect speech That/ those There Then That day That night At that moment That week That month That year That day That summer… Two days before In two days’ time GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 14 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi Yesterday Yesterday morning Yesterday afternoon Yesterday evening Last night Last week Last month Last year Last summer… Tomorrow Tomorrow morning Tomorrow afternoon Tomorrow evening Next week Next month Next year Next autumn… Next decade Next century... The day before/ the previous day The morning before/ the previous morning The afternoon before/ the previous afternoon The evening before/ the previous evening The night before/the previous night The week before/ the previous week The month before/ the previous month The year before/ the previous year The summer before/ the previous summer The next day/ the following day/ the day after The next morning/ the following moring/ the morning after The next afternoon/ the following afternoon/ the afternoon after The next evening/ the following evening/ the evening after The next week/ the following week/ the week after The next month / the following month/ the month after The next year / the following year / the year after The next autumn/ the following autumn / the autumn after The next decade / the following decade / the decade after The next century / the following century / the century after Toâi laáy laïi phaàn baøi taäp veà caâu meänh leänh maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi trong phaàn II, chæ ñoåi ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu sang thì quaù khöù ñeå hoïc sinh ñoái chieáu vaø suy luaän trong quaù trình laøm baøi taäp. 3. Practical use (AÙp duïng thöïc teá) PROCEDURE (tieán trình) - Classify the class into eight groups - Give four examples about affirmative and negative imperative (introductory verbs in the past tenses) - Make the questions, ask Ss to work in groups and answer how different or similar are they? (affirmative and negative imperative introductory verbs in the past tenses) - Encourage students to answer the questions GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 15 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi - Check and correct the questions then announce the winners Teacher’s activities T tells Ss to concentrate on three examples Ex1: He tells her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her to meet him here now (direct speech) person place time Ex2: He told her; “Meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He told her to meet him there then” (direct speech) person place time Ex3: He tells her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He tells her not to meet him here now” (Indirect speech) Ex4: He told her; “Don’t meet me here now” (direct speech) person place time -> He told her not to meet him there then” (Indirect speech) 1. Structure a) Is affirmative imperative different from negative imperative about the structures? b) Can you write the Structure from the examples? 2. Method: a. Why is (affirmative imperative and negative imperative) introductory verb in the present tense different from introductory verb in the past tense about changing adverbs of time and adverbs of place? b. Why is (affirmative imperative and negative imperative) introductory verb in the present tense similar to introductory verb in Students’ activities Ss’ think over the examples before answering the questions 1. Structure: Expected structure a) Yes, it is b) Yes, we can a1) affirmative imperative asked, told, ordered Subject + commanded, requested + Object + to verb Advised, reminded People a2: Negative imperative asked, told, ordered Subject + commanded, requested + Object + not + to verb Advised, reminded People Expected answers a. We won’t change adverbs of time and adverbs of place because introductory verb is in the present tense whereas we will have to change adverbs of time and adverbs of place because introductory verb is in the past tens. (Caùch ñoåi xem phaàn II.2) b. because we have to change person (s) so that people can understand their meanings in reported speech. (Caùch ñoåi ngoâi xem laïi phaàn II 1b.2) GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 16 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi the past tense about changing person(s)? 4. Baøi taäp vaän duïng 1. She begged; “Tell me about him” 2. He said to me; “Take this stick to help you on your way” 3. David said to me; “Let me go with you” 4. Father said to his son; “Tell the senvant to buy me some grades” 5. The manager said to me; “Come in to my of fice, please” 6. The teacher said to us; “Don’t make so much noise” 7. Mr Green told bill; “Please, come to our dinner tonight” 8. Susan asked Tom; “Don’t call me again at this late hour” 9. The boss said to his secretary; “Please, type and send these letters for me” 10. The policeman ordered; “Don’t touch anything on this room” 11. The old lady told Jim; “please, water the flowers for me” 12. The teacher said to his pupils; “Keep quiet and do your test” 13. Ann said to her sister; “Don’t forget to wake up at 6.00” 14. My brother told me; “Go with me to our fan club” 15. Mary asked her sister; “Don’t tell your classmates our story” 16. He ordered them; “Don’t put your feet on this desk” 17. She said to me; “Shut the door and don’t lock it” 18. I said to Mary; “Lend me your pen for a moment” 19. He asked her; “Come to the cinema with me” 20. The girl said to the boys; “Don’t lean your bicycles against my window” IV/ PART FOUR: REPORTED SPEECH OF STATEMENT (INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PAST TENSES) Ex1: He says “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple => He says that he will meet me here tomorrow Introductory conjunction person tense person place time verb in simple present Ex2: He said “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple => He said that he would meet me there the next day Introductory conjunction person tense person place time verb in simple present 1. Structure: said to = told Subject1 Asked, said + (that) + Subject + Verb + time + place + Person Reminded, advised 2 Introductoryverb GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng in the past tense - 17 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi Nhö vaäy caáu truùc caâu töôøng thuaät khaúng ñònh chæ khaùc nhau veà ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi vaø thì quaù khöù, coøn caùc phaàn coøn laïi hoaøn toaøn gioáng nhau. 2. Method: Caâu töôøng thuaät maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôø thì hieän taïi vaø quaù khöù ñeàu ñöôïc ñoåi ngoâi nhö ñaõ trình baøy trong phaàn II (töø ex1, ñeán ex9 vaø baûn toùm taét ñoåi ngoâi 1.b2) Ngöôïc laïi caâu töôøng thuaät maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì hieän taïi thì khoâng ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian, traïng ngöõ chæ nôi choán vaø thì cuûa ñoäng töø nhö ñaõ trình baøy trong phaàn II, coøn caâu töôøng thuaät maø ñoäng töø giôùi thieäu ôû thì quaù khöù thì phaûi ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian, traïng ngöõ chæ nôi choán (ñöôïc trình baøy trong phaàn III – 2 vaø thì cuûa ñoäng töø theo ex1, ex2 ôû treân) Döôùi ñaây laø caùch ñoåi thì cuûa ñoäng töø CHANGING TENSES Direct speech Indirect speech Simple present Simple past Present perfect Past perfect Simple past Past perfect Simple future Future in the past Present continuous Past continuous Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous Past continuous Past perfect continuous Past perfect Past perfect Past perfect continuous Past perfect continuous 3. Practical use (AÙp duïng thöïc teá) PROCEDURE (tieán trình) - Classify the class into six groups - Give two examples about reported speech of statement (introductory verbs in the past tenses and introductory verbs in the present tenses) - Make the questions, ask Ss to work in groups and answer how different or similar are they - Encourage students to answer the questions GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 18 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi - Check and correct the questions then declare the winners Teacher’s activities T tells Ss to concentrate on three examples Ex1: He says “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple => He says that he will meet me here tomorrow Introductory conj person tense person place time verb in simple present Ex2: He said “I will meet you here tomorrow” Introductory person tense person place time verb in simple => He said that he would meet me there the next day Introductory conj person tense person place time verb in simple Present 1. Structure a) Is reported speech of statement (introductory verbs in the past tenses different from introductory verbs in the present tenses) about the Structure? b) Can you write the Structure from the examples? 2. Method: a. Why is (reported speech of statement ) introductory verb in the present tense different from introductory verb in the past tense about changing adverbs of time, adverbs of place and tenses of verb ? b. Why is (reported speech of statement) Students’ activities Ss’ compare the examples with the questions from the teacher Expected structure a) Yes, it is b) Yes, we can S1 said to = told Asked, said Reminded, advised Introductoryverb in the past tense + (that) + S2 + Verb + time + place + Person Expected answers a. We won’t change adverbs of time, adverbs of place and tenses of verb because introductory verb is in the present tense whereas we will have to change adverbs of time, adverbs of place and tenses of verb (caùch ñoåi thì ñöôïc trình baøy ôû treân vaø ex1,ex2) because introductory verb is in the past tense. (Caùch ñoåi traïng ngöõ chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán ñöôïc trình baøy ôû phaàn III. b. because we have to change person (s) so that people can understand their meanings in reported speech. (Caùch ñoåi ngoâi ñaõ ñöôïc trình baøy ôû phaàn II – 1b.2) GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 19 Saùng kieán kinh nghieäm Daïy vaø hoïc Lôøi noùi tröïc tieáp vaø giaùn tieáp Tieáng Anh THPT theo phöông phaùp môùi introductory verb in the present tense similar to introductory verb in the past tense about changing person(s)? 4. Baøi taäp vaän duïng 1. Mary said; “I go to school by bicycle” 2. Anh said to John; “You may see the photos if you like” 3. He said; “I am going to town with my sister” 4. Daisy’s father said to her; “I’ll be back next Sunday and buy you a new doll” 5. Tim said; “The circus is coming again to my town” 6. They said; “Our house is large enough for us” 7. The boys said; “We will go to the circus with you” 8. Mr smith said; “I haven’t got a dictionary” 9. Her pupils said; “We can’t do these exercises” 10. Peter said; “I wash my face tomorrow morning” 11. She said; “My trip takes me longer than I expect” 12. Mai said to him; “I listen to you” 13. Henry said; “Mary, I will never borrow any book from you” 14. Rechard said; “I gave my friend a present yesterday evening” 15. My friend said to me; “He died three years ago” 16. The father said; “You should enroll this class tomorow” 17. Lam said; “I have already done my homework” 18. Hong said; “I have just received a letter from my brother” 19. He said to me; “I want you to do for me” 20. We said to them; “your houses are very nice” 21. She said to them; “He has lived here for 4 years” 22. Tom said; “I’m going away for a few days and will phone you when I get back” 23. Mr. Pike said; “I saw John yesterday but he didn’t see me” 24. She said to her mother; “I haven’t seen him since I came here” 25. Father said; “I am going back next week” 26. Johnny’s father said; “The English government put him in prison the day before yesterday” 27. Tom said; “The children had better go to bed early” 28. I said; “They ought to widen this road” 29. The reporter said; “The queen will open a new hospital in London the day after tomorrow” 30. Mother said; “I must help them now” V/ PART FIVE: WH_QUESTIONS AND YES - NO QUESTIONS (INTRODUCTORY VERBS IN THE PAST TENSES) Ex1: He tells her; “Why won’t you meet me here tomorrow?” GV: Leâ Trọng Khương Tröôøng THPT Lộc Hưng - 20
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